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Prevalence and Factors Associated with Parental Traditional Medicine Use for Children in Motta Town, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia, 2014 | OMICS International
ISSN: 2327-5162
Alternative & Integrative Medicine
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Prevalence and Factors Associated with Parental Traditional Medicine Use for Children in Motta Town, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia, 2014

Tenaw Gualu Melesse1*, Yohannes Ayalew2, Girma Alem Getie1, Haymanot Zeleke Mitiku1 and Girmay Tsegaye1

1Department of Nursing, College of Health Sciences, Debremarkos University,Debremarkos, Ethiopia

2Departments of Nursing and Midwifery, School of Allied Health Sciences, College of Health Science, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

*Corresponding Author:
Tenaw Gualu Melesse
Department of Nursing
College of Health Sciences
Debremarkos University Debremarkos, Ethiopia
Tel: +252 9 13 814 96
Email: [email protected]

Received date Octomber 27, 2014; Accepted date November 27, 2014; Published date November 29, 2014

Citation: Melesse TG, Ayalew Y, Getie GA, Mitiku HZ, Tsegaye G (2015) Prevalence and Factors Associated with Parental Traditional Medicine Use for Children in Motta Town, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia, 2014. Altern Integr Med 4:179. doi:10.4172/2327-5162.1000179

Copyright: © 2015 Melesse TG, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

Background: Traditional medicine is the ancient and culture bound medical practice which existed in human societies before the application of modern science to health. Around 80% of Ethiopians relies on traditional medicines. Although some traditional medical practices in children are useful and contributing positively and need to be strengthen, some are harmful from the perspective of health. In Ethiopia, studies conducted so far are very limited and focused on adults. As a result, this study was conducted to assess the prevalence and factors associated with parental traditional medicine practice for children. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess prevalence and factors associated with parental traditional medicine use for children in Motta Town. Methods: Community based cross-sectional study design was used. Data was collected using structured interviewer administered questionnaire. The study was conducted among 381 households selected using systematic random sampling method. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to present the data. Odds ratio, binary and multiple logistic regression were used to assess the association between dependent and independent variables. Result: It was found that 88.2% of parents had used either forms of traditional medicine for their children. The top therapies used were herbs (66.9%), religious therapies (52.8%), massage (22.8%), bone settler (21.8%) and traditional birth attendants (13.1%). Female parents, low educational level, accessibility of traditional medicine, low price and perceived effectiveness were significantly associated with parental traditional medicine use for children. Conclusion and recommendation: There was high parental traditional medicine practice for children in this study. Female parents, low educational status, easily accessibility, cheap in price and perceived effectiveness were significant predictors. The integration of traditional medicine as part of modern medicine and controlling mechanism should be strengthen. Community education and further research on its efficacy and safety should also be done.

Keywords

Avedhya-sira; Sira; Avedhya; Saran kriya; Sarvavahatva; Chikitsardh; Nabhimulam

Introduction

“Sarnat Sira” - In the Sira “Saran kriya of blood takes place. Saran kriya denotes very slow, back flow of blood towards the heart without any force. Sira can be considered as veins or Neela sira [1]. These Sira drains the impure blood all over the body in to the heart. Sira have many valves that will direct the blood. According to acharya shushrut the origin of Sira is Nabhi [2] (umblicus) the number of Principal Sira is forty. Sira carries all the Doshas that’s why considered as “Sarvavaha”. Some Sira is contraindicated for venesection called Avedhya Sira.

Siravedhan is an ancient method of treatment. Acharya Shushrut has said it as half treatment. So today’s how we can consider it as a treatment, how we can elaborate it? For that purpose, this is choice. Our aim is to identify all the contra indicated sira mentioned by our text comparing with modern anatomical structures. So that we can avoid the venesection of the contraindicated veins.

Total number of the sira 700 in number out of these 602 Vedhya sira, 98 Avedhya sira, in human body [2].

Sira vedhan-Siravedhan is a type of Raktmokshan, in this process deeply rooted doshas in impure blood are removed in order to treat the disease. In a specific disease a specific Sira is to be puncture.

Shushrut regards Siravedhan as “Chikitsard” means half treatment. Shushrut has compaired it as Basti in Kaya chikitsa.

Avedhya sirayen-in these Sira, Sira Vedhan should not be conducted. Due to the puncturing of them harmful results can be seen in our body. These Avedhya sira contains specific anatomical structure which will be discussed.

Total number of these avedhya sira are ninety eight, out of them sixteen are in extramities, thirty two in Kostha, fifty in Urdhvjatrugata [3].

Avedhya sirayen in normal regimen

In normal regimen avedhya sira are the veins by puncturing them the harm full effect can be seen due to severe blood loss. Due to puncturing the dorsal Venus plexuses there is casualty can be seen. Any venesection which is direct cause of severe blood loss or falling of blood pressure can cause of death. To avoid these miss happenings acharya has mentioned these ninety eight restricted veins for the venesection in particular places.

Avedhya sirayen in contemporary thought

The Anatomical structure considered with particular Avedhya sira [4]

a) In the extremities 5-4 in each, total 16.

1. Jaldhara - one in number in each extremities in the upper limb we can consider cephalic vein in lower limb it can be considered as Great saphenus vein these both veins drained blood from dorsal venus arch.

2. Two Urvi - in the upper limbs it can be considered as brachial vessels. In lower limb it can be considered as femoral vessels.

