alexa Production of Ethanol from Quetta Pinus halepensis by Fermentation | Open Access Journals
ISSN: 2157-7048
Journal of Chemical Engineering & Process Technology
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Production of Ethanol from Quetta Pinus halepensis by Fermentation

Sattar Ghouri A1*, Saeed Noor1, Azeem Munawar2 and Javeed Awan A3
1Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Balochistan University of Information Technology, Balochistan, Pakistan
2Department of Polymer Engineering and Technology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
3Institute of Chemical Engineering and Technology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
Corresponding Author : Sattar Ghouri A
Engineering and Management Sciences
Department of Chemical Engineering
Faculty of Engineering,
Balochistan University of Information Technology
Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan
Tel: 00923337863457
E-mail: [email protected]
Received August 25, 2015; Accepted October 27, 2015; Published October 31, 2015
Citation: Ghouri SA, Noor S, Munawar A, Awan JA (2015) Production of Ethanol from Quetta Pinus halepensis by Fermentation. J Chem Eng Process Technol 6:254. doi:10.4172/2157-7048.1000254
Copyright: © 2015 Ghouri SA, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Abstract

Pinus halepensis is wasted in large amount in Quetta, Pakistan. The direct discharge of Pinus halepensis enhances environmental pollution so it is urgent demand to treat this waste Pinus halepensis in such a way to produce beneficial products and reduce the environmental impacts. In this work Pinus halepensis are first crushed in jaw crusher to a size of 212 μm (65 mesh number) and 600 μm (28 mesh number) Tyler sieve standard. The crushed powder is then converted into brix by H2SO4 (1N) hydrolysis at 363.15 K. The brix are then converted into ethanol by fermentation. During the experiments acid hydrolysis and various parameters such as pH of Pinus halepensis solutions, sugar brix, specific gravity of Pinus halepensis solutions and fermentation time were studied. The best conversion of Pinus halepensis to ethanol has been recorded at 4.5 pH. The statistical analysis was carried out in order to study the percentage contribution of different parameters and their effect on the production of ethanol.

