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ISSN: 2161-0487
Journal of Psychology & Psychotherapy
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Prevalence of Smart Phone Users at Risk for Developing Cell Phone Vision Syndrome among College Students

Aswitha Priya Sadagopan, Rajajeyakumar Manivel*, Anushuya Marimuthu, Hariesh Nagaraj, Krithikka Ratnam, Taherakumar, Lakshmi Selvarajan and Genickson Jeyaraj

Chennai Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, (SRM Group), Irungalur, Trichy, India

Corresponding Author:
Rajajeyakumar Manivel
Assistant Professor
Department of Physiology
Chennai Medical College Hospital and Research Centre
(SRM Group), Trichy-621105, India
Tel: 97513-82650
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: January 16, 2017; Accepted date: April 22, 2017; Published date: April 29, 2017

Citation: Sadagopan AP, Manivel R, Marimuthu A, Nagaraj H, Ratnam K, et al. (2017) Prevalence of Smart Phone Users at Risk for Developing Cell Phone Vision Syndrome among College Students. J Psychol Psychother 7:299. doi:10.4172/2161-0487.1000299

Copyright: © 2017 Sadagopan AP, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

The universe dependence on electronics has confirmed that in several approaches create a problem in the eyes. There is a shortage of literature survey to find out the high exposure to young college students in developing the cell phone vision syndrome. This study was carried out in 30 medical students aged between 18–25 years. This is part of the previous study on impact of self-esteem, personality and behavior among WhatsApp user and non-user. They were selected by using simple random sampling and informed consent was obtained. A pretested well organized questionnaire was used to gather the research information. The mean age was 19.17 years. The acceptable sample size was 30. Most of the students were used smart phone 2 h/day (80% or 26/30) and for texting, browsing, (25/30, 83%). Background of white screen were used (22/30, 73%), black letter (21/20, 70%) and viewing radius was more than 25 cm (20/30, 66%). Symptoms were noted for mostly (25/30, 83%), students out of which (11/25, 44%) had eye strain. Use of smart phone devices for many hours, at near functioning distances, has become familiar among college students. Digital tools will emerge in coming years, it may hold more apps and our eyes will spend more time on that. We need to learn how to interact safely with this tool and create awareness on healthy eye habits.

Keywords

Cell phone vision syndrome; College students; Digital technology; Smart phone; WhatsApp user

Introduction

Mobile phone overuse is an addiction notice among certain mobile phone users. Overuse is often defined as a “dependence syndrome,” which is the term used by the World Health Organization (WHO Expert Committee, 1964) to displace addiction or habituation [1]. This is classified under ICD-10, as a behavioral problem (mobile phone addiction). In India, over use is started at 39-44% of young age group [2]. The prevalence ranges from 0 to 38%, with self-direction of mobile phone addiction outstrip the prevalence estimated in the previous studies [3]. Nature associated with mobile-phone overuse variance between genders.

Women are more likely to increase an overuse mobile phone behavior than men. Male exposed less social stress than female and rare mobile phones for social purposes [4]. Aged populations are very rarely developing addictive mobile phone behavior because of greater self-regulation [5]. Mobile devices used for noticing and reply to emails, looking for the climate, reading news, and posting status updates on Facebook, smartphones may be causing vision problems. Visualizing the smaller screens can accelerate a pattern of ophthalmic problem such as headaches, blurred vision, sore eyes, dry eye and muscle strain [6].

Normal blinking rate about 15 times per minute, but this rate reduced the person who was staring at smartphone. The person is quint to read the smaller screens, facial, neck and shoulder muscles are contracted, eyes become fatigued and vision can be blurred or strained. The iPhone’s latest update likely to be disturbs equilibrium with the new icons zooming in and out. Main complications are dizziness. Reading in bed can affect sleep cycle due to the blue light radiate from the screen and lead to decrease levels of melatonin and produce sleep disturbance. There is a shortage of literature survey to find out the high exposure to young college students in developing the cell phone vision syndrome.

Aims and Objectives

1. To learn what percentage of all smartphone usage is specific to what’s App.

2. To find out the high risk to young college students in developing the cell phone vision syndrome.

3. To correlate perceive stress pattern and quality of sleep with cell phone vision syndrome.

Materials and Methods

The present study was carried out in 30 medical students after getting ethical clearance from the institutional Human Ethics Committee. This cross sectional study was the part of our previous study on Impact of Self Esteem, Personality and Behavior among WhatsApp User and Non-User, their age group between 18-25 years. The mean age was (19.17 ± 1.15), body weight between 46-65 kg (53.72 ± 2.28) and height between 146-173 cm (168.5 ± 1.12). They were selected by using simple random sampling and informed consent was obtained.

Methodology

Type of study design: Cross-sectional study

Study place: The study was conducted among the medical students

Sample size: Total sample size was 30

Sampling unit: Students between the age group 18-25 years

Sampling frame: Attendance registers containing the students list

Sampling technique: Simple random technique

Period of study

The study period was between May–August 2016.

Inclusion criteria

1. Age 18-25 years

2. Both gender (M=15, F=15)

3. Volunteers

Exclusion criteria

1. History of chronic systemic illness

2. Subjects currently on medication against systemic diseases

3. Smokers, Alcoholics

4. Psychoactive substance use

5. Known psychiatric illness

The following parameters were studied:

Prestructured questionnaire were used to assess the status of the individual Perceive Stress Scale (PSS) [7].

PSS is the most extensively used psychological tool for grading the stress. PSS questionnaire is commonly used to different group of population and study about reactions and reflections to calculate the “degree to which position in one’s life is audited as stressful” particularly, over the duration of past one month. It consists of 10 components, four of which are reverse‑scored, calculated on a 5-point scale from 0 to 4. PSS scores are retrieved by inverse responses (e.g. 0=4, 1=3, 2=2, 3=1 and 4=0) to the four positively mentioned components (4, 5, 7 and 8) and summation of all components. Total score ranges from 0 to 40.

Data analysis: Data was analyzed using the SPSS statistical program (IBM SPSS statistics 21). An independent t-test was done to compare parameters between men and women volunteers and dependent t test to compare values at the beginning and the end of the study period. P value less than 0.05 was considered as statistical significant.

Results

The average age was 19.17. The convenient sample size was 30. Perceived stress scale of male and female students were 20.40 (5.65) and 15.73 (4.78). These difference were being statically significant (p<0.01). Most of the students were used smart phone 2 h/daily (80% or 26/30) and for texting/browsing/social media 25/30 83%. Background of white screen (22/30, 73%), black letter 21/30, 70% were being used and viewing distance was more than 25 cm (20/30, 66%). Symptoms were noted for mostly 25/30, 83%, students out of which 11/25, 44% had eye strain (Figures 1-6 and Table 1).

Figure

Figure 1: Students used smart phone 2 h/daily (N=30).

Figure

Figure 2: Students were texting/browsing/social media (N=30).

Figure

Figure 3: Number of students used background of white screen in the smartphone (N=30).

Figure

Figure 4: Number of students used black letter in the smartphone (N=30).

Figure

Figure 5: Number of students viewing distance was more than 25 cm (N=30).

Figure

Figure 6: Symptoms were noted in the students (N=30).

Parameter Male (N=15) Female (N=15) 95% confidence interval P value
PSS 20.40(5.65) 15.73 (4.78)** 0.7558 to 8.5842 0.02
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