Received date: September 01, 2015; Accepted date: September 24, 2015; Published date: September 29, 2015
Citation: Ginting R, Warella YA, Suwitri DS, Israwan SP (2015) Policy Standardization Implementation Guarantying at the Private University in Semarang City. Arts Social Sci J 6:128. doi:10.4172/2151-6200.1000128
Copyright: © 2015 Ginting R, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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The purpose of this research is designed to describe and analyze the implementation of the quality assurance policy at a private college in the city of Semarang and the identification of those aspects that support and hinder the implementation of a quality assurance policy at a private University in the city of Semarang. As for specific targets to be achieved in the research is to formulate quality assurance policy implementation model for effective education (proposed model) and corresponding needs in supporting improved quality of education at Private Colleges in the city of Semarang. The study was designed with a qualitative research approach and use descriptive analysis. The analysis of the data collected is done after through interviews and observations directly in the field. Because it uses a qualitative approach then the data analysis processes in inductive data collection method in dept Interview, observation, documentation, and test the validity of library studies with data using two methods, namely the technique of triangulation and peer debriefing. The activity of this data analysis consists of, i.e., data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing/verification. To test the design quality assurance policy implementation model at a private college in the city of Semarang using consultation with experts guarantee quality (peer debriefing) for evaluation and improvement be alternative models. The next stage of the evaluation with Focus Group Discussion (FGD) by presenting a quality assurance team of experts from several universities to discuss alternative models these models are proposed so that/later can be implemented at private colleges. The location of the research done at Private Colleges include: Dian Nuswantoro University Semarang (UDINUS), Republic Indonesia Semarang Teachers Union University (UPGRIS), a high school computer (STEKOM), Indonesia Cruise Academy (AKPELNI), the maritime high school (STIMART) and site Quality Assurance Agency on research at the private University.
Implementation of quality assurance; Policy; Private university
National development policy in the field of education is part of public policy. Policy in the field of education are often called education policy is one derivative or have applications from public policies, where the public policies in developing countries is understood as development policy. While, educational policy become policy sectors who have to competing with other sectors to get main priority [1,2]. Indonesia is well aware that education was a major pillar of the community in advancing due to advancing community through education in order to advance the entire resources of community members in order to become a resource development can be done by improving the quality or the quality of education continuously.
Improved quality of education started to be addressed more seriously by the Government since 1996. Improvement of quality and relevance of education, especially higher education gets special pressure within the framework of a long-term higher education Development (KPPTJP, 1996-2005) who was later replaced by Higher Education Long Term Strategy (HELTS, 2003–2010), or often called the strategy a long-term higher education 2003 – 2010. A change of paradigm in the management of higher education, i.e. the implementation approach is to use the original, as stated in KPPT-JP 1996 – 2005 shifted into approach decentralization as used in HELTS (2003 – 2010), as seen in the Figure 1.
The five things mentioned above consist of: Quality, Autonomy, Accountability, Accreditation, and Evaluation can be used as five basic component references or paradigm arrangement college education system as follows: (1) The result and work ability have to always aim at the next quality; (2) The next step of quality, that is based on the creativity, integrity, and academic productivity can be stimulated by management method based on autonomy; (3) The autonomy of the College should be harmonious with the accountability/responsibility concerning the Organization of, the performance and results of the College; (4) The right of the public to obtain reliable and legitimate information about conducting, the performance and results of the College, actualized through the process of accreditation by the National Accreditation Agency. (5) The main managerial action informing decision-making and planning in higher education is the process of evaluation.
Higher education management paradigms, such as the picture above shows that quality (quality) is at the center point and the autonomy, accountability, accreditation and evaluation as the corners which determines the organizing and executing an activity organized with good or not, the quality (quality) is always a goal to be achieved.
Law No. 20 of 2003 on the national education system, Article 52 paragraph (2) States that the management of the higher education unit was implemented based on the principle of autonomy, accountability, quality assurance and evaluation that are transparent. The autonomy of the College according to the explanation of the National Educational System (Sisdiknas) ACT is the independence of the College to manage their own institution.
