1Department of Administration, University Center for Economic and Managerial Sciences, University of Guadalajara, Periférico Norte 799 Edificio G-201-7, Núcleo Universitario Los Belenes CUCEA, Zapopan, Jalisco CP 45100; México
Received date: May 25, 2015; Accepted date: September 23, 2015; Published date: September 30, 2015
Citation: José GVZ, Arnulfo SM (2015) Paradigm Shift in the Management School from Traditional to an Eclectic Approach of Administrative Management. Int J Econ Manag Sci 4:286. doi: 10.4172/21626359.1000286
Copyright: © 2015 José GVZ, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Administration; School management; Paradigm
The Mexican educational system faces the challenge of meeting and attend multiple and constant social requirements, which are forcing to diversify and strengthen the quality of their services, and consequently ensure and raise the terminal efficiency (ET); as well as ensuring training environments and spaces where at the same time the meaningful learning is also pertinent. As it can be seen, the Mexican educational system is involved in drastic changes in both ideological doctrines that have shaped them, as well as organizational structures. Today is more challenging completely to meet and attend the needs of students of high school level, the opening of new educational spaces; although it does not make it less important latter. The main objective of this research is to propose a management model to ensure and increase ET, and to reach the level of effectiveness; i.e. the increase not only in numerical order, but simultaneously strengthen the educational level of students and strengthen the institutional activities. That’s why the development of research aims to design and propose a management model with systemic approach, aimed at increasing the two main indicators of school performance: the approval and ET; and in turn reduce to a minimum the failure, repetition and dropout extreme case.
Strengthening the processes of promotion and new entrants are not easy tasks for any educational institution, whether public or private. Further, these processes have remained static, and at best with little revitalization.
In the theory of organizational systems, efficiency means to do better all the things that have to be done. Whereas ET in Institutions of Higher Intermediate Level (EMS) is one of the indicators used to measure organizational performance, which by its nature is quantitative, it serves to determine the ability to use the available resources to provide educational services. While efficiency means do better all the things that have to be done with less resources, effectiveness means doing certain things well. Organizational effectiveness is measured by a relationship between the results actually achieved against objectives and targets set for the use of organizational resources: human, material and technical. It is in this bifurcation where the dilemma definitely considers the effectiveness as an integral part of the efficiency is located.
As shown, in a given process efficiency is the result of the optimum ratio of raw material used and the results obtained. So if more products with a given number of inputs are obtained, there will be increased efficiency. So, it will result fruitless to escape liability undertaking administrative strategies aimed at developing and applying new models to optimally measure the terminal efficiency.
Conceptual framework of school management
Speaking of school management systems is necessary to do so according to the different regulatory contexts in which they are inserted. It is the latter that determine and condition organizational models that support and in turn distinguish schools from any country, and thus its impact and influence reaches the operation of high school.
Although the educational reforms are of constant mobility, essentially the prototypes of school management are very similar, and even go beyond the causal resemblance. This is because it can be seen the impact and significance of three variables: norms, politics, society and culture, in what could be called organizational prototypes of educational systems. Hence, the school management is subject, to say that a prisoner, first by the current regulations for each model, as well as the social dynamic in which the school is located; which substantially represents a real challenge for managers of any educational institution. From the above, it is noteworthy that in most educational models consequently interact in complex dynamic environments, which in turn, can be appreciated a unique aspects such as the emphasis on humanism and globalization. Overall, the school management dilemma lies not only in the protocols to be applied; the real problem is that this practice is evaluated mostly with quantitative indicators. This applies to all levels of education in any school system.
If the economic, political and social system of Mexico already is perceived complex, Mexican educational structure is no less complicated, especially as far as school management is concerned, around which alternate interdependent endogenous and exogenous variables. Therefore, the accumulated experience has allowed observing that to influence positively and objectively in insignia is required the intervention of the team management and teaching staff to change the system.
