Prevalence of Chronic Liver Diseases Caused by HBV and HCV in Nigeria in Comparison with European Countries
Received Date: Mar 21, 2018 / Accepted Date: Apr 19, 2018 / Published Date: Apr 28, 2018
Background: The prevalence of hepatitis B and C is on the increase globally and is a challenge for health care services worldwide. While there is no national program for hepatitis B and C in Nigeria, the prevalence is fast on the increase and there is the need for it be considered as a public health issue by policy makers. Some studies have suggested that hepatitis B prevalence is at 35 million in Nigeria, more so, vaccination against hepatitis B in Nigeria is lower than many sub Saharan African Countries .It was our aim to get detailed information on the prevalence of both hepatitis B and C in both scientific and grey literature.
Methods: A systematic review was performed by searching both scientific and grey literature published between 2000 and 2015. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined and the review process followed published recommendation.
Results: The Literature review identified 500 publications; of these 69 scientific reports and 16 grey literatures met the inclusion criteria. Results show a high prevalence of chronic liver disease in Nigeria. Hepatitis B prevalence was within the range of 2 to 20%, hepatitis C prevalence was in the range of 0.5% to 15% depending on the geographical region.
Conclusions: comprehensive and up-to-date data on the prevalence of hepatitis B and C in different parts of Nigeria are presented. They were found both in peer reviewed and grey literature. The grey literature, therefore, is an important source of information. Based on available data there is a need for a national program on hepatitis B and C so as to reduce the incidence rate and the total burden of liver disease in Nigeria.
Keywords: Prevalence; Nigeria; Hepatitis B; Hepatitis C; Epidemiology
Introduction and Background
Diseases of the liver which last more than six months are considered chronic liver diseases . It involves the destruction of the liver parenchyma leading to fibrosis and cirrhosis. Chronic liver disease is an asymptomatic progressive disease and mostly fatal. They can be categorized as: (a) Viral diseases which include: hepatitis B and C, Cytomegalovirus, Epstein Barr. (b) Alcoholic liver disease and drug induced liver disease from Methotrexate,- Amiodarone, Nitrofurantoin and others (c) Metabolic diseases which include: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, Hemochromatosis, Wilson's disease (d)Autoimmune disorders which include: autoimmune hepatitis Primary biliary cholangitis (primary biliary cirrhosis), primary sclerosing cholangitis.
In the European Union approximately 29 million persons suffer from a chronic liver condition. For example, chronic hepatitis B affects 0.5-0.7% of the population and in the last decade the prevalence of chronic hepatitis C was 0.13-3.26% .
Nigeria is the most populated African country with a population of about 170 million people, yet, data on the prevalence of chronic liver disease are scarce. Some studies have suggested that the hepatitis B prevalence rate is at 35 million in Nigeria [3,4]. Moreover, vaccination against hepatitis B in Nigeria is lower than in many sub Saharan African countries and there is no national program on prevention of chronic liver disease in Nigeria . However, it has been reported that hepatitis B is the most common cause of liver disease in Nigeria .
Data on the prevalence of chronic liver disease caused by hepatitis B and C in Nigeria would be very important as this could inform the public health authorities responsible for planning and implementing strategies to effectively tackle and prevent hazards to the health of the public in Nigeria; further, these data would be helpful for the development of programs to increase awareness and health literacy among the public regarding the infectious origin and ways of transmission of chronic liver disease in Nigeria. Considering the number of Nigerians who travel around the world on a daily basis, this is not just Nigeria’s public health problem but has a global relevance. The prevalence rate also stands to hamper successes recorded by other countries on preventing chronic liver disease .
Therefore, it was the aim of this study to learn about the prevalence of chronic liver disease caused by hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) in Nigeria and to compare the data available with those from other countries for better understanding.
The literature search was done during the period from December 2015 to February 2016. For the scientific literature the databases and search engines Pub Med, Medline, Embase were used. Search terms with the MeSH (Medical subject Headings) terms “prevalence of hepatitis B or C was combined with the search terms “in Nigeria” in different combinations. In addition, manual searches of references of publications including reviews were done. Pub Med, Scopus, African journal online, Medline were searched for scientific studies published between 2000 to 2015 and publications that meet the CONSORT statement guidelines - which sets standards on how to report the design, conduct, analysis, and interpretation of such studies were selected . There is no review protocol. The search terms used were: Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Prevalence, and Nigeria. We carried out a systematic review guided by the criteria of the PRISMA statement, checking electronic medical data banks for, publications and metaanalyses. Grey literature was defined according to third International Conference on Grey Literature  and the following sources were checked with the same search terms: 1. Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, 2. West African Infectious Diseases Institute, World Health Organization. Further searches via the search engines Google (http:/www.google.at) and Google Scholar (http://scholar.google.at); For comparison, we looked for existing reviews, studies and other published data from Europe.
