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Enterprises, hostelry, work positive attitudes.
It’s difficult to imagine an organization who wants to be highly competitive and with quality requirements who doesn’t seek for management policies and practices who assure an adequate work design and foster their members satisfaction and implication to generate favorable organizational and individual outputs. However, the actual knowledge about these management practices and its influence on behaviors isn’t enough to allow many organizations to efficiently develop their activity with success.
Organizations from hotel and touristic sector demand from their front office employees a high face-to-face and voice relationship degree with their costumers and for that reason regrets the lack of an empirically validated management model who allows them to benefocy from a evidence based on practice. This situation is due to the lack of empirically studies allowing relating capital variables for hotel units working, making difficult the development of organizational psychology explanatory models which would be important for the personnel management problems faced by these organizations.
The aim of this study is to develop and test a model which allows exploring the relations of influence that some determinants have in work positive attitudes, whom, by their turn, will generate favorable behaviors to client’s service provider organizations.
The Bagozzi’s model of attitudes, intentions and behavior (1992) has been adopted to explain the client behavioral intentions (Babakus, Yavas, Karapete & Avei, 2003; Schmith & Allscheid, 1995) as well as duty employee’s behavioral intentions (Gotlieb, Grewal & Brown 1994; Paulin, Ferguson & Bergeron, 2006). According to Bagozzi, the individual behavior is determined by a sequence of evaluation processes, emotional reactions and coping responses, where attitudes play a central role. From the internal-client oriented management perspective, which seeks the involvement of the employees (internal clients) in the provided services, in order to commit them with the organization strategy and optimize their performance, it is important to focus the attention on attitudes and behavioral intentions which are likely to attract and collect external clients for acquiring a service of high quality.
Griffeth and Hom (2001) proposed a comprehensive turnover model where Satisfaction and Commitment are mediating variables between antecedent factors – related to work (eg, work complexity), to labor market conditions (eg, employment alternatives) and to individuals factors (eg, negative affectivity) – and the turnover output variable. This model emphasizes the job satisfaction and organizational commitment as important attitudes for the success of organizations because they can influence certain individual positive behaviors that have positive repercussions for the organization.
However, service provider organizations – specifically for the hotel industry – need to know how customer’s service is perceived by internal clients. Within this sector activity, employees’ evaluation of the organizational climate or work satisfaction seems to be insufficient, and the research should extend to other work dimensions, namely those oriented to the service provided. For this reason, we consider Client Oriented Satisfaction one priority within a management framework oriented towards business.
Thus, a manager wishing to release positive attitudes, satisfaction and implication in their internal costumers, must know the determinants of those attitudes. Among other possibilities, job design and its motivational potential emerge as a tool for manager’s influence the job satisfaction levels of their employees (Hackman & Oldham, 1980; Spector; 1997; Millán, Sagrera, Félis & Onsalo, 2007, among others).
The Job Motivational Potential (Hackman & Oldham, 1980), accept that any given work, no matter his activity sector, must predict Variety, Significance, Identity, Autonomy and Feedback, considered as essentials characteristics which give to work the desirable fullness and complexity. The MPS is, in this way, a antecedent variable who have influence over the output variables thru the performed action over the psychological intermediate variables nature (Hackman & Oldham, 1980; Meyer & Allen, 1997; Mathieu & Zajac, 1990). These psychological states bias the internal client (in a factual case) toward his job and have influence over his own individual outputs. However the papers written about this matter don’t report a relation between the MPS and the Organizational Implication.
The Employability Alternatives Perception is another antecedent which came from the internal client perceived alternatives by competitors job offers. The probability to find a satisfactory job alternative by the internal client has been shown either thru his negative influence in work attitudes (specially, in Job satisfaction) (e.g. De Cuiper, Notelaers & Dewitte, 2009), and also thru his positive influence over the Turnover intent (Mobley, Horner, Hollins Worth, 1987).
The Sacrifice Perception combined with the possible employee leaving the organization which came from the internal client perceived sacrifices during the time he stays in the organization is, accordingly to Allen e Meyer (2000) hypothesis , another work attitudes antecedents (in this case is Implication) with repercussions in the results variables (e.g. Turnover intents). However we don’t know its effects in work Satisfaction.