As shown in the previous section, the relevant aspects of the project are addressed. Now the work continues with the corresponding section, in which conceptual and theoretical aspects are essential for addressing the variable X (school management), which is independent nature. Therefore, both categories are supporting this research. It should be noted that the change is the fundamental characteristic of the current environment, besides the sway of new theories and management approaches. So it is useful to identify the changes that are beyond the conceptual interpretations and perceptions. Revolution environment includes changes in interpretations and conceptual implications of any field of knowledge or discipline; so it is necessary to clarify that in the current environment have diversified ways to achieve and also ensure organizational objectives. Therefore, turbulence reaches to disrupt the formal structures of any type or category of company or institution, so it is necessary to clarify that in the current organizational environment are gestated, operate and foster constant changes regarding the way of performing the functions, tasks and organizational activities in order to ensure effectiveness and efficiency. This consequently affects the lines of coordination, execution and interpretation of situations and outcomes that surround organizational results. Next, some definitions will be addressed regarding the association of the terms administration and management; and the accuracy of its borders, according to its analysis and significance goes beyond the conceptual.
In first order it will be addressed some definitions regarding the term management. The definition of the Royal Academy of the Spanish Language  in its dictionary defines management as to graduate or dosing the use of something to get more performance from it or to produce a better effect. Management is a science composed of principles, techniques and practices, the application of human groups to establish rational systems allows cooperative effort, through which common purposes that fail to be achieved individually in social agencies.
Before analyzing the multiple definitions of the administration that at the present time have built various specialists in the field, it is necessary to make a historical journey that involves administrative practice by which it is discovered that the administration was a factor in the success and importance of the oldest cultures, civilizations and most prominent institutions. The review necessarily makes reference to the prehistoric and ancient times, respectively, since the first primitive records are evident some features of the administration such as the division of labor, joint efforts for large tasks, shortage of resources and specialization; just to name a few. As for the outstanding social groups it is an emblematic culture that has prevailed until now, that is to say the Hebrew and from which emanates the Jewish community with its antediluvian Biblical stories that underscore the exercise of leadership, planning, organization, control, delegation, coordination, motivating and maintenance of crowds, conflict resolution, meeting multiple needs, major goals and major tasks, to name a few distinctive most relevant.
Meanwhile, it is worth noting that great civilizations that have transcended time and space because of their great contributions of universal value. These include Mesopotamia, Egypt, China and India. While this is true, they were not the only ones, but the most outstanding. Among the outstanding issues are common the administration as a component of their civil and religious governments, marketing, optimization of resources, both centralization and decentralization as a mode of government, specialization of labor and social hierarchy, government and religious. The itinerary of this historic route is concise all, because it is not the main purpose of this research. However, it reaffirms that the administrative practice was one of the components of high impact for certain cultures that have become immemorial. The administration also sustained the historically most distinguished civilizations, and it was for the institutions of world order, as in the case of the Catholic Church and its complex structure. To end this summary historical development of management, it is necessary to address the birth of the middle industrial revolution of the eighteenth century, which was a crucial fact because it marked dramatically the use of machinery and the incorporation of technological advances in production processes and by adopting new ways of relating between bosses and subordinates. All this inevitably led to new theories, schools and management approaches. The last station of the historical route is identified from the mid-eighteenth century to much of the nineteenth century, where large speakers include administrative practitioners, as were Frederick Taylor and Henri Fayol, Mary Parker Follett, Bernard Chester Elton Mayo, Abraham Maslow, Douglas McGregor, Frederick Herzberg, Robert Blake and Mouton, Herbert Simon, Renis Likert, Max Weber, Cyril Parkirson, Laurence Peter Arthut Bloch, Kurth Lewin Edwards Deming, Akio Morita, William Ouchi, Thomas Peters and Robert Waterman, Kaoru Ishikawa, among others. Of all the above that highlighted transcendentally they are Frederick Taylor and Henri Fayol, which are considered by the General Theory of Administration (TGA) as the parents of the administration, for their great contributions. Frederick Taylor proposed a mental revolution to merge the interests of workers and management in a mutually beneficial whole. This mental revolution was based on four vital principles: (1) creating the best working method, (2) the selection and scientific development of workers (3) the relationship and bonding the best method of work and the worker developed and trained and (4) the close cooperation of managers and non-managers, which included the division of labor and responsibility of the manager to plan the work .