The analysis of the scientific literature was a three step process .The first step was the rejection of duplicates, and the second step was exclusion by screening the title and abstract of papers identified; while the third step was exclusion due to poor content by reading the full text of the paper and reviewing the independently. The exclusion criteria for the grey literature was a three step process also which included reading the ‘Google’ title of the link and the short description followed by reading the full text of the literature.
Publications which surveyed the prevalence of chronic liver disease among pregnant women, blood donors, children and of people at community level were identified and included. Three inclusion criteria for relevant literature were defined. First; the content has to deal with prevalence of hepatitis B and C. Second; the subject size has to be 200 and above. Third, the publications were graded and only those that score 3 and above in the grading were included. The grading was based on five criteria of the CONSORT- checklist  which includes: 1. Description of trial design, 2. Important changes to methods after trial commencement with reasons, 3. Eligibility criteria for participants, 4. Settings and locations where the data were collected, 5. How sample size was determined etc. The grey literature we used the definition of the Luxembourg convention on grey literature.” Grey literature is that which is produced on all levels of government, academics, Business and industry in print and electronic formats but which is not controlled by commercial publishers”  Grey literature includes documents that have not been formally published in a peer-reviewed indexed format. There was no age restriction, however, covariates were included in our analyses such as: social status, sex and region All studies identified were collected and saved via the ENDNOTEprogram and handled according to the PRISMA criteria  and the CONSORT- criteria  . The literature search via electronic searches as well as the review process was carried out by two researchers (BM AND MM).
We extracted data on study year, context and setting, population characteristics, sample size, and prevalence of disease. We tabulated our data and separated them into tables according to the different classification of chronic liver disease. In addition, we separated grey literature from peered review literature.
Publications included were read in detail and analyzed with spreadsheet to determine prevalence according to sex, age and regions.
Duplicate papers were rejected and potential scientific papers were identified of which 12 were excluded due to year of publication. 112 were excluded after reading the abstract and title. Furthermore, 7 papers were excluded after reading full text due to less than 200 subjects and poor presentation. We were left with a total of 69 scientific publications and 16 grey literatures. Figure 1 shows the result of the systematic search for publications of interest. Finally, we included a total of 85 publications for detailed analyses.
Table 1 presents the peer review studies on the prevalence of hepatitis B and C in Nigeria. Some of the review literature carried out prevalence studies on both hepatitis B and C while others carried out study on either hepatitis B or C. Most of the studies were carried out in teaching hospitals located in urban areas, however, one cohort study was done in a rural area located in the North central state of Nasarawa and the prevalence of Hepatitis C was found to be 15%,  the highest compared to the other studies. Further, the review from Jos, also a North Central state indicates a high prevalence of HBV of 25% and HCV of 11.7%;  together, these studies indicate that in both the urban and rural settings of North central Nigeria there is apparently high prevalence of hepatitis B and C. There was a large cohort study carried out in Lagos among pregnant women with about 2391 subjects , among consented HIV patients in Jos with about 19408 subjects  and a general studies in Benin teaching Hospital with 5760 subjects . There was also a nationwide study through the six geopolitical zones of the country, it was a large cross sectional study with 5,558 subjects .