College accountability highly differs between universities with a private college. Operational universities, ranging from admissions, human resource management, infrastructure, financing, and others come from the Government so as to guarantee of a standard quality also very determined in accordance with the vision and mission of the Government in the field of education. Different case with private colleges, where accountability on the user community is the key to the sustainability of major colleges because private operational colleges sourced from funds obtained from the community. Therefore, guaranteeing the quality of higher education is important for the community to vote entered in the private college.
Private colleges are also responsible to the Government. Organization of private college is conducted under government supervision and coaching through the coordination of Private Colleges (Kopertis). Kopertis Region VI Central Java is in charge of conducting surveillance, control and coaching (WASDALBIN) against the private University in Central Java so as to materialize the private college quality and relevant to the needs of development.
Kopertis Region VI overseeing Central Java, control as well as the fostering of private colleges (PTS) a number of 250 (two hundred and forty-six) with various shapes and level. APART FROM data based on shape and level as follows (Table 1).
|No.||Bentuk PTS||Jumlah||Jenjang Program Studi||Jumlah|
Source: Private College Profile Kopertis Region VI Central Java 2013/ 2014.
Table 1: The Number of Courses According to Level and Form Apart from 2013/2014.
The data of private colleges in the top of the College is spread over the entire region of Central Java. In Semarang city itself there are 62 private University, as many as 4 PTS has gained the status of accredited with 13 courses while the 28 College gained accreditation B 115 courses, while the value of C earned 183 courses in each College. Of the 58 private colleges have yet to earn an A in the course, there are 3 colleges that have a number of students, namely: University PGRI in Semarang with student 11.866 people or 13.3% of the total number of students at private colleges in the city of Semarang, Dian Nuswantoro University with a population of Dian 9.750, student or 10.9% and high school electronics and Computer Semarang numerous 3.321 student or 3.7% of total students APART in the city of Semarang. The College’s third only obtain accreditation status with the values of B and C in their own course. That is, the value of accreditation as a reflection of the quality of the College did not affect the number of enthusiasts or a candidate to get in on the private colleges, though of course not the case. Moving on from the explanation above, then the author would like to investigate more about the implementation of a quality assurance policy at a private college in the city of Semarang.
Special purpose in this study was to formulate a policy implementation model quality assurance an effective (proposed model) and in accordance with the requirements in supporting improved quality of education at private colleges in the city of Semarang.
The virtue of this research include (1) describe and analyze the implementation of the quality assurance policy at a private College in Semarang city seen from the perspective of education standards, (b) identify and analyze aspects that support and hinder the implementation of a quality assurance policy at a private University in the city of Semarang, (c) Formulate a policy implementation model quality assurance an effective education (proposed model) and corresponding needs in supporting quality improvement in higher education.
The meaning of policy
Policy (policy) is etymologically derived from the language of Greece, namely the “Polis” which means the city (city). According to Nichols, “is a policy decision that mature in thought and careful decision-making by Pinnacle and not recurring activities and routine are a hard-wired or associated with decision rules”.
Anderson  states policies is the behavior of a number of actors (officials, groups, government agencies) or a series of actors in a specific field of activity. While the public words translated into Indonesian varied, depending on the accompanying words. This meaning defined as, people, community, public, and State or Government.
After understanding the sense of public understanding and policy then we will more easily understand the notion of public policy. Nugroho  provides a restriction that public policy is a strategic fact than the fact political or technical facts. The implementation of public policies (policy implementation) is an important aspect of the overall policy process.
The patterns of public policy implementation
The success of the implementation of public policy, according to Grindle  determined by two (2) principal variables namely Variables Variable content and context. Variable content is what is in a content of a public policy that affects the process of implementation of the policy. Variables context is an idea of how the context of the political and administrative activity affects public policy that is implemented.
The successful implementation of such an opinion above, Grindle also delivered by Edward  that, there are four variables that play a role in the achievement of the successful implementation of public policy. Four of these variables are communication, resources, disposition and bureaucratic structure.
Implementation model of Edward can be used as an imaging tool program implementation at various places and times. That is, the four variables that are available in the model can be used to impression the phenomenon of public policy implementation. Implementation model above, also presented by Van Meter and Van Horn, but there are a couple of different variables and it is believed could affect implementation. Some of the variables contained in the model of Van Meter and Horn  is as follows.
