Psychological Contract Breach and Affective Commitment in Banking Sector:The Mediation Effect of Psychological Contract Violation and Trust
Received Date: Jun 14, 2017 / Accepted Date: Sep 29, 2017 / Published Date: Oct 10, 2017
Nowadays, there are some phenomena in the organizations for study which are usually unwritten but impressive on the important motivational and performing variables. Commitment of employees and organizations about fulfilling their promises, which is shaped in the form of psychological contract, is one of the categories should be monitored and measured continuously. This study is trying to survey the mediating role of psychological contract violation and trust in the relationship between psychological contract breach and affective commitment. In this research 155 employees of Bank Melli Iran in Hamedan were our population, but because of some conditional items, 100 of them were selected as the sample. The method of doing the research is correlation-descriptive using SEM (Structural Equation Modeling) and Amos software is used for data analysis. There are 5 hypotheses in this study which all of them would be approved and confirmed. The result will show that there is a meaningful relation between psychological contract breach and trust and also psychological contract violation. It means that if the concept of employees about his/her contract would be different with their real contract, it affects their feeling of trust to their organization and may cause in psychological contract violation. Also we find that there is a meaningful relation between trust and psychological contract violation and also affective commitment. It means that increase or decrease in organizational trust can influence psychological contract violation and affective commitment. Moreover, the relationship between psychological contract violation and affective commitment would be approved.
Keywords: Psychological contract violation; Psychological contract breach; Affective commitment; Trust
During the recent decades, rapid and explicit changes including globalization, competition, deregulation, and technology achievements, social, political, and economic events can be seen. Attracting and hiring procedure are constantly changing and reshaping . In this condition, hiring relation are significantly exposed to major changes [2,3]. According, people have to check and re-evaluate their own psychological contract. The underlying contractual relationships with agencies are contrives . In this context, the psychological contract as the main framework is intended to raise awareness of employment relationships. The underlying contract as an individual official attitude is a commutative and reciprocal relations between the official and the employer which covers mutual commitment and also is the requirement that Buttsh sides are committed to it, but my also lead to gaps or violations [1,3,5,6]. Rousseau  was the first inventor of the term "psychological contract". He defined the psychological contract as the individual beliefs about reciprocal commitment among that person and the other like the employer . Furthermore, because of the individual differences, the impact of violation and achievement in psychological contract among personnel is different which the organization commitment of them is one of important differences, Rousseau  suggested that psychological contract in the context of job relations is important and goes back to the employer's belief in which how it deserves to receive or examine based on the organization commitment . A number of studies for understanding the gap in positive association with good results(such as leaving work) and negative association with good results(such as job satisfaction and emotional organizational commitment), insisted which mainly presented in social exchanges [1,8]. Also in emotional theory demonstrated that the emotional response influence the violation in psychological contract, personnel attitude and their behavior . The emotional commitment is called the emotional correlation of the official to the organization, particular participation in line with the organization that leads to deep belief, the goals and values of the organization [9-11]. Employees with high emotional commitment has a sense of belonging to the organization, in fact, the remain in the organization, because they want to remain there. One's commitment to the organization has a significant impact on the performance in their working environment . Despite the importance of trust for the influential social performance, the violation in trust is very common. Trust is a very delicate and fragile, but in some situations it can be rebuilt. By putting the psychological contract in human resources and organizational behavior subject, many research examined the influences of psychological contracts in the field of the main variations of the organizational behavior. In the domain of services of the bank, which is one of the most important service organizations in which its key roles of its employees in different situation can influence most of the performance variations? Understanding the concept of psychological contract can help lots of confusion of roles and mutual expectations of banks their employees. This understanding of the roles and obligations of the bank managers can assist in achieving the goals of employees and organizations also can help to clarify the roles and the formation of reasonable expectations. Since, a few researches have been done on the psychological contract and its role in emotional commitment among bank staff, the present study highlights the need for more. The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of mediator, trust and the violation of psychological contract in relation to the crack in psychological contract and affective commitment among the bank staff.