|Author||Location||Setting||Type of Subject||Method of Testing||Year of Testing||Grading||Age||No of subjects||Prevalence|
|% HBV||% HCV|
|Onyekwere, et al. ||Nationwide||Urban /Rural||General Population||ELISA||2010-2012||4||20-60||5 558||6.70%||0.90%|
|Ezechi, et al. ||NIMR. Lagos||Urban||pregnant women||ELISA||2006-2011||5||20-50||2391||4.20%||1.50%|
|Ladep, et al. ||JUTH.Jos||Urban||HIV Patients||ELISA||2004-2010||5||15-50||19408||20.70%||11.70%|
|Tun, et al. ||Lagos||Urban||Drug Injectors||ELISA||2013-2013||4||18-50||328||7.80%||7.70%|
|Ugbebor, et al. ||UBTH. Benin||Urban||pregnant women||ELISA||2009 -2010||4||17-38||5 760||12.50%||3.60%|
|Diwe K. Chiekulie 2013||IUTH. Orlu||Suburban||HIV Patients||ELISA||2009-2010||5||28-48||404||2.20%||0.70%|
|Dirisu, et al. ||UBTH. Benin||Urban||Blood Donors||ELISA||2010-2010||5||20-40||427||46.83%||5.71%|
|Ikeako, et al. ||UNTH. Enugu||Suburban||pregnant women||ELISA||2006-2008||5||28-32||1239||3.40%||2.60%|
|Tremeau-Bravard, et al. ||GFC.Abuja||Urban||HIV Patients||ELISA||2004-2004||5||20-60||443||7.90%||2.30%|
|Ishaku, et al. ||FMC. Keffi||Suburban||HIV Patients||ELISA||2012-2012||4||20-61||200||11%||13.50%|
|Ejeliogu, et al. ||JUTH.Jos||Urban||HIV Infected Children||ELISA||2008-2012||5||2m-15||452||12.80%|
|Kolawole, et al. ||LAUTECHTH||Suburban||pregnant women||ELISA||2011||4||15-40||200||16.50%|
|Erhabor, et al. ||UPTH. Rivers||Urban||Blood Donors||ELISA||2012||4||18-57||1481||0.50%|
|Forbi, et al. ||Nasarawa state||Rural||General Population||ELISA||2013||4||519||15%|
|Buseri, et al. ||FSPC. Yenagoa||Urban||pregnant women||ELISA||2014||4||15-44||1000||5.30%||0.50%|
|Okonko, et al. ||OMCH. Ibadan||Urban||Children||ICTG||2015||3||10-17||217||0.90%|
|Oje, et al. ||Ekiti State||Mixed||General Population||ELISA||2016||2000||9.80%||12.80%|
|Anigilaje, et al. ||FMC. Makurdi||Urban||Children with HIV||ELISA||2008-2012||4||5-15||395||7.80%||2.30%|
|Opaleye, et al. ||LAUTECHTH||Urban||Blood Donors||ELISA||2009||624||13.50%||3.00%|
|Motayo, et al. ||FMC. Abeaokuta||Urban||Blood Donors||ELISA||2013||305||9.80%||1.30%|
|Esan, et al. ||FMC. Ado-Ekiti||Urban||pregnant women||ELISA||2012-2013||4||15-44||649||6.78%||1.39%|
|Buseri, et al. ||LAUTECHTH. Osogbo||Urban||Blood Donors||ELISA||4||22-42||1410||18.60%||6.00%|
|Ejeliogu, et al. ||JUTH.Jos||Urban||HIV Infected Children||ELISA||2008-2012||5||2m-15||372||5%|
|Adewole, et al. ||NH. Abuja||Urban||HIV Patients||ELISA||2008||4||20-60||260||11.50%||2.30%|
|Utoo, et al. ||Cross Rivers State||Urban||Pregnant Women||ELISA||2012||3||18-38||836||6.60%|
Table 1: Publications on the prevalence of Hepatitis B and C in different Nigeria cities.
Table 2 shows the results for the grey literature. There were 16 eligible grey literatures mostly from the Northern part of Nigeria and only two publications were large cohorts’ studies. Studies among HIV patients in Kebbi had 1950 subjects  while a general study in Benue state had 1535 subjects . Four of the grey literatures were studies on pregnant women in different parts of the country, while five of the studies were on blood donors. Three of the grey literatures were Studies on consented HIV patients in Kano, Niger and Abuja. The remaining literatures were general studies though the number of subjects was between 200 and 500.