Meanwhile Henri Fayol (contemporary of Taylor) also was noted for making significant contributions of classical order to TGA, basically aimed at changing the perception generally accepted that administration was a part or section of companies, the say that the administration is systemic in nature, because dominates the entire organizational structure. In short, both theoretical and practical approaches should be seen them as mutually complementary, and that each of its contributions for their part were harbingers of the best known so far as can be seen in the following comparative (Table 1) administrative practices.
North American Father of scientific management.
|1) Conceived to management from the bottom up
2) He appreciated the administration as the real workforce
3) He identified the administration as the cause and in turn the potential solution of organizational problems
4) To make administration more impacting must be practiced under reasoning of constant interrogation or inquiry
5) Privileged economic considerations
Its analysis and application was the scientific method
1) Ensure effectiveness
4) Exclusive Focus
European Father of the classical management
|Contrary to his contemporary Taylor, Fayol perceived a top-down management
1) Equated the administration as "a whole", and not only as a function or business segment.
2) Laid the foundation for the administration to be conceptualized by functions
Conceptualized management as a process.
3) He recounted the technical criteria to guide the implementation of administration.
Ensure maximum efficiency
Participatory and inclusive approach
Management by objectives (MBO) Contingency theory
New focus on human relations
Systems theory and organizational theory as social systems
Total quality management and Japanese management (Theory Z)
Table 1: Deployment of scientific approaches and classical administration and Main modern management approaches.
Among them it is mentioned Elton Mayo, which is recognized as the precursor of human relations to incorporate the use of psychological and social aspects as agents of change in social groups relations; for which purpose is the increase and strengthening organizational productivity.
In this historical summary of the administration inevitably should be mentioned the valuable contributions of Abraham Maslow, belonging to the humanist school administration, regarding the satisfaction of personal needs, but not as an ultimate goal, but as an ingredient of organizational productivity. In this same field is located Douglas Mc Gregor, who despite sustaining that there is no single theory of administration that is completely satisfactory, he says human nature of workers is represented in two theories: X and Y, which in their nature are antagonistic to each other and that in summary are oriented to the use of the strengths of individuals and exploiting weaknesses, they must be seen as areas of opportunity.
Another valuable management theoretical was Frederick Herzberg, who after years of study and analysis of the environmental conditions of the companies was able to determine what workers look at their jobs, regardless of the hierarchical position they occupy. Henry Mintzberg concluded that workers contribute to the achievement of organizational objectives when they are fully insured and attended administrative guidelines, which called factors of health and safety, respectively, among which considered: The guidelines and policies clearly defined of working conditions enabling, encouraging and recognizing achievements as well as the strengthening of delegating responsibility for longer range.
Another administrative model of special value was proposed by Robert Blake and Mouton, who are located in the situational School. With this model they tried to represent through a box or grid the managerial preferences; whose external positions (corners) are located for their part interest in people and at the other end lays the interest for the tasks. This template named the managerial grid is still useful because through it can be analyzed the components that organizational development is considered in terms of processes and behavior of individuals who live in social groups.
In the field of Organizational Development, another classic was Rensis Likert, who also designed a model whose purpose was to evaluate the management practice objectively. This archetype essentially is aimed at determining an appropriate assessment outside the company, depending on the managerial performance. Likert proposes a classification of management systems and defines four different organizational profiles, characterized in terms of four variables: Decision making, communication system, interpersonal relationships and system of rewards and punishments.
System 1: Coercive authoritarian: Autocratic, strong, absolute and arbitrary control closed Decision-making: fully centralized at the top of the organization. Communication system: quite precarious, communications vertically downward. Interpersonal relations: rare, extreme distrust of informal conversations. The system of rewards and punishments: the rewards are rare, almost nonexistent, predominance punishment and emphasis on these.
System 2: Benevolent authoritarian is condescending and less rigid than the system 1. Decision-making system: allows a small denial decisions regarding small issues. Communication system: relatively poor, prevailing downward vertical communications, but low levels of feedback. Relationships: tolerance of interpersonal relationships, but it is small. The system of rewards and punishments: there is emphasis on punitive measures but are less arbitrary measures.