First, the standards and objectives of policy, second, Third, policy Performance, resources, fourthly, intercultural communication implementing agencies, executing agencies, the characteristics of the fifth, sixth, social environment, economy and politics, seventh, the attitude of the executor.
Communication as an important factor in the implementation of policies undertaken between organizations was also discussed by Goggin  in his book “Implementation Theory and Practice: Toward a Third Generation” who suggested a new theory of policy implementation into three generation . The first generation was known too pessimistic to build implementation theory but successful second generation is the generation that uniquely contribute to the development of the analytical framework to guide research on the complex phenomenon of policy implementation and focusing on the same variables; The third generation of policy implementation theory aims at “developing a theory of the implementation of policies more scientific approach with emphasis on” research method “with the independent variable, intervening, and the dependent, factor by putting a” communication “as a driving force in the implementation of the policy [9-15].
Implementation policy of university quality
Government policy in the field of education the Quality Assurance system set up in College (SPM-PT) which is organizing the quality assurance system of higher education through three sub systems that each system is also, namely; First, The Database of Higher Education (PDPT). This system includes systemic activity of collection, processing and storage of data and information on the Organization of higher education in all colleges of higher education by Ditjen, to supervise the Organization of higher education by the Government as mandated by article 65 paragraph (1) and paragraph (2) of the ACT. Sisdiknas (formerly it is called EPSBED); Second, The Internal Quality Assurance System (SPMI). This activity is the quality assurance of higher education in college by College (internal driven), to supervise the Organization of higher education by universities on an ongoing basis (improvement continuously), as provided for by article 50 paragraph (6) of the ACT. The National Education System in the Article 91 PP. No. 19 of 2005 explained about the SNP. Third is the Quality Assurance System of External (SPME). This activity is the feasibility of the program and the College; or by BAN-PT or independent agencies outside the Government-recognized colleges, as a form of public accountability as mandated by article 60 of the ACT (2) paragraph of National Education System and section 86 subsection (3), PP. No. 19 of 2005 about SNPS (called accreditation) [16-19].
Quality assurance policy implementation process is a process that not only concerns the behavior-behavior administrative bodies responsible for carrying out the program and raises the obedience to the target group (target groups), but also concerning the factors of legal, political, economic, social, which directly or indirectly affect the behavior of the various parties involved in the program. Terms of program quality assurance policy apply to College, because it is easy whether policy was applied and can be controlled depends very much of the communication that was built within the institutions of the respective colleges [20-27].
The study was designed with a qualitative research approach and use descriptive analysis. The analysis of the data collected is done after through interviews and observations directly in the field. Because it uses a qualitative approach then the data analysis processes in inductive data collection method in dept Interview, observation, documentation, and test the validity of library studies with data using two methods, namely the technique of triangulation and peer debriefing. Activity in the analysis of the data consist many example as follows i.e., data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing/verification”.
This study consists of three parts. First, in the section of researchers will describe the implementation of a quality assurance policy at a private University in the city of Semarang. Second, this analysis is done on the aspects of policy implementation barrier advocates and quality assurance at a private college. Analysis aspects of policy implementation face of many barrier advocates and quality assurance at the private college with content of policy implementation, the context of policy, communication and resources in the implementation of the policy. Third, this part is done the analysis alternative models with formulate quality assurance policy implementation model based on the findings of the field. To test the design quality assurance policy implementation model at a private college in the city of Semarang using consultation on quality assurance experts (peer debriefing) for evaluation and improvement be alternative models. The next stage of the evaluation with a Focus Group Discussion (FGD) by presenting a quality assurance team of experts from several universities.
Discussing alternative models these models are proposed so that/ can eventually be implemented at private colleges.
Existing model quality assurance policy implementation of the private university at Semarang city
Database of colleges: The management of the College is based on the autonomy of higher education, as provided for by article 63 clause (1) of the ACT of higher education, where data and information about the implementation and execution of the Tri dharma College organizations, Student Affairs, financial, workforce, facilities and infrastructure need to be prepared by the colleges and certain truth and faithfulness to then reported via higher education. PD Formula generated through the process as follows (Figure 2).