Work Satisfaction and Affective Commitment (employee connection and identification to the organization) are two attitudes which came from a favorable service climate that can: initiate service quality rendering behaviors (Babukus, Yavas, Karapete, Avei, 2003; Deeter, Schmetz & Ramsey, 2003; Donovan, Brown & Mowen, 2004; González, Comesana & Brea, 2007; Raver, Godfrey & Huang, 2003); organization recommendation (Word-of-mouth (WOM)) (Bansal & Voyer, 2000; Cook, Kerr & Moore, 2002; Schneider, Hayes, Lim, Raver, Godfrey, Huang, 2003). The organization recommendation, for example, also know by word of mouth is one of the most powerful tools in the work market (cf. Bansal & Voyer, 2000), which consists in the employee anticipation and products, services and brands creative suggestions presentations by internal clients to external clients (Lau & Ng, 2001; Bansal & Voyer, 2000). In general, the organization recommendation variable joins to all employees and costumers positive attitudes, especially to the Affective Commitment attitude (cf. Gummesson, 2002; Hartline & Jones, 1996; Paulin et al., 2006). Among other advantages, positive recommendation to potential clients may decrease the discomfort of duty professionals’ cognitive dissonance (Buttle, 1998; Paul et al., 2006) and also be a news employees’ recruitment central tool. In this way, internal clients played a relevant role as part-time marketers to new internal and external clients (Gummesson, 2002). The organization recommendation is one of these indicators, which reflects the clients and costumers idea about products and services: if the service provided is outstanding, exceeding clients’ expectations, the organization recommendation will reach high levels because optimal positive communication conditions were created. Organization recommendation is, by this way, a specific opportunity for the organization a positive image creation among clients: the internal clients whom again and again buy the organization, have a positive reaction to products and services, motivating their buying by external clients.
The Turnover intention and its achievement (turnover) is another variable which results from work attitudes but know in a negative way and, for this reason, very important in the effective organization counter-productivity (cf. Sowa, Selden & Sandfort, 2004). Organizational leaders and researchers have interest to go deep with this, as a way to prevent this kind of organizational problems.
Both work satisfaction and implication relate negatively with the Turnover Intent (Collins, 2010; De Cuiper, Noterlaers & Dewitte, 2009; Podsakoo, Lepine, & Lepine, 2007; Sjoberg & Sverke, 2000; Stell & Lounbury, 2009; Williams & Soutar, 2009, and others) e collateral Turnover (Donovan, Brow & Mowen, 2004; Griffeth, Hom & Gartner, 2000; Griffeth e Hom, 2001; Hom, Caracnikas-Walker, 2003; Homburg & Stock, 2004). This indicator is especially important in the hotel sector because suggests that the internal client is a tool that can be enhanced.
In a general way the Organization Recommendation variable joins to all employees’ and costumers’ positive attitudes, especially Affective Commitment attitude Afectiva (cf. Cook, Kerr & Moore, 2002; Gummesson, 2002; Hartline & Jones, 1996; Paulin et al., 2006).
Despite all this scientific findings, Cunha, Rego, Cunha e Cabral-Cardoso (2006) mention that nowadays a gap still remains in the personality specific characteristics research, potentially moderators of the relation between antecedents and attitudes.
Although the literature review allowed us to confirm the important role of commitment and job satisfaction in the organizational efficiency, the research conclusions seldom have been applied to specific management problems in organizations. The hotel business case is very unique because it requires a high level of interaction among front-line personnel and the external clients in order to provide a service of superior quality. This activity sector works, more and more, in a preferred relation and in its customization capacity, serving the client well, creation of experiences, stories of good service, with the aim of collecting the benefits of this relation. The hostelry organizations seek for new opportunities, keep serving well, providing outstanding products and services, offering a diversified range and especially a personalized practice of service, which can attract, keep and turn loyal the external clients thru a unique service provider way. It is a business strategy based on knowledge and expertise which allows drawing unique products and services that provide specific client needs. In this way the organization is designed to generate satisfied internal clients able create satisfaction in external clients.
Service provider organizations in general and hotels in particular regret the lack of a valid management model which allows them to benefit from evidence-based practice where should be possible to harmonize the human resources best practices with the market logics, thru a work climate triggering affirmative attitudes and behavior intent which are able to anticipate the client’s needs. Even if there are papers talking about these subjects, they didn’t appropriately spread these management practices. Therefore in a service and multi-concerned context, we seek to test some antecedents, positive attitudes and behavior intents, which aim to generate internal client, organization and, in the end, external client satisfaction.