Theorical Background of the Study
Baroque says that the psychological contract is the mutual expectation that is made between the employers and the organization. If the psychological contract between employees seen, they will be more committed to the organization . The psychological contract is a system of beliefs which includes one side the expected performance of the employees and on the other side it includes the employer's response. In other words, the concept of psychological contract deals with the individual's belief about the meaning and the condition of a reciprocal contract between that person and the other side of the contract . When the diligence and endeavor of the employees are appreciated by the managers, the employees are also tried to recompense it . In the Guest and Karvay's statements, the psychological contract does not consist most of the features of the formal contract; generally it is not documented, in the some they are ambiguous and formless and we cannot refer to them in the courts or in dispute Resolution council. Morrison and Robinson  suggest that the mentioned definition is just considering the mental and present the emotional violation aspect less important. So, they make distinguishes between the breach psychological contract and the violation of psychological contract. Morrison and Robinson defined the breach like this.
The perception that the organization failed to meet one or more of the requirements of the psychological. So, the breach is basically to identify the requirements which are not met. As a result, the breach was relatively a short term phenomenon and it is possible to return people to stabilize their lead in the psychological contract or become the cause of violations. The breach has negative effects on the psychological and employee behavior is repeated in several researches . However, the violation is a sensational condition looking for a person to believe that failure to maintain the psychological contract comes into existence . Usually the salary, wages for specific performance, benefits, job security, prosperity, progress and career are example of psychological contract . Managers by using method of compensating business service try to keep the optimal psychological contract in order to avoid leaving the work by their employees .
During the 25 years ago, the trust component as a key title has emerged in organizational research. While past few years, most of the researches focus on the concept of trust and the perceptions of it by people . Other researchers studied the structure of the trust. Recent studies mostly have been on the way of compensating and returning the loss trust at the individual level and at the organization level . Although there is consensus among researches, but there is no single definition for it. Robinson  defined trust like this expectations, assumption or beliefs of that other people's future actions will be beneficial and desirable or at least not harmful. Studies show that trust in an organization is essential for successful teamwork and cooperation . These definitions tent to be self-reliant to a trusted person after taking into account the characteristics reflect that person . For example, Cummings and Brumbli defined the trust in this way, the belief of a person or group of persons that another person or group: a) will try faithfully to their explicit and implicit obligations; b) to whatever negotiations are, is sincere and c) in good condition does not misuse.
Affective commitment is called the emotional correlation of the employee to the organization, personal cooperation and the sense of being in line either the organization in a way which leads to a deep belief in the goals and the organization's merit [10,11,18]. Employees with high affective commitment has a sense of belonging to the organization, in fact, they remain in the organization because they "want" to remain there. Affective commitment includes a spiritual phase that is just experienced by the person and at the time of giving the affective premium has a high affective commitment . The affective commitment leads to proficiency, effectiveness and productivity. Recent studies present the affective commitment as a multidimensional structure. Affective commitment has got different meanings such as cooperation with the organization, endeavour for continuing the interrelate. Having a positive attitude, the correspondence between the values and goals of the organization, high performance and your interest to stay in the organization and in a hidden way. Checking the affective commitment is important since it affects the outcomes and conclusions of the organization [19,20].
Trust and psychological contract
Psychological contract is used for the perception of the phenomenon such as trust and commitment. Practical studies examined the mutual relationship between employees for breach of contract by the employer. As a result of crack in the psychological contract, the employees Response with negative attitudes and behavior. Respect and mutual trust will be lost  and lead to mutual negative actions. The psychological contract violation negatively influences the important attitude and behaviors of the employees such as trust, job satisfaction, commitment, tent to stay in the organization, organizational citizenship behavior and performance [3,8]. There is also a direct relationship between psychological contract breach and psychological contract violation exists with the increase in the employee default, distrust to the organization and reverse performance. Psychological contract violation affects the way employees encounter with the costumer and leads to a soft performance meantime, the relationship between violation in psychological contract and trust is highly significant than others. Robinson and Rousseau  suggest the spiral enrichment pattern about the trust and refer to this point that the early decrease in, ends in more decrease of trust in the future. Furthermore, those employees who sense more for the organization, highly influenced by these violations. To the extent the investment will be more, the reaction to the violation will be more extreme. The employees who are meritorious for the organization( it means the persons who presents the most area of trust and commitment), are more kept touch and has got a high level of value for the organization for a better perception of the content of the psychological contract, it is good to evaluate the psychological contract in terms of the requirement and commitments of employees and employers [21,22], Robinson and Rousseau  believe that the trust is mediator between the violation of effective contract and it is subsequent consequences and other researches have confirmed it KroButts Meeson investigates the role of the mediating trust between the psychological contract breach and the organizational cynicism. However, the studies also display inharmonious result, in this way, the employee, with the high range of trust at the time of encountering with the violation, will say in the past they were behaved in a just way and there is a little chance for them to present negative performances by themselves . The employees, according to their psychological contract, act what they believe; therefore the psychological contract has a positive relationship with the employees role behavior, (Handling staff, commitment and trust) .