The internal quality assurance system (SPMI): Based on the results of the research with the informant can be concluded that internal quality assurance system (SPMI) on PTS in Semarang have been conducted independently by colleges, so the process of SPMI is designed, operated, and controlled by the College. From the results of the internal quality assurance system of the research conducted by the institution that exists in Semarang city can be seen in the following Figure 3.
External quality assurance system (Accreditation): The accreditation instrument made by BAN-PT in the form of standards and criteria of quality nationally has some weaknesses. The weakness among other things occur due to not fully able to serve difference and diversity studies program, institution type, academic education, professional education, Polytechnic or formal, informal, limited or religious.
Another drawback is the capacity of the Organization’s BAN-PT capabilities. Forward BAN-PT will be faced with four major issues, namely 1) large amount of courses must be accredited, namely 21.375 study program and the College 4.258 (based source PD higher education on 23 February 2015); 2) large amount of courses that should be accreditation because it expires; 3) the large amount of higher education institutions, both public and private that will be accredited; 4) the need for the BAN-PT accrediting agencies accredit other accrediting agencies. Of the quality assurance system of the results of research undertaken by an external INSTITUTION in Semarang city can be seen Figure 4.
Analysis of the implementation of the quality assurance policy at a private college in the Semarang city
Based on research results, policy content consists of multiple variables i.e. interests that are affected by the policy, the type of the resulting benefits, the degree of the desired changes with the determination of the policy, the position of policymakers, policy implementers, and resources deployed in the implementation of the policy. In addition to the content policies (policy content), then the policy context is also very influential in the success of a policy, which consists of several variables, among others, power, interests and Strategies undertaken, Characteristics of the implementing agency policies, compliance and responsiveness in the implementation of the policy. In addition to the content and context of the policy as a determinant of the success of the implementation of a quality assurance policy at a private college is also very influenced by communication and resources are owned by the institution. These variables are all supporters and a barrier to quality assurance policies at private colleges in Semarang city. The findings that are in the field based on factor endowments and a barrier to the implementation of a quality assurance policy at a private University in the city of Semarang, may be formulated a policy implementation model quality assurance the College as follows (Figure 5).
Proposed implementation of a quality assurance policy of college
Proposed Quality Assurance Policy implementation Model at a private College at Semarang City (Figure 6).
Implementation of a quality assurance policy at a private college is an autonomous College to independently manage the oversight of higher education held. However, the provision has not been effective due to able to walk Kopertis Region VI Central Java as the institution of supervision, control and the construction of the building just as the length of the signature of the Director General of higher education, any data submitted by PTS to PDPT Center through the implementation of nature Kopertis. Same is the case with the external quality assurance System/accreditation also determined by the Directorate General of higher education through the BAN-PT Authority PTS only in execution of SPMI.
Implementation of a quality assurance policy is largely determined by the College aspect of supporters and a barrier to the success of the quality assurance. This condition is reflected in:
Aspects of content policies shows that, in many cases on PTS, implementation of quality assurance policy is more in reference to the interests of the Organization’s founder or the Statute of the institution as a result of the implementation of policies running less effective.
Aspects of the context of the policy strongly influenced the characteristics of the institution at which the specified policy institution adapted to the condition of the building, so the quality improvement apart from stagnant running.
Communication aspect is still less so that the problems in the implementation of the quality policy at the institution were not immediately able to be solved together.
Human resource Aspects, impressed merely meet the quantity for a program, not to touch the question of quality, whereas only limited financial resources for the implementation of quality assurance at a private University in the city of Semarang.
Need to be developed quality assurance policy arrangement pattern of the College which is accommodating considering the various characteristics of the private colleges.
Need socialization program is an intensive quality assurance policy, because it is not just the determination of rules, but a deeper understanding of human resources in the implementation of policies so that effective.
The Government of the need to consider the implementation of external quality assurance system/accreditation is not fully addressed by BAN-PT but it gives the authority on Wasdalbin as an institution apart of coordination of Private Universities.