This research focuses on two attitudes – Organizational Implication and Work Satisfaction – but spans its focus to some antecedents and consequents of these variables. The following hypothesis allow us to specify the relations pattern that be expected and will guide us in the hotels professionals empiric study outputs presentation and discussion.
Accordingly to the Turnover comprehensive models (Griffeth & Hom, 2001) and Work Characteristics (Hackman & Oldham, 1980), the dimensions that characterize work influences the employee individual results, being this influence relation measured by attitudes. We expect the Work Motivational Potential (antecedent variable) who integrates the five work characteristics, to influence the individual results (response variables) of Organization Recommendation and Leaving Intent (negatively), thru an attitudes mediator effect (intermediate variables) of Affective Commitment and Work Satisfaction (General Job Satisfaction and Client Oriented Satisfaction). Employability Alternate Perceptions and Sacrifice Perceptions where added to this study the as antecedent variables. The Employability Alternatives has shown a negative association with Implication (cf. Meyer & Allen, 1997; Griffeth & Hom (2001). The Sacrifice Percepcion variable, as recommended by Allen e Meyer (2000), is now considered an Organizational Implication antecedent. So, the hypothesis here stated specifies the proposed model attitudes mediator statue:
Hypothesis: The Work Motivational Potential, the Sacrifice Perception and the Employability Alternatives Perception, positively influence the Organization Recommendation behavior and negatively influence the Leaving Intent thru the mediator effect of Affective Commitment, General Job Satisfaction and Client Oriented Satisfaction.
The figure 1 shows a sketch of the model based on the given hypothesis. In this model, the antecedent variables (Job Motivating Potential, Sacrifice Perception and Employability Alternatives Perception) have an effect over the output variables (Organization Recommendation and Intention to Leave the Organization) which are mediated by attitude variables (Affective Commitment, General Job Satisfaction and Client Oriented Satisfaction).
This research was made with 303 professionals from several hotels from all over Portugal (Algarve, Lisbon, Coimbra, Oporto e Madeira). These hotels belong to a hotel chain especially dedicated to leisure, city hotels, business and golf holidays and employ a large amount of professional whom are representative of the Portuguese hotel professional groups.
The sample is mainly feminine (65,1%) with the average age of 29 years old (standard deviation=9,5). Forty four percent of the participants are married and 41% are single, 35,8% finished the secondary school and 30,4% have basic scholarship. The majority (83,6%) have a link with the organization between 3 and 10 years (40,9%) and more than 10 years (37,3%). The respondents belong to diverse professional groups: reception, restaurant, bar, maintenance technicians, floor maids, kitchen.
The data was collected individual and collectively in three different moments along 2006 with self-questionnaires.
To evaluate the job characteristics, a Portuguese version of the Job Diagnostics Survey (JDS) was used (Almeida, Faísca & Jesus, 2009). This instrument measures the core dimensions mentioned in the Hackman and Oldham model (variety, identity, significance, autonomy and feedback) and provides a composite measure integrating these five dimensions and that allow to assess globally how a particular job is perceived as motivating (Job Motivational Potential Score, MPS).
The Portuguese version of the Affective, Normative and Continuance Commitment scale (Almeida, Faísca & Jesus, 2007) was used to evaluate the three components defined by Meyer and Allen (1991) commitment model: affective, normative and instrumental commitment. The three measures provided by this instrument show good reliability levels (affective scale: 4 items, Cronbach’s alpha = 0.78; normative sacle: 3 items, Cronbach’s alpha = 0.86; instrumental scale: 6 items, Cronbach’s alpha = 0.86) and are expressed in a seven-point scale. The instrumental commitment score was used as an operationalization of the Sacrifice Perception construct (SP).
The Client Oriented Satisfaction Scale (Almeida, Faísca & Jesus, in press) evaluates the employee satisfaction in relation to seven relevant work facets in service provider organizations (work conditions, work nature, work stability, career evolution, payment, image and organization sense and service oriented behavior). It allows to compute a composite measure based on all 28 items and expressed in a four-point scale that measures the general level of satisfaction of the employee (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.92).