Breach and psychological contract violation
Employers must be aware of the time when the breach occurred and how it affects the people, in this way they should overcome the serious problems in the workplace. Breach is probably is the important idea in the theory of psychological contract, for it is the main way for the perception of the way psychological contract affects the feeling, attitudes and the behavior of the employees. If the employee is sure about employer's violation of the condition of the psychological contract, he or she shows an affective-psychological response . His reaction will vary depending on the severity of the breach. These behavioral reactions such as reception, simple complaining, stop trying or desire and as a last resort included announced his resignation of course, much research has been done on the type of reaction and also provided mixed results. Some research shows that a high quality and more communication of the employees with their supervisor or manager show a less reaction to breach in psychological contract. On the contrary, some research shows that the employees that has more and high-quality communication with his supervisor or the manager, represents a severe response to the breach in the psychological contract. In situations where employees about their rights and the psychological contract has strong beliefs employee promises will not be fulfilled, they feel they have been abused and he was disrespectful or that their time is wasted in vain in the organization. Effective examination to the existing breach in the psychological contract will not be easy, especially in condition where employees are highly annoyed and irritated. In this situation, the role of corporate managers is very important, because they know their people and aware of their psychological contract breach, but if the managers were wrong and they explain how to overcome it, the employees render it and the contract may be negotiated again. It can be said that research on psychological contract breach is more has been done than psychological contract violation. Research based on the breach is for two reasons, first of all theoretically, scientists want to know how the breach can cause cognitive assessment on the breach, to find out the way it causes the employee's mental-emotional disconnection with the employer ,second, in terms of methodology previous studies have demonstrated that there is a strong correlation between the breach and violation and it seems that breach in psychological contract is more to sign up to commitments then expectations [24,25]. So, analyzing the factor of breach, make it possible to reach the factors of violation. Recently, the meta-analysis by Robinson and et al suggests that, the breach in psychological contract impacts negatively on the employee's healthy, and reduce the dependence on organization. The results of the previous studies present that there is a negative relationship between psychological contract breach and different affective results such as job satisfaction, trust, affective commitment [26,27]. This sense causes a psychological affective shift for example; it causes a change from affective commitment to under taking a transaction that is more looking for output . It target the violation in psychological contract and personal emotions and feelings of the employee , and forces employees to show negative behaviors such as job leaving [28-31].
Trust and affective commitment
In literature, management, commitment and trust are linked . If there is an element of trust, the employees, even in times of uncertainly, support the management [21,33]. Kalyal and Saha  mention that there is a positive relationship between trust and affective commitment. When the employee's personal goals and the objectives of the organization are integrated, the affective commitment will increase. Research findings show that self-management is on important factor in shaping positive attitudes towards change. Trust not only has a positive relationship with affective commitment. Trust and commitment emerge as a result of many variables, so trust is a prerequisite for commitment. Trust and commitment form with a long-term cooperative relationship, so that in the long-term relationship potential for the other side either disappears. Trust and commitment lead directly to cooperative behavior and trust is a fundamental factor in the development of commitment . People who have a sense of efficacy, hope and optimism are more likely to be satisfactory and show greater commitment to the organization [9,36]. Many studies have shown that the full commitment of the employees leads to the success of the organization . Ladbo believes that trust is associated with a higher degree of employee loyalty. The employee loyalty to the organization is depicting the organization's commitment. Among many scholars [32,37] argue that trust has a positive effect on organizational commitment and to the extent the trust is at high level, the organizational commitment will be higher. Traditionally, trust and commitment are as mediators between communication features and performance . In the conceptual model of Stiles et al.  trust and commitment skills such as the impact of cultural sensitivity and communication skills such as effective communication, cultural sensitivity and effective communication positively influence the trust and trust positively affects the commitment and the commitment impacts the proficiency. In management studies, there is an inseparable relationship between the trust and commitment.
