Department of Food Science and Agriculture, Lovely Professional University, India
Received date: September 10, 2014; Accepted date: December 24, 2014; Published date: December 29, 2014
Citation: Chauhan A, Intelli (2014) Product Development and Sensory Evaluation of Value Added Food Products Made by Incorporating Dried Cauliflower Green Leaves. J Nutr Food Sci 5:340. doi: 10.4172/2155-9600.1000340
Copyright: ©2014 Chauhan A, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Brassica oleracea L.var.botrytis is one of the most common and popular vegetable grown in India but still, neglected by people in their consumption pattern. In view of this, an attempt was made to utilize (cauliflower greens) to develop low cost fiber rich products for people suffering from micronutrient deficiency and to assess the sensory quality of developed products. The fresh collected cauliflower green leaves were washed and sun dried for 5-7 days to dry them. Three recipes (pancake, dhokla and idli) were supplemented with 2 g and 5 g DCGLP per serving and sensory evaluation was done with the help of 9 point hedonic rating scale in reference to appearance, taste, texture and Flavour by 9 panels of semi trained judges. Biochemical analysis of DCGLP revealed moisture 3.4 percent, protein 21.6 percent, crude fiber 10.23 gm and iron 62 mg (values as per 100 gm). The prepared recipes were found to be acceptable at 2 g incorporation of DCGLP. It was concluded that increase in the incorporation of DCGLP in recipes was decreasing acceptability. DCGLP, due to its high iron content can be used as supplement to make low cost iron rich recipes.
Brassica oleracea; (DCGLP) Dried cauliflower green leaf powder
In this era of global industrialization and advancement of technologies, the life style of the people has changed a lot. In this changing life style, the demand for ready to eat foods like extruded foods has increased. Among ready to eat foods, junk food form an important part of Indian diet. These products are rich in starch, fat and energy but depleted in fiber. Various epidemiological studies have shown that the diet lacking in fiber may be the cause of various gastrointestinal and cardiovascular diseases . Green leafy vegetables are good source of fibre and micronutrients. Multiple micronutrient deficiencies are very common than single deficiency mainly in developing countries. Nutritional problems are more severe; mostly people in the developed countries also suffer from different forms of these nutritional problems. According to this data in India, 79% of children of age group between 6 to 35 months and women between 15 to 49 years of age are anemic . Nutritionists are now trying to encourage people for supplementation of green leafy vegetables in nutritional recipes to combat with these micronutrient deficiencies. Green leafy vegetables are good source of micronutrients. India ranks second in the world in the production of vegetables and third in production of fruits . There are many varieties of green leafy vegetables, which are richest source of iron but they are discarded and not used properly for human consumption. Cauliflower greens are also come in this category of waste products which are often neglected. In its case, stalks are always used for human consumption and leaves are discarded and become a part of animal feed . Cauliflower green leaves (‘Brassica oleracea L.var. botrytis) are rich source of micro nutrients and belong to the family of Brassicaceae/ Cruciferae. It comes from the Latin words caulis, meaning-stalk and floris-flower. It is cultivated mainly in Northeast from April to December . Cauliflower leaves are available for short duration but after dried, can be stored for long time . The dried cauliflower green leaves are highly nutritious and a good source of β-carotene-43.11 mg, Iron-60.38 mg, Copper-1.55 mg, Manganese-5.86 mg, Zinc-5.10 mg (values as per 100 gm) .
Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) fresh leaves were collected from local market of Chandigarh city, India. The leaves were separated and washed under running tap water. After washing the leaves were tied together in small bunches and was hung in the direct contact of air to remove extra water. Then, sun drying method was used for 5-7 days to dry cauliflower green leaves. After that, dry matter was crushed by hand or grinded in the mixer to get a fine powder and packed in air tight container for further use.
Three recipes namely pancake; dhokla and idli were selected and supplemented with dried cauliflower green leaves powder.
The recipes (pancake, dhokla and idli) were evaluated to find out the overall acceptability. The sensory evaluation was carried out by semi trained nine judges by using 9 point hedonic scale assigning scores 9 (like extremely) to 1 (dislike extremely) . The selected recipes were standardized before and after the supplementation of 2 gm and 5 gm dried cauliflower green leaves powder and acceptability was also evaluated with respect to the following: appearance, texture, taste and flavour. The judges were mainly asked to indicate the presence or absence of dried cauliflower green leaves aroma in these selected formulated recipes. After that data was compiled and analyzed statistically.
Statistical effects were assessed in Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with help of computer software. Data were compared at 5 per cent level of significance .
Nutritional composition of dried cauliflower green leaves powder
Dried cauliflower green leaves powder were collected and their moisture, total protein, crude fiber and iron were determined (Table 1).
|Moisture (%)||Total protein (%)||Crude fibre (gm)||Iron (mg)|
Table 1: Nutritive value of dried cauliflower green leaves powder (as per 100 gm).
The moisture content of the dried sample was 3.4%. A study reported moisture content of 2.52% in dry cauliflower leaf powder .
The total protein content of cauliflower leaf powder calculated from sample was 21.60 gm. Similar findings were reported in a study  in the dehydrated green leafy vegetables of cauliflower. The protein content of the leaf powder was equivalent to the protein content of many pulses such as moth beans, soyabeans, rajmah etc. which contain (22-24%) protein.