Four additional variables were evaluated trough one single item each: Global Job Satisfaction (GJS: “All together and having in mind all aspects of your job and of your organization, you would say that you are satisfied?”), Employability Alternatives Perception (EAP: “How many job offers have you had in the past 6 months”), Intention to Leave the Organization (ILO: “Having the same conditions you have now, if you had the chance to leave the organization, what would you do?”) and Organization Recommendation (OR: “Would you recommend this organization as a good workplace?”). All measures are expressed in a five-point scale.
5.3. Statistical Analysis
To test the mediating effects specified in the hypothesis, Baron and Kenny (1986) recommended procedures were followed. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, version 17.0) was used to analyze data. The AMOS GRAPHICS 6.0 (Arbuckle, 2005) was also used to test the omnibus mediating hypothesis. The Sobel test was carried out using the online calculator made available by Preacher and Leonardelli (http://people.ku.edu/~preacher/sobel/sobel.htm).
The proposed model hypothesizes that Job Motivating Potential (MPS), Sacrifice Perception (SP) and Employability Alternatives Perception (EAP) have an indirect effect over the response variables Organization Recommendation (OR) and Intention to Leave the Organization (ILO), and that this effect is mediated by the attitudinal variables Affective Commitment (AC), General Job Satisfaction (GJS) and Client Oriented Satisfaction (COS).
Table 1 shows the Pearson correlations among the eight variables specified in our hypothesis.
|Mean||Standard Deviatio n||MPS||SP||EAP||AC||GJS||COS||ILO||OR|
MPS – Job Motivating Potential; SP – Sacrifice Perception; EAP – Employability Alternatives; AC – Affective Commitment; GJS – General Job Satisfaction; COS – Client Oriented Satisfaction; ILO – Intention to Leave the Organization; OR – Organization Recommendation.
*Significant correlations (p ≥ 0,05)
**Highly significant correlations (p ≥ 0,01)
Table 1: Mean, Standard Deviation and Pearson correlation between antecedents’ variables (MPS, EAP and SP), intermediate variables (AC, GJS e COS) and output variables (ILO e OR) (N=303).
The association pattern among the antecedent variables shows that Employability Alternatives (EAP) correlates weakly both with Job Motivating Potential (MPS) and Sacrifice Perception (SP); MPS and SP seems not to be associated.
The relation between the antecedents and intermediate variables shows moderate highly significant correlations between MPS, Sacrifice Perception (SP), Affective Commitment (AC), General Job Satisfaction (GJS) and Client Oriented Satisfaction (COS); however, Employability Alternatives perception shows a weak correlation only with the GJS variable (r = 0.13, p = 0.025).
The association pattern between antecedent and output variables shows that only Sacrifice Perception reach a moderate correlation level either with Intention to Leave the Organization (ILO) (r = -0.36, p = 0.000) and Organization Recommendation (OR) (r = 0.37, p = 0.000). The MPS variable correlates significantly way with the OR variable (r = 0.15, p = 0.011), while the EAP variable correlates significantly with the ILO variable (r= 0.15, p = 0.011)
The relation among the intermediate variables (AC, GJS e COS) shows positive moderate to high correlations among them (r > 0.51, p < 0.001).
Intermediate variables also correlate moderately with both the output variables: they all correlate negatively with the Intention to Leave the Organization (r < -0.40, p < 0.001) and positively with Organization Recommendation (r > 0.50, p < 0.001).
Finally, the correlation between the two output variables is moderate and negative (r = -0.46, p=0.000).
In general, the observed association pattern between variables does not contradict the mediating hypothesis, despite the lack of significance for some effects (for instance, the association between MPS and ILO and between EAP and OR); on the other side, the lack of significant correlation between the antecedent EAP and the mediators AC and COS also question the m to the question if these two variables can, in fact, mediate the EAP effect over ILO.