System 3: Consultative leans more towards the participatory, represents a gradual softening of organizational arbitrariness. Decisionmaking: is participatory and consultative. Communication system: prevalence of vertical, downward but also upward communication. Interpersonal relationships: creating favorable conditions for an informal organization, but not yet complete and definitive. The system of rewards and punishments: there emphasis on symbolic and social rewards, punishments rare existence.
System 4: Participatory, quintessential democratic, more open than previous systems. Decision-making: fully delegated decisions on organizational levels. Institutional level defines policies and guidelines. Communication system: communications flow in all directions of the company. The company emphasizes it, because they are fundamental to our flexibility and efficiency. Relationships: work in teams, formation of spontaneous groups and effective relationship between people. The system of rewards and punishments: there is emphasis on symbolic and social rewards, although the material and salary are not ignored, few punishments hardly exist, are determined and defined by the group .
It is important to note in this section the vision that characterized harmoniously Ernest Dale, Harold Koontz and Peter Drucker. Standing out for purposes of this research proposal Peter Drucker, whose representation is located in the neoclassical school of administration, and through which the satisfaction of needs and requirements of the people is emphasized, but unlike that of Maslow's proposal Drunker interest focused primarily on the satisfaction of the needs of people outside the company such as customers, users, consumers, people, later to obtain results which consequently bring benefits to members of the organization.
In the current context, it can be appreciated various historicist concepts that go beyond the scientific and classical schools of management respectively, and are liberalized or are entirely autonomous in their respective influences; but on the contrary they do not vary significantly. Hence, new approaches have formed administrative deterministic models.
According to Robbins et al.  management refers to the process of getting things done, efficiently and effectively, through others and with them. While Thompson et al.  states that the term administration has a different meaning much more complex and it includes, depending on the definition, terms like "process", "resources", "achievement of objectives", "efficiency" "effectiveness", among others, that have radically changed its original meaning. The author in question, relating to the same subject quoted Chiavenato saying that management is the process of planning, organizing, directing and controlling the use of resources to achieve organizational goals.
Moreover, Rue et al.  indicate that management is a process or way of working that involves guidance or direction of a group of people toward organizational goals or objectives. Reyes et al.  meanwhile said that the administration is the function of getting things done through others, or get results through others. In this regard the author cites Tannenbaum, who defines management as the use of authority to organize, direct and control subordinates, responsible and (consequently the groups they command) so that all the services presented are properly coordinated in achieving the aim of the company. Griffin et al.  express that management is the use of authority to organize, direct and control subordinates responsible, and therefore the groups they command, so that, all services are duly presented coordinated in achieving the aim of the company. Therefore, it is summarized that administration as universal practice discipline refers to the way in which available resources are used i.e. exercise basically refers to the importance of the decisions that are taken formal aspects concerning: regulatory and technical, where the organizations are based.
Meanwhile, each of the formal definition of management is basically oriented to joint efforts of others, as well as the incorporation of various types of resources, through planning, organizing, directing and controlling. In addition, coordination is present in each of the formal definitions that try to mean the term management (Figure 1). The basic components of the administration are important to facilitate the management, but are not in itself organizational management. Then it's time to make a brief analysis of the cracks or gaps that may be identified in daily administrative practice. The rigidity of regulatory and systematic issues is where decisions generally are based, and which in turn guide the actions. Where technical aspects are safeguards and underpin administrative efficiency.
Another crack refers to the exercise of formal authority to coordinate organizational resources; without which there is no guarantee the control of the available resources. That is far away from resembling leadership. This is precisely where other split opens in the administration; is namely available resources. Managing resources is technically easy, because its scope is limited to what is ready for use. While, the term “gestion” has a different connotation as it has the term management. As another of the gaps that administration as an institutional function fails to overcome is the same practice through a rigid process, and in turn scale; if it is true refers to a systematic approach, no longer machining process, which aims to maintain order.
Despite the above, the basic components involved in the administrative practice are not entirely negligible; although by origin is mechanistic nature. They are also potentially necessary and useful to facilitate the management and coordination of resources in general as well as all what is required to also manage the processes involved. After reviewing the various theoretical concepts, it is concluded the direction is the main scope in the course of the administration.