Psychology contract and affective commitment
Affective commitment is a fundamental concept in connection with the work, that's why it is necessary to study it, is relationship with psychological contract. The balance between expectations and fulfill those expectations in the context of relational psychological contract requires a coordinated, sustained and continuous relation between employees and the organization . However, we should bear in mind that the psychological contract varies as well as conditions change over time, and these changes emerged in the psychological contract can affect organizational commitment. Organizational commitment, job satisfaction and desire to stay in the organization are among the most important employee behaviors and to achieve better performance, are crucial . Research show that psychological contract violation and fulfillment effect on the variables such as trust, satisfaction and willingness to in the organization and commitment. Scholars believe that when the employee interpret the psychological contract breach in an unacceptable manner, goes toward the psychological contract violation and in that case the organizational commitment is significantly reduced. So, when an employee is supported by the organization, he shows a high level of loyalty and affection. Therefore, the dimension of organizational commitment, especially affective commitment is more likely to affect individual justifications and judgments are related to psychological contract . Sturges et al.  explore the relationship between fulfilment of psychological contract and organizational commitment and their other week and concluded, fulfilling psychological contract and organizational citizenship behavior leads to high performance job. In this way psychological contract violation is related to leaving the organization which leads to negative behavior. Rousseau et al.  and Kowi-sheepru and Kessler said the concept of psychological contract is related to commitment as if appears that it affects the opinions of employees with regard to the relationship between the individual and the organization. When the positive perception takes place, employees tend to be more commitment and pioneer [8,19,23,25,30,31,41-43]. Noonan and Alrun suggested psychological contract breach positive correlated with organizational commitment less and for more work Veisvant et al. revealed the strategic outcomes such as salary and positive attachment with affective commitment and psychological contract. Robins et al.  were suggesting that psychological contract breach is considered to be a negative for staff health.
Assumption, goals and conceptual model
The main objective of this study is to approach the mentioned model and the assumptions of the research can be investigated in five section:
• First assumption: there is a significant relationship between the psychological contract breach and trust;
• Second assumption: There is a significant relationship between psychological contract breach and psychological contract violation;
• Third assumption: There is a significant relationship between trust and psychological contract violation;
• Fourth assumption: There is a significant relationship between trust in affective commitment;
• Fifth assumption: There is a significant relationship between psychological contract violation and affective commitment.
Since the aim of this study was investigate the relationship between breach variables in psychological contract, trust, psychological contract violation, and affective commitment, so the purpose of the study was descriptive and correlation data collection is based on structural studies. In the analytical, a violation of the psychological contract and trust as mediating variables, psychological contract breach and affective commitment are taken into account as dependent and independent variables. The main tool for data collection is based on questionnaire which respectively for the mentioned variables are 8 questions for psychological contract, 4 questions for psychological contract breach, 4 questions for psychological contract violation . 7 questions for trust and 5 questions for affective commitment with the Likert's quintuple spectrum are intended. In order to assess coastal questionnaire, a prototype include,20 questionnaires were distributed and using the SPSS software the coastal assess was measured by using internal consistency(Cronbuch's alpha). The index reliability scale of zero to indicate reliability versus a full-scale numerical target. For psychological contract breach 90. 3 per cent, for psychological contract violation 90. 2 percent, for trust 90. 7 percent and affective commitment acquired 92. 4 percent these figures reflect the four variables of the psychological contract breach, psychological contract violation, trust and commitment that shows top 19 alpha reliability of the questionnaire and in other words it has the prerequisite reliability. In various stages of standardized questionnaires, one of the important issues is that how for the determined questionnaire has validity. In this study, to collect evidence for the validity, factor analysis is used the result of factor analysis of breach, violation, trust and commitment demonstrated that sampling adequacy condition is met with KMO and Bartlettond the percentage of explained variance is the set of 86 questions with great validity.
Population and sample
The study sample was employees of Bank Melli Iran in Hamedan. The total number of employees is 155 people, that according to the study based on official and fulltime stuff of 155 people, 122 people had the same requirements. In this study, the same number of 112 questionnaires was distributed and the researcher reached Hundreds of these questionnaires.