The specific contribution of antecedents and intermediate attitudes for explaining output variables was evaluated with a hierarchical regression analysis where both antecedent and intermediate variables were regarded as independent variables. A block with the antecedent variables (MPS, SP and EAP) and another block with the intermediate variables (AC, GJS, and COS) were defined and two regression models were evaluated, where we changed the order in which these two blocks are entered (Table 2).
|Organization Recommendation (OR)||Intention to Leave the Organization (ILO)|
|1. Antecedents: MPS + PB + EAP||0,165||0,165||0,000||0,141||0,141||0,000|
|2. Attitudes: AC + GJS + COS||0,453||0,288||0,000||0,314||0,172||0,000|
|1. Attitudes: AC + GJS + COS||0,437||0,437||0,000||0,283||0,283||0,000|
|2. Antecedents: MPS + SP + EAP||0,453||0,016||0,036||0,314||0,030||0,050|
MPS – Job Motivating Potential; SP – Sacrifices Perception; EAP – Employability Alternatives; AC – Affective Commitment; GJS – General Job Satisfaction; COS – Client Oriented Satisfaction
Table 2: Antecedent and intermediate variables specific effect on Organization Recommendation and Intention to Leave the Organization (coefficients of determination and related significance levels) (N=303).
The results displayed in Table 2 show that the antecedent variables have a significant contribute to the variance of two output variables: when they entered first in the regression model, they explain 16.5% of Organization Recommendation variance and 14.1% of the Intention to Leave the Organization variance; however, this effect is drastically decreased when the antecedents contribution is assessed after the entrance of the intermediate variables block, explaining only 1,6% of the Organization Recommendation variance (p = 0.036) and 3.0% of the Intention to Leave the Organization (p = 0.050). Despite the antecedent variables specific contribution being still significant, this result pattern suggests that the antecedents effect over the Organization Recommendation and Intention to Leave the Organization variables is almost completely mediated by the three intermediate variables considered in the model.
Therefore, and aiming to understand which intermediate variables specifically mediate the antecedents effect over the output variables, a mediating effect test was done independently for each intermediate variable mediation. Table 3 shows the results of this mediating analysis considering the effects on the Organization Recommendation variable; the Employability Alternatives variable was excluded from the analysis because it did not show a significant effect over the Organization Recommendation.
|Job Motivating Potential effect (MPS) over the Organization Recommendation (OR)|
|AC||+0.15 (p = 0.011)||-0.03 (p = 0.525)||+0.18 (p = 0.000)||Total mediation|
|GJS||+0.15 (p = 0.011)||+0.06 (p = 0.189)||+0.09 (p = 0.011)||Total mediation|
|COS||+0.15 (p = 0.011)||+0.04 (p = 0.358)||+0.11 (p = 0.002)||Total mediation|
|Sacrifice Perception effect (SP) over the Organization Recommendation (OR)|
|AC||+0.37 (p = 0.000)||+0.19 (p = 0.000)||+0.18 (p = 0.000)||Total mediation|
|GJS||+0.37 (p = 0.000)||+0.17 (p = 0.001)||+0.19 (p = 0.000)||Total mediation|
|COS||+0.37 (p = 0.000)||+0.21 (p = 0.000)||+0.16 (p = 0.000)||Total mediation|
AC – Affective Commitment, GJS – General Job Satisfaction, COS – Client Satisfaction Global Orientation.
* The indirect effect significance was evaluated with the Sobel test
Table 3: Standardized total, direct and mediated effects of the antecedent variables over Organization Recommendation (N=303)
We can see that the inclusion of any intermediate variables is enough to cancel the Job Motivating Potential direct impact over the Organization Recommendation, thereby indicating that this antecedent total effect over the output variable (β = +0.15) is totally mediated through the considered attitudes (specially, Affective Commitment, β = +0.18).
Concerning the Sacrifice Perception effect (β = +0.37) over OR, its magnitude decreases significantly when intermediate variables are included in the model, but still remains significant, suggesting the existence of a partial mediation process.
The effect of the antecedent variables over the Intention to Leave the Organization was evaluated with an identical analysis but this time the Job Motivating Potential was excluded because it did not significantly correlates with this response variable (Table 4). Regarding Employability Alternatives, we tested only the General Job Satisfaction mediator because the other two attitudes did not significantly correlate with this antecedent, which is one of the Baron and Kenny’s required conditions for mediation.
|Sacrifice Perception effect (SP) over the Intention to Leave the Organization (ILO)|
|AC||-0.36 (p = 0.000)||-0.24 (p = 0.000)||-0.12 (p = 0.000)||Partial Mediation|
|GJS||-0.36 (p = 0.000)||-0.20 (p = 0.000)||-0.16 (p = 0.000)||Partial Mediation|
|COS||-0.36 (p = 0.000)||-0.26 (p = 0.000)||-0.10 (p = 0.000)||Partial Mediation|
|Employability Alternatives effect (EAP) over the Intention to Leave the Organization (ILO)|
|GJS||+0.15 (p = 0.011)||+0.08 (p = 0.100)||+0.07 (p = 0.028)||Total Mediation|
AC – Affective Commitment, GJS – General Job Satisfaction, COS – Client Satisfaction Global Orientation
* The indirect effect significance was evaluated with the Sobel test
Table 4: Standardized total, direct and mediated effects of the antecedent variables over the Intention to Leave the Organization (N = 303).