Concept of directing
Among registered definitions of directing in the specialized literature, it is found a common denominator that each one has in common; this is driving or orientation. The meaning of direction is generally accepted that refers to the orientation as the process done by one person or leader to influence others to work united and effectively [8,9] note that management means driving to a particular course with a goal to achieve. Meanwhile Koontz et al.  ensure that the administrative function is the process of management is the process of influencing people to contribute to meeting organizational goals and group.
While Rodríguez et al.  quotes Bort who defines directing as the process of coordinating the joint efforts of subordinates, to achieve the goals of the organization; while Certo says that management is the process followed to guide the activities of the members of the organization in appropriate directions. Finally, Terry who defines management as the relationship in which a person or leader influences others to work together, spontaneously, in related work, to carry out what the leader wants.
For this Münch et al.  cites Buchele stating that the direction is comprising administrator interpersonal influence through which manages his subordinates to get the objectives of the organization by monitoring, communication and motivation. It also mentions what Lerner and Baker regarding the direction is to direct operations through cooperation efforts of subordinates, to get high levels of productivity through motivation and supervision. Therefore, it is summarized that the administration is a cumulative practice that goes beyond the simple coordination of efforts and organizational elements, because it can be seen a duality between administration and management, which will end with management.
In conclusion of this section, the administration argues that forms part of the management, a concept that goes beyond the simple idea of directing or coordinate efforts; because it involves maintaining a cooperative effort oriented towards assurance and increased levels of organizational efficiency. Thus, it could build a management model that contributes to strengthening the elements that are beyond the scope of coordination, and are limited in the formal definitions of the administration (Figure 2) from the theoretical point of view.
As has been observed so far, management is an activity oriented to protect the operating structure, which essentially ensures organizational effectiveness. Therefore, today the administration and management expressions are used to similar effect, although as it shall see management has broader implications. To start with the analysis of the formal definitions of management, it is necessary to conceive of this as a process of systemic nature, as it is argued below. This section will address some definitions regarding the term management.
The Royal Academy of the Spanish Language, in his Dictionary (n. d.) defines management as actions in pursuit of a business or any desire. For Herrera et al. , administrative management indicates tha t it is making or practical implementation of measures aimed at obtaining some benefit, taking people working in the organization as active resources for achieving the objectives. While for Hernandez et al.  management gives rise to extraordinary advances in planning, org a nization and control; therefore it is no longer an argument of nei t her local, nor national character. These changes must now be reg a rded as a matter of global nature, to develop new strategies to stay on the market and customer satisfaction anywhere in the world. According to Hernandez et al. , management is a creative process that allows an individual to design and implement strategic and tactical guidelines and processes of a production unit. So far the definitions of management already referenced have enunciated that it amounts to a tool that complements and executes the basic administrative elements, whose purpose lies in the systematic order.
The above concepts retain the essence in terms of a complex system that includes strategies, tactics and actions in two major orders: ad m inistrative and management. This means that in perspective magnitude administration is subsidiary to management, resulting in a new category: The administrative management. In the case at hand it is important to note that between the school administration and school management is identified a big gap that goes beyond the grammatical; be c ause the former involves everything related to school planning, while the second is broader because it carries with it the strengthening of processes, procedures, functions, tasks and activities. That is, the interdependence between cause and effect consequences beyond time and space.
The administrative management is therefore the coordination of o r ganizational resources, the wills and efforts available and how to use them to improve teaching and administrative processes. This can be represented by an integral concept that not only refers to certain academic actions, which themselves are important, but management strategies aimed at improving processes, which should be recognized as management areas (Figure 3).
The real challenge of the administrative management is the result of everything it is done in the educational community to stop producing i solated results, extraordinary or exceptional performance and consolidated permanent technical standards regularly. In this research the concept of school management is defined as the one that is closely related to the administrative and organizational theories, which have as their main guide the management process of teaching management in educational institution.