|Author||Location||Setting||Type ofSubject||Method of Testing||Year of Testing||Grading||Age||No of subjects||Prevalence|
|% HBV||% HCV|
|Adejare EOA., et al. ||Private lab .Lagos||Urban||Blood Donors||ELISA||2011||3||21-70||315||4.80%||1.50%|
|Hamza, et al. ||AKTH. Kano||Urban||HIV Patients||ELISA||2013||5||25-50||450||12.30%||1.60%|
|Olokoba, et al. ||FMC. Yola||Urban||Blood Donors||ELISA||2007-2008||3||20-69||595||2.40%||2.40%|
|OkworiAEJ., et al. ||FMC.Keffi||Suburban||HIV Patients||ELISA||2012||3||20-61||200||11%||2.30%|
|Mbaawuaga, et al. ||Benue State||Urban/Rural||General Population||ELISA||2011-2013||2||13-60||1535||12%|
|Saidu, et al. ||UDUTH.Sokoto||Urban||Pregnant Women||ELISA||2015||4||16-45||384||6.51%|
|Jibrin, et al. ||UDUTH. Sokoto||Urban||Sickle Cell Children||ELISA||2014||4||1-15||300||17.30%|
|Saidu, et al. ||Kebbi State||Urban/Rural||HIV Patients||ELISA||2009||3||1950||3.40%|
|Omosigho, et al. ||Bida Niger State||Suburban||HIV Patients||ELISA||2009-2010||3||20-60||250||13.20%|
|Adeleke, et al. ||Osogbo. Osun State||Suburban||Pregnant Women||ELISA||2012||3||15-35||200||3%|
|Isa, et al. ||ABUTH. Zaria||Suburban||Students||ELISA||2013||3||16-40||600||9.20%|
|Isa, et al. ||Sokoto Hospital||Urban||General Population||ELISA||2014||3||1-50||300||2.70%|
|Sheyin, et al. ||Kaduna State||Urban||Pregnant Women||ELISA||2011||3||20-60||200||4.50%|
|Bala, et al. ||Hospitals in Kano||Urban||Blood Donors||ELISA||2010-2011||3||14-54||320||3.40%|
|Akande, et al. ||Hospitals in Kano||Urban||Blood Donors/General||ELISA||2009||3||15-45||452||1.30%|
|Godwin, et al. ||Benue State||Urban/Rural||General Population||ELISA||2012||4||15-50||388||2.80%|
Table 2: Grey Literature on the prevalence of Hepatitis B and C in different Nigeria cities.
The flowchart (Figure 1) is showing the search strategies and the exclusion criteria used to locate the relevant scientific articles in this review.
Table 3 shows there are nine publications on prevalence of HBV and HCV among different European countries. Netherlands had a low HBV prevalence of 0.4%  while Belgium had a low HCV prevalence of 0.12% . Romania had the highest prevalence of HBV prevalence of 5.6%  and also the highest prevalence of HCV of 3.4% . All the studies were general population studies with large numbers of participants and they were carried out by testing the HBs antigen and anti HCV in serum and saliva respectively.
|Author||Country||Subject Type||Method of Testing||Prevalence|
|% HBC||% HCV|
|Quoilin, et al. ||Belgium||general population||0.66%||0.12%|
|Meffre, et al. ||France||general population||HBs antigen in saliva||0.65%||0.65%|
|Baaten 2004||Netherlands||general population||HBs antigen in saliva||0.40%||0.60%|
|Zacharakis, et al. ||Greece||general population||HBs antigen in serum||3.40%|
|Fabris, et al. ||Italy||GP in northern Italy||HBs antigen in serum||1%|
|Voiculescu, et al. ||Romania||GP in SE Romania||HBs antigen in serum||5.60%|
|Salleras, et al. ||Spain||GP in Catalonia||HBs antigen in serum||0.70%|
|Cozzolongo, et al. ||Italy||GP in southern Italy||HBs antigen in serum||2.60%|
|Gheorghe, et al. ||Romania||general population||HBs antigen in serum||3.23%|
Table 3: Prevalence of Hepatitis B and C in different European countries.
This report presents the most comprehensive data on the prevalence of hepatitis B and C in Nigeria, based on a systematic search of relevant peer reviewed and grey literature. The results show a high prevalence of hepatitis B and C disease in Nigeria: Hepatitis B prevalence was within the range of 2 to 25%, hepatitis C prevalence was in the range of 7% to 15%.
Situation in Nigeria
Evidence based studies show that the prevalence depends on a range of factors such as cultural practices and traditions. The prevalence of hepatitis B range from 2 to 25%, with the north central part of the country having higher cases. This may be related to some cultural practices such as drinking from same cup, tribal marks or the practice of circumcision. The prevalence of hepatitis c range from 0.7 % to 15%, with the highest prevalence also from the north central state of Nasarawa [61-64].