Descriptive statics of demographic variables showed that 89.2 percent are men and 10.8 percent are women. 1.5 percent are primary school, 0 percent of people with guidance education, 26.2 percent are Diploma, 16.9 percent are associate degree, 43.1 percent are B.A., 9.2 percent are M. A. and 3, 1 are PhD. Based on work experience 27.7 percent are between 5 to 10 years of work experience, 11.1 percent has a history of 11 to 15 years and 2.61 percent have a history over 15 years.
Review and verification of assumptions model and mediator: For testing the hypothesis, the correlation test was performed then the hypothesis will be judged on. The Pearson correlation coefficient test examines whether there is a significant statistical relationship between variables or not. The result of this method is shown in Table 1. The results of the relationship between the components of the model are:
|Variables of the Study||Pearson Value||Significant Level|
|Breach in Psychological Contract and Trust||0.22-||0.05|
|Breach in Psychological Contract and Violation in Psychological Contract||0.75||0.001|
|Trust and Violation in Psychological Contract||0.31-||0.04|
|Trust and Affective Commitment||0.41||0.01|
|Violation in Psychological Contract and Affective Commitment||0.52-||0.001|
Table 1: Integrated matrix of the variables.
The psychological contract breach has a negative, significant and direct effect on trust(First assumption) and the trust has a positive direct and significant effect(impact) on affective commitment(Fourth assumption),so the mediating role of trust in the relationship between psychological contract breach and affective commitment is confirmed. Psychological contract breach has a positive, direct and significant effect on psychological contract violation (second assumption). The psychological contract violation has a negative, direct and significant impact on affective commitment (Fifth assumption). Therefore, the mediating role of the psychological contract violation in relation to psychological contract breach is confirmed. There is also a negative, direct, and significant relation between trust and psychological contract violation (Third assumption).
The structural model research
In order to investigate the main assumption of this study, i.e. study the role of mediator in psychological contract breach and affective commitment, the structure model is taken into account that the result of structural model is acquired by AMOS software. For analyzing the significance of the model and the acceptability of the model, four indicators including CFI (Comparative fit indicator), IFI (Incremental Fit indicator), RMSEA (second Root mean squares error of approximation) and the second root mean squares residual or RMR, used, the result of the comparative fit indicator is 0.94 and the fit indicator is 0.95 approximately of the index values display the suitability the model and these two values show that the model is reasonable. Also the root mean square error of approximation is 0.06 that shows that to the extent the index value is closer to zero, it indicates the suitable fitness. And finally the square root mean square residual or RMR indicator is a value close to zero, the closer they index indicates the goodness of the fit model. In general, the results of four indicators show the reasonability of fit model and the acceptability of the results.
Table 2 shows the impact factors and a significant level for various directions. According to the results, 2 directions of psychological contract breach to trust and psychological contract breach to psychological contract violation in 0.01 level are significant (significant effect at 0. 01 level means significant effect more than 1.96) that the impact factor of each one are, respectively,0.42 and 0.83. Critical value observed in these two directions are,respectively,3.28 and 6.88 that Buttsh values are higher than the critical value, therefore, it can be safely said that this is a significant route. The two directions of trust to affective commitment and psychological contract violation to affective commitment are significant at the level of 0.05 (significant effect at the level of 0.05 means the significant effect is more than 2.58) and the impact factors of each are respectively,-0.35 and -0.19 and the absolute terms of the critical value observed for the two paths are 0.262 and 0.282 respectively, that are higher than the critical value of 2.58. It can be safely said that this direction is significant. Trust and psychological contract violation are significant at the level of 0.05 and its impact factor is 0.31 and the absolute terms of the critical value is 2.59 that is higher than the 2.58 of the critical value, thus, this route is also significant concluding, the result of the directions and structural model shows that psychological contract breach is not directly related to the affective commitment, however, psychological contract breach is indirectly through trust and psychological violation related to affective commitment. Other directions show the questions related to each factor that based on the result of all the questions has a significant and appropriate factor the level of 0.05 on the factors. The result of the impact factors and regression effect related to the directions and questions are shown in Table 2 (Figure 1).