The Sacrifice Perception contribution to Intention to Leave the Organization (β = -0.36) seems to weaken in the presence of any of the intermediate variables, although its direct effect still remains significant (p < 0.001), suggesting the existence of partial mediating processes. On the contrary, the effect of Employability Alternative Perception over the Organization Recommendation variable (β = +0.15) seems to be almost totally mediated by the employee General Job Satisfaction (β = +0.07, p = 0.028).
The mediating analysis presented shows that the effect of the antecedents over the output variables seems to be mediated by the attitudes considered by the model: the Job Motivating Potential have a positive effect over the Organization Recommendation which is totally mediated by the three attitudinal variables; the Sacrifice Perception have a negative effect over the Intention to Leave the Organization and a positive effect over the Organization Recommendation, being both effects partially mediated by the three attitudes. Finally, Employability Alternatives seems to have a positive effect over the Intention to Leave the Organization which is totally mediated by the Global Job Satisfaction.
To integrate the individual mediating analysis that have been done and to evaluate globally our hypothesis, we evaluated the goodness of fit of two structural equation models. Model 1 represents our hypothesis, where antecedent effects over the output variables are exclusively mediated through the three attitudinal variables; in contrast, Model 2 specifies both direct and indirect effects. As expected, none of these models showed a good adjustment to data (model 1: X2 = 200.75, df = 10, p = 0.000; model 2: X2 = 179.07, df = 4, p = 0.000), because they did not include fundamental relations among the variables that were not directly relevant to our hypothesis (for example, we omitted the expected correlation among intermediate variables). However, if the hypothesis is true, the difference in the adjustment between the two models should not be statistically significant. The comparison between both models leads to the global rejection of the hypothesis (ΔX2 = 21.68, Δdf = 6, p = 0.001), pointing out that is necessary at least to consider some direct effects between antecedents and outputs variables for the model be adjusted to data.
Once individual analysis suggested that Sacrifice Perception effect on both output variables is partially mediated, we reformulated Model 1, adding a direct effect between SP and the output variables (model 1 reformulated: X2 = 187.49, df = 8, p = 0.000). The comparison between this reformulated model and Model 2 shows now a non significant difference (ΔX2 = 8.39, Δdf = 4, Δp = 0.079), suggesting that our hypothesis should specify the partial mediations associated with SP. The magnitude of direct effect of SP over the output variables, after withdrawing the joint mediating effect of the three attitudes, is still relevant both for Organization Recommendation (β = +0.13, p = 0.028) and for Intention to Leave the Organization (β = -0.14, p = 0,030).
The obtain results partially supports the given hypothesis to describe the existing relation between the studied variables. Namely, it was shown that the effect of the antecedents variables over the output variables is mainly mediated by the Affective Commitment, Global Satisfaction and client Oriented Satisfaction attitudes. As predicted by the Work Characteristics Model (Hackman & Oldham, 1980), the work potential motivator has a positive influence on the organization recommendation individual behavior, underlined the need for the organization to provide positive work conditions, enriching the jobs in the variety, significance, identity, autonomy and feedback dimensions, with a view to induce adequate work behaviors to organization strategy and objectives. However this influence does not appear to be direct, having been put into evidence the importance of employee’s attitudes in this process. Likewise the Meyer and Allen (1997) and Spector’s (1997) studies, whom also highlight the Implication and Satisfaction attitudes capital role in the individual results, the output shows that is not enough creating favorable work conditions to get advantageous individual outputs, because, in this relation it is also involved psychological conditions which have the ability to change this relation.