Comparison to other countries
The prevalence of hepatitis B was high when compared to European countries, with the exception of Greece and Romania which has prevalence rate of 3.4% and 5.6% respectively. Based on data collected the only states in Nigeria with low prevalence were Imo with rate of 2.2% (Table 1) located in the south eastern region, Yola located in the northern part also had a low rate of 2.4% (Table 2).The states of Benue, Nasarawa, Plateau, and Abuja had and alarming high rate when compared to other countries [65-67].
The prevalence of hepatitis also followed a similar trend along the regions, with the north central states of Nasarawa, Plateau showing alarmingly high prevalence. Hepatitis C prevalence among other countries was low with the exception of Italy having a rate of 2.6% (Table 3). The southern states of Imo, Port Harcourt and Bayelsa 0.7%, 0.5% and 0.5% respectively (Table 1), the only states with rate that are close to the European countries on our list .
There is an evident healthcare inequity within the North central states because they have a staking high level of prevalence compared to other regions of the country. The south-south zone follows the north central zone except for Rivers and Bayelsa states which have a lower rate within the south-south zone .
There is an urgent need for action to curtail the prevalence of rate as seen in our review. A treatment has been developed for hepatitis C though very expensive; there is a need for the government to intervene in providing these drugs at affordable prices to infected victims. More so, more work need to be done to intensify and broaden the scope of vaccination for hepatitis B to include the general population so as to prevent further spread of the disease. Lessons should be learned and adopted by the government on how countries in Europe have successfully tackled and lowered the prevalence within their countries. Education of the public and change of old traditional practices that pose as risk should be introduced at all levels of healthcare .
The limitations of this systematic Review are the reliance on already published research papers. More so, the grey literatures were mostly of low grading because they were not written according to consort statement.
There is a high level of prevalence of hepatitis B and C in Nigeria especially among HIV patients, Children, Pregnant women and blood donors. Considering the fact that 80% of hepatocellular carcinoma globally is as a result of hepatitis B and C this may further increase the prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Acknowledgements and Funding
This work was not funded. I acknowledge the supervisory role of Prof. Manfred Maier.
There is no conflicting interest.
- Blachier MN, Leleu H, Peck-Radosavljevic M, Valla DC, Roudot-Thoraval F (2013) The Burden of Liver Disease in Europe: A review of available epidemiological data. European Association for the Study of the Liver.
- Modi AA, Feld JJ (2007) Viral hepatitis and HIV in Africa. AIDS reviews 9: 25-39.
- Madhava V, Burgess C, Drucker E (2002) Epidemiology of chronic hepatitis C virus infection in sub-Saharan Africa. The Lancet Infectious diseases 2: 293-302.
- Musa BM, Bussell S, Borodo MM, Samaila AA, Femi OL (2015) Prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection in Nigeria, 2000-2013: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Niger J Clin Pract 18: 163-172.
- Owolabi HA, Ojo AS (2008) Hepatitis B virus and Chronic Liver disease in Nigeria: a brief review of literature. Journal of the ObafemiAwolowo University Medical Student's Association 14: 6-10.
- WHO (2009) The growing threats of hepatitis B and C in the Eastern Mediterranean Region; A call for action (56th Edn).
- Pandis N, Fleming PS, Hopewell S, Altman DG (2015) The CONSORT Statement : Application within. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 147: 663-679.
- Commission of the European C (1997) Perspectives on the design and transfer of scientific and technical information: third International Conference on Grey Literature. Jean Monnet Building, Luxembourg, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
- Schulz KF (2010) CONSORT Statement: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials. BMC Med 8: 18-27.
- Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG, PRISMA Group (2009) Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: The PRISMA Statement. Ann Intern Med 151: 264-269.
- Onyekwere CA, Hameed L (2015) Hepatitis B and C virus prevalence and association with demographics: report of population screening in Nigeria. Tropical doctor 45: 231-235.
- Ezechi OC, Kalejaiye OO, Gab-Okafor CV, Oladele DA, Oke BO, et al. (2014) Sero-prevalence and factors associated with Hepatitis B and C co-infection in pregnant Nigerian women living with HIV infection. The Pan African medical journal 17: 197.
- Ladep NG, Agaba PA, Agbaji O, Muazu A, Ugoagwu P, et al. (2013) Rates and impact of hepatitis on human immunodeficiency virus infection in a large African cohort. World J Gastroenterol 19: 1602-1610.
- Tun W, Vu L, Adebajo SB, Abiodun L, Sheehy M, et al. (2013) Population-based prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus, HIV, syphilis, gonorrhoea and chlamydia in male injection drug users in Lagos, Nigeria. Int J STD AIDS 24: 619-625.