Keywords
Fermentation; Pinus halepensis; Baker’s yeast; Hydrolysis; Biomass; Specific gravity
Introduction
Nowadays alternate form of energy production, chemicals and fuels are being focused due to scarcity and high prices of available natural resources [1-3]. Biomass can be used as source of raw material to fulfill ongoing demand of fuel. Moreover, its side effect on ecosystem is very less. Renewability and sustainability of biomass is much more than conventional energy resources [4,5]. Particularly, ethanol has become attractive common source of bio-fuel worldwide due its clean and green emissions. Its applicability in the field of pharmaceutical, chemical, petrochemical industry is very much versatile and can be used for sustainable processes [6]. Combustion of ethanol produces less amount of undesirable emissions. As a fuel, ethanol is far better than gasoline. Due to its high compression ratio and high octane rating, it can increase the thermal efficiency of an engine.
Cellulosic material such as wheat, barley, malt, corn, sugar beets, Pinus halepensis, sugar cane, molasses and any sugar or starch can be used as a potential and promising source of ethanol production from fermentation process. Before the conversion of cellulosic material into ethanol, the cellulosic material is firstly physically, chemically or biologically pre-treated to reduce its particle size. This pretreatment helps to increase surface area, reaction rate and accessibility of microorganism to cellulosic material [7]. Afterwards, acid hydrolysis is followed by fermentation in the presence of any suitable microorganism, which acts as a biological catalyst [8]. Nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, Sulphuric acid and phosphoric acid are widely used to produce sugar content from biomass [9,10]. Production of ethanol from corn is very limited due to its high price [11,12]. Therefore, research is being conducted to produce ethanol from low lignin-cellulosic material such as woody biomass, agriculture residues and forest wastes. Woody biomass is the most abundant organic source on Earth, with annual production in the biosphere of about 5.64 × 1010 Mg-C [13,14]. The price of ethanol per gallon ($1.59/gallon) is less than petrol gallon ($2.05/gallon) which further necessitates the production of ethanol on urgent basis. In this work production of ethanol from Pinus halepensis has been conducted and a detail statistical analysis were tabulated and plotted as a function of different experimental parameters.
Experimental
Materials
Raw materials used in this process are Pinus halepensis and detail specification of raw material and chemicals are tabulated in Tables 1 and 2. No further purifications were made to the chemicals. Distilled Water (H2O) was obtained from a direct Q distilled water machine.
Apparatus and experimental setup
In this work ethanol is being produced from two different mesh size of Quetta Pinus halepensis i.e., 212 μm (65 mesh number) and 600 μm (28 mesh number) Tyler sieve standard by acid hydrolysis method followed by fermentation. Initially, Pinus halepensis is crushed in jaw crusher to a size of 212 μm (65 mesh number) and 600 μm (28 mesh number) Tyler sieve standard. After that we put the 5 ml H2SO4 (1N) and 15 ml Distilled water in test tube and shake it for at least 2 minutes. After shaking we put 0.4 g Pinus halepensis powder into the test tube and heat the contents of test tube at 90°C for about 2 hours. During heating process we continuously shake the test tube. After 2 hours the Pinus halepensis is converted into sugar brix. After acid hydrolysis we cool the solution below 20°C. For this purpose we take the water in 1000 ml beaker and put the test tube in it. After two hours the contents of the test tube becomes cool down. The temperature of the solution is determined by thermometer. Specific gravity (SG) is determined with the help of hydrometer whereas sugar brix is determined from the following Brix formula [15]:
Brix = [{(182.4601×SG− 775.6821)×SG+1262.7794}×SG− 669.5622]
Finally after filtering the contents of test tube, fermentation of sugar brix into ethanol is carried out at pH=4-5. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) was intermittently added in order to maintain pH at desired value. After 24 hours the percentage of alcohol is being duly checked by SB038-spectrophotometer. The equipment used in the process of ethanol production from Quetta Pinus halepensis are beakers, test tubes, graduated cylinder, thermometer, digital weight balance, magnetic agitator, pH paper, hydrometer, pipette, spectrophotometer. The schematic process description of ethanol production from Quetta Pinus halepensis is shown in Figure 1.
Results and Discussion
In this work, particularly specific gravity and brix of Pinus halepensis, ethanol production and effect of pH on ethanol production have been studied for two different mesh size of Quetta Pinus halepensis i.e., 212 μm (65 mesh number) and 600 μm (28 mesh number) Tyler sieve standard. Specific gravity and brix of Pinus halepensis as function of heating time for 212 μm (65 mesh number) and 600 μm (28 mesh number) Tyler sieve standard by doing Acid Hydrolysis at 363.15 K is presented in Figures 2 and 3 respectively. Formation of ethanol (volume %/20 ml sol.) by fermenting Pinus halepensis brix for 212 μm (65 mesh number) and 600 μm (28 mesh number) Tyler sieve standard is presented in Figures 4 and 5 respectively. Ethanol (volume %/20 ml sol.) production as a function of solution pH is presented in Figure 6. It is also observed that the fermentation process is affected with the concentration of sugar, time of fermentation, temperature of fermentation and pH of Pinus halepensis solution. In this work control over pH is duly monitored with the help of pH paper. The best conversion of Pinus halepensis to ethanol has been recorded at 4.5 pH. The contents of test tube with a hole (so that oxygen can enter and bacteria can grow) is left for 24 hours after adding prescribed amount i.e., 0.4 g of baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in test tube after maintaining the pH and temperature at desired value. The quality and characteristics of baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is tabulated in Table 3.
Conclusions
Experimental work was restricted to those variables which can affect the overall process of ethanol production. Results have been determined on specific ranges; however, there are still a number of other variables which can potentially affect the process. It was concluded by the experiment that production of ethanol is increased by increasing mesh number. Agitations do have influence on production of ethanol. We just proceeded by limiting our process between the ranges of temperature in which microorganism (bacteria) growth in fermentation is secured. The yeast selection is of major importance as it determines the allowance in other variables and the whole process of fermentation. Nutrients are being added to the solution of Pinus halepensis having Baker’s yeast. The nutrients act as food for yeast, helping them to grow and guaranteeing their survival. The faster the growth rate of yeast, the lesser will be the time taken by fermentation. So one can easily perform experiments on the amount and type of nutrients used, which are commonly nitro phosphate and urea etc. In this work it was shown that Pinus halepensis can be a better source of ethanol production as its abundance in different regions of world are enormous especially in Pakistan where it is being waste on daily basis. Although fermentation of Pinus halepensis (woody biomass) results in lower concentration of ethanol but continuous and significant R&D can assist in developing better and easiest way for production of ethanol from Pinus halepensis by altering reaction conditions, microorganism (a recombinant strain of Zymomonas mobilis can be a best option) and equipment design [16]. In this work main focus was to explore hidden potential of Pinus halepensis from the perspective of biofuel, which are mostly discarded directly into environment leading to pollution. Moreover very less work has been done on Pinus halepensis for ethanol production.
Acknowledgements
We are very much obliged to Staff of Department of Chemistry at Balochistan University of Information Technology, Engineering and Management Sciences, Quetta and Dr. Atif Aslam of Department of Polymer Engineering and Technology, University of the Punjab, Lahore for their whole hearted support and providing us laboratory facilities for experimental work.
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Table 1 Table 2 Table 3

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