The hypothesis rose by Alen and Meyer (2000) whereof the sacrifice perception would be an antecedent instead a commitment implication component seems to have some support in the present study. In fact, the influence of employee’s sacrifices perceptions in organization recommendation is mediated by affective implication and satisfaction attitudes.
The antecedent Employability Alternatives seems to have a restricted effect only over the leaving the organization intent. This effect is totally mediated by one of the attitudes: the employability alternatives perception seems to join turnover intent only because both variables are associated to low work satisfaction levels.
Because the organization recommendation done by their employees not only depends of satisfaction global attitude but also from its satisfaction attitude facing the different facets of his work, highlights the organization need to be focused on all aspects incorporated in the employees work in order to assure a positive broadcasted organization image. Likewise Grant and Moncriot (2001), we found a moderate-strong association pattern among the intermediate variables, showing that affective implication and satisfaction positive attitudes nourish together. In general, this association makes the mediation results similar to the different regarded attitudes. However we can’t put away the possibility of the attitudinal measures used (namely the General Job Satisfaction, Client Oriented Satisfaction) didn’t allow a clear discrimination of this constructs.
The analyzed model only used two worker´s behavior indicators – Organization Recommendation and Intention to Leave the Organization. Although these two indicators are associated, the effect over them, done by the intermediate and antecedent variables, are not exactly the same.
The organization recommendation doesn’t seem suffering the employability alternatives influence; on the contrary, the Intention to Leave the Organization is indirectly influenced by the Employability Alternatives but is not influenced by the Job Motivating Potential. This distinct pattern for each one of the output variables suggest that the nature of the studied effects depends on the chosen behavioral domain to operate on the worker individual performance.
With the present study it was our intention to empirically explore a model who evaluates the organizational system re-designs effect (namely through work potentiating and other contextual determinants) over the internal clients behavioral indicators which can initiate external clients positive attitudes and favorable behaviors to the organization. In general, we believe that the obtained results contribute for the managers be able, to re-think the organizational system, from deepening the relations amongst the regarded variables, to conciliate the human resources practices to business strategies.
The empirically evaluated model allows the hotel units easily advise human resources management practices, adopting adapted strategies (although knowing that we overcame long time ago the “one best way” and each organization gathers a unique conditions set); work re-design to potentiate workers motivation and, in this way, materialize not only their needs at an inferior level but also at a superior level; act in the scope of work attitudes because it represents an opportunity for the internal client expresses themselves what he feels about his work in general and at all their planning, organization and execution aspects; generate communication flows in all directions promoting an upwards communication especially fruitful for the internal clients, allowing them to say what they think about work; consequently foster a downward communication accordingly to the information received from the human resources managers whom, by their turn, may act not only in a corrective but also in a preventive way to face possible events and uncertainties; detect training needs identifying possible discrepancies and experimentally test changes as a preparatory evaluation for problems identification and testing new actions and procedures.
The direct effect done by the sacrifice perception over the employees’ behaviors, points out the need to do regular evaluations to apply retention and attraction measures, to avoid possible exits and be recruited by competitors. Some examples of organization benefices are: their participation in corporate universities or foreign projects as a way to get a better grade and development; the acknowledgement for additional efforts or promotion for an “open door” communication policy allowing the collaborator to have a direct and straight contact with any person in the organization to talk about problems and situations. The organization may apply some employability measures as: employees’ desired internal re-placements, performance evaluation and achievement based compensation and adopting other measures to attract and keep workers to their jobs without conflicting with their daily obligations; creating a online professional training/support platform or doing knowledge sharing meetings where all can share their experiences and knowledge; results celebration and communication in reunions to reflect about the results; finally the enforcement of active “member gets member” recruitment and selection policies creating the possibility for the best recommending good professional, encouraging participation in the organization and in its growth.
With this measures, the organization shows that is adopting an “all are working to be owners of part of the organization” logics and employees show that “they wear the organization shirt” and will think twice about joining the competitors due to high perceived benefices. The adoption of a convenience sample was a limitation of the present study, due the bias that can be produced by its small dimension or its nature (small number of hotels). Other procedural variables would have shown richer and diversified outputs. For the future is desirable the research field enlargement to all hotel chains and hotel independent units as a way to make inferences and generalizations. This work wanted to contribute to the enrich and diversity of important themes as Commitment and Work Satisfaction, trying to help organization to understand how they can be more effective and competitive and give an answer to the present challenges.
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