Perinatal Hypothyroidism and Cytoskeleton Dysfunction
Division of Anatomy and Embryology, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Egypt
- Corresponding Author:
- Ahmed RG
Division of Anatomy and Embryology
Zoology Department, Faculty of Science
Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: July 25, 2017; Accepted Date: August 10, 2017; Published Date: August 20, 2017
Citation: Ahmed RG (2017) Perinatal Hypothyroidism and Cytoskeleton Dysfunction. Endocrinol Metab Syndr 6:271. doi:
Copyright: © 2017 Ahmed RG. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Letter to Editor
Thyroid hormones (THs) are necessary for normal development
particularly cytoskeletal system. Cytoskeletal system which consists of
microtubules (Tubulin), microfilaments (Actin), and intermediate
filaments, specific for neurons (Neurofilaments), glia (Glial Fibrillary
Acidic Protein), or maturing cells (Vimentin, Nestin) can play
important roles in neural cell shape and neuronal migration and
outgrowth [1-40]. THs regulate and reorganize this system by nongenomic
actions. Moreover, THs regulate the expression of
extracellular matrix (ECM) and adhesion molecules that are important
for neuronal migration and development, such as tenascin-C, neural
cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM), reelin and dab1, laminin and
fibronectin. Maternal THs controls the expression of neuronal
migration and growth, branching of neurites, astrocytic cytoskeletal
proteins, cell cycle regulators, neurotrophins and neurotrophin
receptors and extracellular matrix proteins in the fetal brain [41-45].
In maternal hypothyroidism, there was reduction in the expression
of GFAP protein in fetal brain in late gestation. In neonatal
hypothyroid rats, the actin fibers are disorganized in brain
(cerebellum). Also, the disruptions of laminin and developing
cerebellum of hypothyroid rats were observed by Farwell et al. [40-45].
This alters the development of cellular cytoskeleton, synthesis of
microtubule protein, axonal transport, neuronal outgrowth and
neuronal behavior. These abnormalities might be attributed to the
abnormalities in the development of cellular cytoskeleton (stabilization
and composition of microtubule protein and in the delivery of
cytoskeletal proteins to developing terminals via the slow component
of axonal transport [40-48]. In parallel, the early postnatal
hypothyroidism in rats raises both RNA and protein levels of tenascin-
C in cerebellar Bergmann glia. On the other hand, Evans et al. 
reported that maternal hyperthyroidism changes the expression of
neuronal cytoskeletal proteins and accelerate the fetal neuronal
differentiation. In agreement with this result, hypothyroidism reduced
the matrix glia protein (MGP) mRNA levels while hyperthyroidism
upregulated the MGP gene . Moreover, the neurotrophins, in
particular brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are important in
the course of development and are reduced in hypothyroidism [48-50]
and increased in hyperthyroidism . Also, T4 inhibits the activity of
deiodinase 2 (D2) at the post-translational level including the
microfilaments (Actin) . The window of time for TH-dependent
regulation of these processes is limited to pre- and perinatal life in
rodents [42-45] neuronal cytoskeleton and neuronal growth either by
affecting the developmental programs for expression of specific
isoforms [50-59]. Thus, I may infer that thyroid disorders during the
development can disrupt the cytoskeleton system, mitochondrial
functions and gene expression. Further work is therefore required to
determine whether normalization of circulatory THs levels can prevent
the disturbance of fetal brain cytoskeletal protein expression.
Conflict of Interest
The author declares that no competing financial interests exist.
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