- Ugbebor O, Aigbirior M, Osazuwa F, Enabudoso E, Zabayo O (2011) The prevalence of hepatitis B and C viral infections among pregnant women. N Am J Med Sci 3: 238-241.
- Dirisu JO, Alli TO, Adegoke AO, Osazuwa F (2011) A Survey of prevalence of serum antibodies to human immunodeficiency deficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among blood donors. N Am J Med Sci 3: 35-38.
- Ikeako LC, Ezegwui HU, Ajah LO, Dim CC, Okeke TC (2014) Seroprevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Syphilis and Co-infections among Antenatal Women in a Tertiary Institution in South-East Nigeria. Ann Med Health Sci Res 4: 259-263.
- Tremeau-Bravard A, Ogbukagu IC, Ticao CJ, Abubakar JJ (2013) Seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C infection among the HIV-positive population in Abuja, Nigeria. African health sciences 12: 312-317.
- Akyala IA, Godwin O, Ishaleku D (2013) Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B And C Co-Infection among Cohort Seropositive HIV Patients Accessing Healthcare in Nasarawa State North Central, Nigeria. British Journal of Psychological Research 1:15-24.
- Ejeliogu EU, Oguche S, Ebonyi AO, Okpe ES, Yiltok ES, et al. (2014) Prevalence and Laboratory Profile of Hepatitis B Virus Co-infected Nigerian Children with Human Immunodeficiency Virus. International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health 4: 773-781.
- Kolawole OM, Wahab AA, Adekanle DA, Sibanda T, Okoh AI (2012) Seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigenemia and its effects on hematological parameters in pregnant women in Osogbo, Nigeria. Virol J 9: 317.
- Erhabor O, Ejele OA, Nwauche CA (2006) The risk of transfusion-acquired hepatitis-C virus infection among blood donors in Port Harcourt: the question of blood safety in Nigeria. Niger J Clin Pract 9: 18-21.
- Forbi JC, Purdy MA, Campo DS, Vaughan G, Dimitrova ZE, et al. (2012) Epidemic history of hepatitis C virus infection in two remote communities in Nigeria, West Africa. J Gen Virol 93: 1410-1421.
- Buseri FI, Seiyaboh E, Jeremiah ZA (2010) Surveying Infections among Pregnant Women in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. J Glob Infect Dis 2: 203-211.
- Okonko I, Okertugba P, Innocient-Adiele H (2012) Detection Of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) Among Children In Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria. The Internet Journal of Infectious Diseases 10.
- Oje OJ, Sule WF, Famurewa D (2012) Dual positivity of hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-hepatitis C virus antibody and associated factors among apparently healthy patients of Ekiti State, Nigeria. Viral Immunol 25: 448-455.
- Anigilaje EA, Olutola A (2013) Prevalence and Clinical and Immunoviralogical Profile of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Hepatitis B Coinfection among Children in an Antiretroviral Therapy Programme in Benue State, Nigeria. ISRN Pediatr 2013: 932697.
- Opaleye OO, Fagbami AH, Lalremruata A, Kun JF (2011) Prevalence and association of human parvovirus B19V with hepatitis B and C viruses in Nigeria. J Med Virol 83: 710-716.
- Motayo BO, Faneye AO, Udo UA, Olusola BA, Ezeani I, et al. (2015) Seroprevalence of transfusion transmissible infections (TTI), in first time blood donors in Abeokuta, Nigeria. V 15: 19-24.
- Esan AJ, Omisakin CT, Ojo-Bola T, Owoseni MF, Fasakin KA, et al. (2014) Sero-Prevalence of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Virus Co-Infection among Pregnant Women in Nigeria. American Journal of Biomedical Research 2: 11-15.
- Buseri FI, Muhibi MA, Jeremiah ZA (2009) Sero-epidemiology of transfusion-transmissible infectious diseases among blood donors in Osogbo, south-west Nigeria. Blood Transfus 7: 293-299.
- Ejeliogu EU, Oguche S, Ebonyi AO, Okpe SE, Yiltok ES, et al. (2014) Human immunodeficiency virus and Hepatitis C virus co-infection in children in Jos, Nigeria Open Science Journal of Clinical Medicine 2: 69-72.