|Violation ← Breach||0.833||0.12||6.886||-||-|
|Trust ← Breach||0.421||0.13||3.285||0||-|
|Commitment ← Trust||-0.35||0.16||-2.622||0.03||-|
|Commitment ← Violation||-0.189||0.08||-2.829||0.02||-|
|Violation ← Trust||0.31||0.19||2.591||0.04||-|
|q9 ← Trust||1||-||-||-||-|
|q 10← Trust||-1.738||0.47||-3.733||-||-|
|q11 ← Trust||-1.514||0.41||-3.699||-||-|
|q12 ← Trust||-1.231||0.38||-3.283||0||-|
|q13 ← Trust||0.748||0.29||2.545||0.01||-|
|q14 ← Trust||0.731||0.31||2.337||0.02||-|
|q16 ← Commitment affective||1||-||-||-||-|
|q17 ← Commitment affective||1.452||0.25||5.759||-||-|
|q18 ← Commitment affective||1.597||0.24||6.577||-||-|
|q19 ← Commitment affective||1.722||0.27||6.418||-||-|
|q8 ← Violation||1||-||-||-||-|
|q6 ← Violation||0.94||0.1||9.541||-||-|
|q5 ← Violation||0.92||0.09||10.11||-||-|
|q4 ← Breach||1||-||-||-||-|
|q3 ← Breach||1||0.13||7.999||-||-|
|q2 ← Breach||1.051||0.12||9.094||-||-|
|q1 ← Breach||0.916||0.12||7.752||-||-|
|q15 ← Trust||-0.711||0.31||-2.297||0.02||-|
|q20← Commitment affective||1.888||0.29||6.603||-||-|
Table 2: Impact factors and a significant level of directions and relationships.
Discussion and Conclusion
Based on the findings, it was confirmed that there is a significant relationship between psychological contract breach and trust. As Morrison and Robinson have pointed out the gap perception that the organization failed to meet one or more of the requirements of the psychological contract. Rousseau and others defined trust as the psychological state that including the intention to accept vulnerability based upon positive expectations about the behavior of another partner. The universal self-assessment of an organization's dependability notes as can be understood by an employee. The employees continually observe the organizational environment and find whether to trust or not trust to their organization.
Organizational processes, served the organizational views and the roles to employees and the employees react with confidence to the relationships communicated by them. Those who trust the organization enjoy working, so the decision and trust development is valuable when trust radius cavers a greater range of interactions to be included. Previous studies also have shown that organizations with high levels of trust among their members have a happy relationship and they are more satisfied and in terms of social state, they have integration and greater and solidarity. According to this psychological contract breach can affect trust and the low level of trust has adverse effects on organizational performance. Second assumption confirmed that there is a significant in psychological contract breach and psychological contract violation. The employees react differently to the psychological contract breach, some research suggests that employees who have more with a high quality relationship with the supervisor or the manager show a less reaction to psychological contract breach, and the reverse is also seen. Some studies also suggest that those employees, who have more with high quality with their supervisor or manager, show a severe reaction to the psychological contract breach. Overall, previous studies demonstrated integration between psychological contract breach psychologist contract violations which was strongly approved it. It seems that psychological contract is more displaying commitments than expectations. The third assumption confirmed the relationship between trust and psychological contract violation. Many research showed a direct relationship between psychological contract breach and violation by increasing employee absenteeism lack of trust in the organization and an inverse function. Above all else the relationship between psychological contract breach and trust is concerned. Whatever invests more on person? People who have shown their trust level and further commitment, their reaction will be more severe that the psychological contract violation. The fourth assumption examined the relationship between trust and affective commitment and they were provided. Many studies have shown that there is a positive relationship between trust and affective commitment. Trust is a prerequisite for commitment and takes shape a long-term relationship. Trust not only affects the affective commitment but also affects organizational commitment and organizational success. So that Morgan and Hunt state that Buttsh trust and commitment are essential to achieve results such as performance, efficiency, and effectiveness. Fifth assumption shows that there is a significant relationship psychological contract violation and affective commitment. This was confirmed in a study which examined those organizational expectations has a direct and significant relationship with unethical behavior and yet there is a direct relationship between psychological contracts with unethical behavior. Based on social exchange theory, employees in the workplace as well as other settings act based on the principle of reciprocity, this means that when they feel their expectations of organizations considered to be fulfilled, they are not included to immoral the behavior. Another study suggests that reducing audit quality professional behavior or psychological contract violation by the auditors' perception of mental or affective commitment is not organized the auditors' perception of psychological contract violation and organizational affective commitment has a significant relationship with the non-professional reducing behavior of audit quality. Generally, psychological contract is a perceptional-expectational variant and is unwritten. This means that organizations expect form the employees and the employees of the organization expectation with respect to its promises, adhere to the interaction. For this reason, permanently form the organization and the employees pose the equations of whether or not the principles of this contract, carefully evaluated, and checked. In situations where organizations feel that their promises, obligations and commitment met them, the psychological contract is established and if they feel that the promises and contracts are unfulfilled, the psychological contract violation on occurs in space perception. One of the recommendations made in this regard will be given to organizations that, the individuals must be fully aware in the operating time about the mutual roles and responsibilities and also continuous monitoring of the process variables and impressionable effect on psychological contract, such as job satisfaction, commitment, loyalty and retention system should be applied each year.