Review of the theories regarding the variable X
C lassical management approaches are distinguished over time because this practice remained strengthened by based approaches by t he implementation of targeted activities and sustained in different c ontinuous and interdependent frames structured in turn mutually influenced by components. These frames put special emphasis on how to implement and coordinate the tasks or activities to make them better and more readily; so the traditional administrative approach or process m arked the distinctive classical administration, and also including the so-called neoclassical theory. With the evolutionary and dynamic p rogress that has always characterized the administration, it caught a glimpse of a new horizon in which other aspects inherent in the administrative practice were distinguished, which has been gradually i ncorporated to this day, to the point that managed to revalue the a dministration as a useful tool to effectively manage organizations. Table 2 is a record of the main variables and theoretical complements that once were not considered by the classical and neoclassical theories r espectively. To incorporate new variables to the administrative practice as well as multiple theoretical components of greater scope and emphasis to schedule resources, roles, tasks, activities and efforts made more meaningful ways enabling the emergence of new perspectives of t he administration who have transcended historical development of t he administration, which clearly can be seen modern management approaches given in Table 1.
|Variables||What?, why?,how ?,throughwhat ?,why ?,when ?,who?, When?, Who, 'where,' for whom?|
|Theoretical components||Creativity, self-management, feedback, commitment, evaluation and performance measurement,leadership,reorientationprocesses, compatibility, self-control,self-direction, effort, synergy, globalization, quality, experience, competitiveness, quality, internal customer, contingencies, continuous improvement, changeplanned,systemic approach, creativity and research.|
Table 2: Main variables and theoretical features not considered by the classical and neoclassical theories of management.
Review of empirical theories and management approaches in relation to the variable X
If it is true, the classical management approach is represented by a process shaped by a series of successive phases whose purpose is geared to ensuring the effectiveness and maintenance of the traditional order. It would be risky and irresponsible to claim that administration has lost all its force and effect. On the contrary this universal practice has been strengthened in its essence on which is sustained and based the modern approaches that will be called in this research as administrative m anagement. In turn, these are illustrated on Figures 4-12. These graphic representations summarize the main features that distinguish modern management approaches (Figures 4-12).
Proposal regarding theoretical variable X
After that it was analyzed the historicity of administration, followed by empirical analysis of the theoretical content corresponding to the various theories and approaches of management, it can be appreciated t hat there is some degree inextricable. This is true because it can be d istinguished that the terms of administration and management a re considered in Latin context as two concepts that albeit they are g rammatically different expressions, but are closely related, i.e. that addressing one triggers the other, when what is sought is to achieve m aximum efficiency. In this thesis the concept of administrative management that is going to handle has a hybrid nature, because if it is true that the terms management and administration in some cases are assumed to be different, such as it was seen in the review of the empirical literature.
In other cases, the terms administration and management are s ynonyms. The truth is that the organizational reality indicates that management is governed by the law of maximum efficiency, which not only makes use of administrative principles, but it involves a number of complex technical and experiential components. So it was concluded that this investigative process is highly convenient because there is very little research about it, especially as regards the education sector.
The school administrative management as eclectic result is what serves as agent rector of this investigation, because the educational work of the Director must adhere and commit to the implementation of the education policy which is due. In addition to creating the conditions for sowing quality projects, promotion, efficiently use of the resources available to the institution in charge. In addition to both internal policies and external actions that impact the education community, and the design and implementation of strategies and activities that are useful enough to improve, change and even redesign the various processes involved in this educational research, from the perspective of the administration, as shown in the following synthetic model (Figure 13). If it is true, administrative approaches were tested empirically in the previous section are based primarily on the general principles of the TGA. It is important to note that in the socio-cultural and academic context, these principles are associated in a superlative degree in management, rather than simple administrative approaches. However, it is worthwhile emphasizing that all schools, theories and approaches by which management has historically traveled are and will remain fundamentally subsidiary of management. So, its result leads to the administration, which represents an abstract category, which alone holds an added value (Figure 14).
As of result of own experiences and what had be seen around, it is known that the Mexican educational system over time has been characterized as a sustained in disjointed educational practices and outdated administrative procedures from which it is apparent structure an indicator called ET of quantitative nature. However, from an administrative perspective the efficiency is not obtained independently to effectiveness, because in fact its involvement (causal-effect) goes beyond the wording of both interdependent indicators, that is why it is worth considering the change paradigm of efficiency for terminal effectiveness.