The fibre content of cauliflower leaf powder calculated from sample was 10.23 gm similar results were reported in a study by Gupta and Wagle .
The iron content of DCGLP sample was 62 mg. Buvaneswari and Ramya  reported 60.78 mg iron content in dried cauliflower leaves.
Organoleptic evaluation of formulated powder
The supplemented recipes were subjected to sensory evaluation using 9 point hedonic rating scale such as appearance, odour, taste and flavour to find the overall acceptability. The recipes were evaluated by a panel of 9 expert judges. Sensory evaluation of standard recipes on 0-9 point scale: The data regarding sensory acceptability of DCGLP based products given below (Tables 2-4).
|Pan cake+ 2 gm DCGLP||4.80||4.80||4.80||4.80|
|Pan cake+ 5 gm DCGLP||2.80||2.80||2.80||2.80|
Table 2: Sensory evaluation of pan cake.
|Dhokla + 2 gm DCGLP||4.80||4.80||4.80||4.40|
|Dhokla + 5 gm DCGLP||2.40||2.60||2.40||2.40|
Table 3: Sensory evaluation of Dhokla.
|Idli + 2 gm DCGLP||4.60||4.80||4.60||4.60|
|Idli + 5 gm DCGLP||2.00||2.00||2.00||2.00|
Table 4: Sensory evaluation of Idli.
1. As evident from data, there was no significant (p ≤ 0.05) difference in the acceptability of appearance, odour, taste and flavor of the treatments. All the supplemented samples were rated as acceptable by panel of judges. The sensory evaluation of pancake supplemented with DCGLP is presented in the above (Table 2). And, data revealed all supplementation levels were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) acceptable. It is clear from the data that appearance, odour, taste and flavour acceptance of control sample was higher (8.00) i.e. extremely liked than supplemented samples. Odour acceptability of pancake supplemented with DCGLP decreased with increase in levels of dried cauliflower leaves powder i.e. 8.00, 4.80, 2.80 for these samples respectively. In case of taste and flavour, samples supplemented with 2 gm and 5 gm DCGLP and they were rated as neither liked nor disliked and very much disliked with these values i.e. 4.80 and 2.80, respectively. Finally, data revealed that 2 gm supplementation of DCGLP was considered.
2. In case of dhokla; (Table 3) the sensory acceptability followed the same trend as of pancake i.e. the control sample was adjudged as liked extremely (8.00) on 9-point hedonic scale for appearance, odour, taste and flavour than supplemented samples. Odour acceptability of dhokla supplemented with DCGLP decreased with increase in levels of DCGLP i.e. 8.00, 4.80, 2.60 for these samples respectively. In case of taste and flavour, samples supplemented with 2 gm and 5 gm DCGLP and they were rated as neither liked nor disliked and disliked moderately with these values i.e. (4.80, 2.40) and (4.40,2.40) respectively. The data also revealed that 2 gm incorporation of DCGLP was considered.
3. The data regarding acceptability of idli as in (Table 4) revealed that the control sample was more acceptable in case of appearance, odour, taste and flavour and was rated as liked extremely (8.00) as compared to supplemented samples. A perusal of the data revealed that odour acceptability of idli supplemented with DCGLP decreased with increase in levels of DCGLP i.e. 8.00, 4.80, 2.00 for these samples respectively. In case of taste and flavour, samples supplemented with 2 gm and 5 gm DCGLP and they were rated as neither liked nor disliked and disliked very much with these values (4.60, 2.00) respectively. The data also revealed that 2 gm supplementation of DCGLP was considered. It is clear from Table that control sample was rated higher (8, 8 and 8 for appearance, odour, taste and flavor) than other samples. Sample with 2 gm was rated high than 5 gm sample. Similar results were obtained by Kaur and Awasthi  who prepared chapatti, buns, cookies and pancake by incorporating 5 per cent, 10 per cent and 15 per cent fruit pomace and cauliflower greens. The study concluded that the increase in levels of both food remnants (pomace and cauliflower green) was decreasing acceptability (Figures 1-3).
Cauliflower green leaves are efficient source of dietary fiber and minerals. The present study was carried out with the aim to find out the acceptability of these recipes with the supplementation of DCGLP. Biochemical estimation found that 100 gm of DCGLP contains 34% of moisture, 10.23 gm of crude fibre, 62 mg of iron and 21.60 gm of total protein. Three commonly used recipes (pancake, dhokla and idli) were supplemented with 2 gm DCGLP and 5 gm DCGLP per serving and their acceptability was ascertained by panel of semi trained 9 judges with the help of 9 point hedonic rating scale in reference to appearance, odour, taste and flavour. The general acceptability was good in 2 gm DCGLP as compared to 5 gm DCGLP. The study concluded that increase in the incorporation of DCGLP in recipes was decreasing acceptability. This study will help people to generate awareness for the supplementation of iron rich DCGLP in their daily diet to control anemia and increase nutritional status in a better way.
We are highly thankful to Government Home Science College, Chandigarh for providing us necessary laboratory equipment’s for research.