- Adewole OO, Anteyi E, Ajuwon Z, Wada I, Elegba F, et al. (2009) Hepatitis B and C virus co-infection in Nigerian patients with HIV infection. J Infect DevCtries 3: 369-375.
- Utoo BT (2013) Hepatitis B surface antigenemia (HBsAg) among pregnant women in southern Nigeria. Afr Health Sci 13: 1139-1143.
- Adejare EOA, Oyegbami TO, Azenabo A, Abioye AO, Ahmed IB, et al. (2015) Serospositivity of Hepatitis B and C among Blood Donors in Private Laboratories in Lagos Nigeria. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare 5: 66-70.
- Hamza M, Samaila A, Yakasai A, Babashani M, Borodo M, et al. (2013) Prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus infections among HIV-infected patients in a tertiary hospital in North-Western Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Clinical Sciences 10: 76-81.
- Olokoba AB, Salawu FK, Danburam A, Desalu OO, Olokoba LB, et al. (2009) Viral Hepatitides in Voluntary Blood Donors in Yola, Nigeria. European Journal of Scientific Researc 31: 329-334.
- Okwori AEJ, Alabi SS, Ngwai YB, Makut MD, Obiekezie SO, et al. (2013) The Seroprevalence Of Hepatitis B And C Virus Co-Infection Among HIV-1-infected Patients In Keffi, North Central Nigeria. Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences 9: 70-75.
- Mbaawuaga EM, Iroegbu CU, Ike AC, Jombo GTA (2014) Studies on prevalence, co-infection and associated risk factors of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Benue State, Nigeria. Science Journal of Public Health.
- Saidu AY, Salihu Y, Umar AA, Muhammad BS, Abdullahi I (2015) Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen among Pregnant Women Attending Ante-Natal Clinics in Sokoto Metropolis Journal of Nursing and Health Science 4: 46-50.
- Jibrin B, Jiya N, Ahmed H (2014) Prevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen in children with sickle cell anemia. Sahel Medical Journal 17: 15-18.
- Saidu AS, Bunza M, Abubakar U, Adamu T, Ladan M, et al. (2009) A survey of opportunistic infections in hiv seropositive patients attending major hospitals of kebbi state, Nigeria. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences 2: 70-74.
- Omosigho O, Mohammed S, Inyinbor H, Emumwen G, Ogedengbe S, et al. (2010) Hepatitis B Surface Antigen In Human Immuno Deficiency Virus Positive Patients In Bida, North Central Nigeria. The Internet Journal of Gastroenterology 10: 1-4.
- Adeleke MA, Adebimpe WO, Sam-Wobo SO, Wahab A, Akinyosoye LS, et al. (2013) Sero-Prevalence of Malaria, Hepatitis B and Syphilis among Pregnant Women. American Journal of Microbiology 4: 20-23.
- Isa I, Aminu M, Abdullahi SA, Sani MA, Esona MD (2015) Seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus in a tertiary institution in North Western Nigeria. Afr J Micro Res 9: 171-179.
- Isa MA, Kolo BS, Ibrahim A, Bulakarima AU, Dawud H (2015) Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus among Children Attending University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Human Journals 2: 14-21.
- Sheyin Z, Jatau BD, Mamman AI, Randawa AJ (2012) Molecular Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) in Kadun State. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology 13: 61-65.
- Bala JA, Kawo AH, Mukhtar MD, Sarki A, Magaji N, et al. (2012) Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among blood donors in some selected hospitals in Kano, Nigeria. International Research Journal of Microbiology 3: 217-222.
- Azeez-akande O, Sarki A, Wokedi EE, Olabode A, Alabi P (2010) Seroprevalence and risk factors of Hepatitis C virus in patients and blood donors in Kano, Nigeria. African journal of clinical and experimental microbiology 11: 170-173
- Achinge GI, Malu AO, Mbaave PT, Bitto TT, Shaahu VV, et al. (2013) Prevalence of Hepatitis C in Makurdi, North Central Nigeria. Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences 7: 6-10.
- Quoilin S, Hutse V, Vandenberghe H, Claeys F, Verhaegen E, et al. (2007) A population-based prevalence study of hepatitis A, B and C virus using oral fluid in Flanders, Belgium. European journal of epidemiology 22: 195-202.
- Meffre C, Le Strat Y, Delarocque-Astagneau E, Dubois F, Antona D, et al. (2010) Prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections in France in 2004: social factors are important predictors after adjusting for known risk factors. J Med Virol 82: 546-555.