- Morrison EW, Robinson SL (1997) "When employees feel betrayed: a model of how psychological contract violation develops". Academy of Management Review 22: 226-256.
- Guest DE (2004) "Flexible employment contracts, the psychological contract and employee outcomes: an analysis and review of evidence". International Journal of Management Review 5-6: 1-19.
- Robinson SL, Rousseau D M (1994) Violating the Psychological contract: not the exception but the norm. Journal of Organizational Behavior 15: 245-259.
- Blau PM(1964) Exchange and Power in Social Life. John Wiley and Sons,New York.
- Rousseau DM (1990) New hire perceptions of their own and their employer's obligations: A study of psychological contracts. Journal of Organizational Behavior 11: 389 - 400.
- Rousseau DM (1989) Psychological and implied contracts in organizations. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journals 2: 121-139.
- Rousseau DM (2003) “Extending the psychology of the psychological contract. A reply to Putting psychology back into psychological contracts”. Journal of Management Inquiry 12: 229-238.
- Zhao HAO, Wayne SJ, Glibkowsky BC, Bravo J (2007) “The impact of psychological contract breach on work-related outcomes: a meta-analysis”. Personnel Psychology 60: 647-80.
- Allen NJ, Meyer JP (1990) The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance and normative commitment. Journal of Occupational Psychology 63: 1-18.
- Meyer JP, Allen NJ (1997) Commitment in the workplace: Theory, Research, and Application. SAGE publications.
- Meyer JP, Herscovitch L (2001) Commitment in the workplace: Toward a general model. Human Resource Management Review 11: 299-326.
- Wasti SA (2005) Commitment profiles: Combinations of organizational commitment forms and job outcomes. Journal of Vocational Behavior 67: 290-308.
- Lee HW, Lin MC (2014) A study of salary satisfaction and job enthusiasm-mediating effects of psychological contract. Applied Financial Economics 24: 1577-1583.
- Hao-min Z, Jun M, Si-yan L, Su-ting W (2010) A study on psychological contract breach, equity sensitivity and turnover intention of knowledge workers. Paper presented at the Management Science and Engineering (ICMSE).
- Robinson SL (1996) Trust and breach of the psychological contract. Administrative Science Quarterly 41: 574-599.
- Lamas A, Pucetaite R (2006) Development of organizational trust among employees from a contextual perspective. Business Ethics: A European Review. 15: 130-141.
- McKnight DH, Chervany NL (2001) What trust means in E-Commerce customer relationships: An interdisciplinary conceptual typology. International Journal of Ecommerce 6: 35-59.
- Meyer JP, Stanley DJ, Herscovitch L, Topoinytsky L (2002) “Affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization: a meta-analysis of antecedents, correlates, and consequences”. Journal of Vocational Behavior 61: 20-52.
- Lövblad M, Hyder AS, Lönnstedt L (2012) Affective commitment in industrial customer-supplier relations: a psychological contract approach. Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing 27: 275-285.
- Utami AF, Bangun YR, Lantu DC (2014) Understanding the Role of Emotional Intelligence and Trust to the Relationship between Organizational Politics and Organizational Commitment. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 115: 378-386.
- Rousseau DM, Tijoriwala SA (1998) Assessing psychological contracts: Issues, alternatives and measures. Journal of Organizational Behavior 19: 679-695.
- Sels L, Janssens M, Brande DVI (2004) Assessing the nature of psychological contracts: A validation of six dimensions. Journal of Organizational Behavior 25: 461-488.
- Johnson JL, O’Leary-Kelly AM (2003) The effects of psychological contract breach and organizational cynicism: Not all social exchange violations are created equal. Journal of Organizational Behavior 24: 627-647.