3. One Lohitaksh - in upper limbs Axillary vessels in lower limbs profunda femoris and other deep branches of femoral artery.

Avedhya sira in Kostha

1. In Shroni Pradesh - Two Vitap and two Katiktarun Two Vitapa - Testicular or Ovarian vessels/vessels of the gonads. Two katiktarun - Gluteal Vessels.

2. Avedhya sira in parshav - The concept of urdhavgata means vessels which goes upward from lateral side Parshavsandhigata means the vessels of laterally situated at the meating point of abdomen and thorax. Avedhya sira of Pristh-two vrihati-Subscapular vessels

Avedhya siras in the abdomen (udar)

Medhropari Romrajimubhyato - These can be regard as Epigastric vessels Avedhya sira in the thorax (vaksh) Aplap, Apsthamb, Stanmul, Stanrohit - These can be considered as Coronary vessels, Internal mammary vessels, Intercostal vessels, lateral thoracic vessels [5].

1. Urdhavjatrugata Avedhya siras

2. Marma sangya - Internal and external Carotid arteries and Juglar veins.

3. Krikatika - Occipetal vessels

4. Vidhur - Post Auricular arteries and veins

5. Avedhya sira - hanu

6. Sandhidhamanyau - Internal maxillary vessels.

7. Avedhya sira in tounge(jivyah) - Rasvahe, Vagvahe - these can be regarded as Profunda linguae vessels.

8. Avehya sira of nose(Nasa) - Four Aupnasikaschya, these can be considered as Angular artery and veins

9. Talugat avedhya sira - Mriddavuddeshe (soft palate)

10. Avedhya sira of eye’s (netra) - Apangyorekek (Outer canthus), Considered as zygomaticotemporal artery.

11. Avedhya sira of ear (karan) - Sabdvahini, Posterier Auricular and tympanic vessels.

12. Avedhya sira of Nose and Eyes (netra nasagatastu)

13. Kesanugataschya - Supra orbital and Termination of the frontal branch of the superficial vessels.

14. Aavart - The frontal branch of the superficial vessels.

15. Sthpnyam - nasal branch of frontal veins.

16. Avedhya sira of Temporal joint (sankh sandhigata) - Superficial temporal vessels.

17. Avedhya sira of head (murdha)

18. Utkshep-parital branch of superficial temporal

19. Simant and Adhipati-Occipetal and superficial temporal

Discussion

1. In upper extremity Jaldhara is considered as cephalic vein it is contra indicated because cephalic vein is the principal vein of the upper extremities and due to severe blood loss there can be a severity

2. In lower extremities it is considered as great saphenus vein which is also an important vein continuation with the dorsal venus plexuses. Due to venesection of this it can cause severe blood loss and lead to harm full conditions.

3. Urvi is considered as brachial and femoral veins those can cause of severe blood loss and again there me be seen a causality by puncturing them.

4. Lohitaksh is considered as axillary vein and profunda femoris vessels. In shushrut samhita for this is quoted “Lohitkshayen marnam”.

5. Vitap and Katiktarun are the veins for the gonads and the gluteal region by venesection of these there may be necrosis of gonads and the gluteus muscles.

6. Vrihiti is regarded as the sub scapular vessel by venesection of this there may the complication of nerve injury and lead to the paralysis and blood loss also.

7. Aplap, Apsthamb, Stanmul, Stanrohit - These can be considerd as Coronary vessels,Internal mammary vessels,Intercostal vessels ,lateral thoracic vessels these are the vein nearer to heart, by venesection them there may be adverse effect to the heart.

8. Marma sangya Internal and external Carotid arteries and Juglar veins. Krikatika-Occipetal vessels Vidhur-Post Auricular arteries and veins. These are also the vein contra indicated for venesection because of closer to the heart and related to the vital component of the body.

9. Sandhidhamanyau - Internal maxillary vessels by puncturing them it lead to Manyastambh due to the lack of blood in the Hanu.

10. Rasvahe, Vagvahe these can be regard as Profunda linguae vessels by the venesection of these vessels necrosis of tongue may be seen.

11. Aupnasikaschya - These can be considerd as Angular artery and veins there may be severe blood loss in the little’s area so it is contra indicated for venesection.

12. Apangyorekek (Outer canthus) Considered as zygomaticotemporal artery by venesection there may be vision loss or another complication being a delicate organ.

13. Sabdvahini - Posterier Auricular and tympanic vessels these vessels also contraindicated for venesection because of related to the delicate organ.

14. Kesanugataschya - Supra orbital and Termination of the frontal branch of the superficial vessels contra indicated for venesection due to being more superficial.

15. Aavart - The frontal branch of the superficial vessels. Sthpnyamnasal branch of frontal veins are also contraindicated due to situation on more sensitive part face.

16. Utkshep - Parital branch of superficial temporal, Simant and Adhipati- Occipetal and superficial temporal are contra indicated for venesection due to avoid the poor drainage of scalp [6].

Conclusion

The total no. of sira are seven hundred out of these Avedhya sira are ninty eight except these Avedhya sira other Sira can be punctured are called Vedhya sira .there are several examples of Vedhya sira in our litratures by puncturing them many disease can be cure. That is why Acharya shushrut said to Sira vedhan “Half treatment” or Chikitsardh [5]. There we can see that Avedhya sira are the Anatomical strctures which are either deep vessels or the vessles which can lead the harmful effects by puncturing them.so this is the perfect indication for physician to avoid Vedhan (puncturing) of these Avedhya sira.

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