- Zacharakis G, Kotsiou S, Papoutselis M, Vafiadis N, Tzara F, et al. (2009) Changes in the epidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection following the implementation of immunisationprogrammes in northeastern Greece. Euro Surveill 14: 1267-1274.
- Fabris P, Baldo V, Baldovin T, Bellotto E, Rassu M, et al. (2008) Changing epidemiology of HCV and HBV infections in Northern Italy: a survey in the general population. J Clin Gastroenterol 42: 527-532.
- Voiculescu M, Iliescu L, Ionescu C, Micu L, Ismail G, et al. (2010) A cross-sectional epidemiological study of HBV, HCV, HDV and HEV prevalence in the SubCarpathian and South-Eastern regions of Romania. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis: JGLD 19: 43-48.
- Salleras L, Dominguez A, Bruguera M, Plans P, Espunes J, et al. (2009) Seroepidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection in pregnant women in Catalonia (Spain). J Clin Virol 44: 329-332.
- Cozzolongo R, Osella AR, Elba S, Petruzzi J, Buongiorno G, et al. (2009) Epidemiology of HCV infection in the general population: a survey in a southern Italian town. Am J Gastroenterol 104: 2740-2746.
- Gheorghe L, Csiki IE, Iacob S, Gheorghe C, Smira G, et al. (2010) The prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis C virus infection in adult population in Romania: a nationwide survey 2006-2008. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis: JGLD 19: 373-379.
- Echejoh GO, Tanko MN, Manasseh AN, Ogala-Echejoh S, Ugoya SO, et al. (2008) Hepatocellular carcinoma in Jos, Nigeria. Niger J Med 17: 210-213.
- Nwokediuko SC, Osuala PC, Uduma UV, Alaneme AK, Onwuka CC, et al. (2013) Pattern of liver disease admissions in a Nigerian tertiary hospital. Niger J Clin Pract 16: 339-342.
- Ferlay J, Steliarova-Foucher E, Lortet-Tieulent J, Rosso S, Coebergh JW, et al. (2013) Cancer incidence and mortality patterns in Europe: estimates for 40 countries in 2012. Eur J Cancer 49: 1374-1403.
- Seleye-Fubara D, Jebbin NJ (2007) Hepatocellular carcinoma in Port Harcourt, Nigeria: Clinicopathologic study of 75 cases. Ann Afr Med 6: 54-57.
- Akinyinka OO, Falade AG, Ogunbiyi O, Johnson AO (2001) Hepatocellular carcinoma in Nigerian children. Ann Trop Paediatr 21: 165-168.
- Popoola AO, Omodele FO, Oludara MA, Ibrahim NA, Igwilo AI, et al. (2013) Prevalence and Pattern of Cancers among Adults Attending a Tertiary Health Institution in Lagos, Nigeria. Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences 6: 68-73.
- Awodele O, Adeyomoye AA, Awodele DF, Fayankinnu VB, Dolapo DC (2011) Cancer distribution pattern in south-western Nigeria. Tanzania Journal of Health Research 13: 1-7.
- Jedy-Agba E, Curado MP, Ogunbiyi O, Oga E, Fabowale T, et al. (2012) Cancer Incidence in Nigeria: A Report from Population-based Cancer Registries. Cancer Epidemiol 36: e271-e278.
- Mohammed AZ, Edino ST, Ochicha O, Gwarzo AK, Samaila AA (2008) Cancer in Nigeria: a 10-year analysis of the Kano cancer registry. Niger J Med 17: 280-284.
- Abdulkareem FB, Banjo AA, Elesha SO, Daramola AO (2006) Histopathological study of liver diseases at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria (1989-2000). Niger Postgrad Med J 13: 41-46.
- Okobia MN, Aligbe JU (2005) Pattern of malignant diseases at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital. Trop Doct 35: 91-92.
Citation: Maisanda BW, Manfred M (2018) Prevalence of Chronic Liver Diseases Caused by HBV and HCV in Nigeria in Comparison with European Countries. Med Rep Case Stud 3: 157. DOI: 10.4172/2572-5130.1000157
Copyright: © 2018 Maisanda BW, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Share This Article
- Total views: 2586
- [From(publication date): 0-2018 - Nov 19, 2019]
- Breakdown by view type
- HTML page views: 2488
- PDF downloads: 98