- Robinson SL, Morrison EW (2000) The development of psychological contract breach and violation: a longitudinal study. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 21: 525-546.
- Lemire L, Rouillard C (2005) An empirical exploration of psychological contract violation and individual behaviour: The case of Canadian federal civil servants in Quebec. Journal of Managerial Psychology 20: 150-163.
- Fullerton G, Taylor S (2015) Dissatisfaction and violation: two distinct consequences of the wait experience. Journal of Service Theory and Practice 25: 31-50.
- Ballout HI (2009) Career Commitment and career success: moderating role of self-efficacy. Career Development International 14: 655-670.
- Robinson SL, Morrison E (1995) "Psychological contracts and OCB: the effect of unfulfilled obligations on civic virtue behavior". Journal of Organizational Behavior 16: 289-298.
- Restubog SLD, Bordia P, Tang RL (2006) Effects of psychological contract breach on performance of IT employees: The mediating role of affective commitment. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 79: 299-306.
- Sturges J, Guest D, Conway N, Davey MK (2002) A longitudinal study of the relationship between career management and organizational commitment among graduates in the first ten years at work. Journal of Organizational Behavior 23: 731-48.
- Turnley WH, Feldman DC (1999) The impact of psychological contract violations on exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect. Human Relations 52: 895-922.
- Haselhuhn MP, Kennedy JA, Kray LJ, Van Zant AB, Schweitzer ME (2015) Gender differences in trust dynamics: Women trust more than men following a trust violation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 56: 104-109.
- Elangovan A, Auer-Rizzi W, Szabo E (2015) It’s the act that counts: minimizing post-violation erosion of trust. Leadership and Organization Development Journal 36: 81-96.
- Kalyal HJ, Saha SK (2008) Factors affecting commitment to change in a public sector organization in Pakistan. NUST Business and Economic Review 1: 1-10.
- Zineldin M, Jonsson P (2000) An examination of the main factors affecting trust and commitment in supplier-dealer relationships: An empirical study of the Swedish wood industry. The TQM Magazine 12: 245-266.
- Anvari R, Amin MS, Wan Ismail WK, Ahmad U, Norulkamar U, Seliman S (2011) Mediating effects of affective organizational commitment and psychological contract in the relationship between strategic training practices and knowledge sharing. African Journal of Business Management 5: 2189-2202.
- Abdullah Z, Musa R (2014) The Effect of Trust and Information Sharing on Relationship Commitment in Supply Chain Management. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 130: 266-272.
- Stiles P, Gratton L, Truss C, Hailey VH, McGovern P (1997) Performance management and the psychological contract. Human Resource Management Journal 7: 57-66.
- Sims RR (1994) Human resource management’s role in clarifying the new psychological contract. Human Resource Management 33: 373-382.
- Rousseau DM, Sitkin SB, Burt RS, Camerer C (1998) Not so different after all: A cross-discipline view of trust. The Academy of Management Review 23: 393-404.
- Kickul JR, Lester SW, Finkl J (2002) Promise breaking during radical organizational change: Do justice interventions make a difference. Journal of Organizational Behavior 23: 469-488.
- Ng TWH, Feldman DC, Butts MM (2014) Psychological contract breaches and employee voice behaviour: The moderating effects of changes in social relationships. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology 23: 537-553.
- Antonaki XE, Trivellas P (2014) Psychological Contract Breach and Organizational Commitment in the Greek Banking Sector: The Mediation Effect of Job Satisfaction. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 148: 354-361.
- Robinson D, Chalon C, English B (2010) Moderator Effects of Organizational Tenure on the Relationship between Psychological Climate and Effective Commitment. Journal of Management Development 29: 503-522.
- Tan HH, Tan CSF (2000) Toward the differentiation of trust in supervisor an trust in organization. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs 126: 241-260.
Citation: Hazrati S (2017) Psychological Contract Breach and Affective Commitment in Banking Sector: The Mediation Effect of Psychological Contract Violation and Trust. Arabian J Bus Manag Review 7: 320.
Copyright: © 2017 Hazrati S. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Share This Article
- Total views: 2185
- [From(publication date): 0-2017 - Dec 12, 2019]
- Breakdown by view type
- HTML page views: 2051
- PDF downloads: 134