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Quality Assessment of Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium) Juice Treated with Different Chemical Preservatives
ISSN: 2157-7110

Journal of Food Processing & Technology
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  • Research Article   
  • J Food Process Technol 2019, Vol 10(4): 786
  • DOI: 10.4172/2157-7110.1000786

Quality Assessment of Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium) Juice Treated with Different Chemical Preservatives

Sajid Hussain1, Aysha Riaz1, Murtaza Ali2, Naeem Ullah3* and Nisar Hussain2
1Department of Food Science and Technology, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan
2School of Food Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, P.R. China
3Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, P.R. China
*Corresponding Author: Naeem Ullah, Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, P.R. China, Tel: 008613154350438; 00924329611612, Email: [email protected]

Received Date: Dec 04, 2018 / Accepted Date: Feb 04, 2019 / Published Date: Feb 08, 2019

Abstract

This research was conducted to assess the quality of sweet cherry juice treated with sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate. The samples were packed in 1000 ml PET bottles and stored at ambient temperature. The treatments were observed for different physiochemical and sensory properties at 30 days interval for 90 days. Results showed a significant increase in Total soluble solids (14.73 to 15.17obrix); titratable acidity (0.85% to 1.15%), and Reducing sugar (10.38% to 11.25%); while a significant decrease in pH (4.38 to 3.32); ascorbic acid (8.66 mg/100 g to 5.10 mg/100 g); sugar acid ratio (17.42 to 13.37), and non-reducing sugar (1.52% to 1.29%). Throughout storage interval, it was observed that Treatment CJ3 (0.1% sodium benzoate+0.1% citric acid) was acceptable physicochemical and we recommend it for commercial use.

Keywords: Cherry; Juices; Chemical preservative; Fruit

Introduction

Cherry fruit can be eaten as fresh, dried, pickled and processed into in jam, marmalades, and juices or canned product. The cherry fruits are grown in more than 40 countries throughout the world [1,2]. Worldwide there are many species are grown such as sweet cherry (Prunus avium), sour cherry (Prunus cerasus), black cherry (Prunus serotina) and West Indian cherry (Prunus myrtifolia) [2]. Worldwide total cherry productions were calculated as 2,185,881 metric tons [3]. Swat, Chitral, Quetta, and Gilgit Baltistan are the leading cherry producing areas of Pakistan. According to statistical data, the production and area under cultivation of cherry fruits were estimated at 1,065 thousand hectares and 1,981 thousand tons respectively [4]. In Gilgit Baltistan area under cultivation and production of cherry, fruits were estimated at 1302 hectares and 2,384 tons respectively [5].

The values of pH, titratable acidity and total soluble solids in sweet cherry are ranged from 3.72 to 4.62,0.5 to 1.35 and 13.53 to 22.73 respectively [6,7]. In sweet cherry fruit, the sugar and organic acid found in ranged between 125-265 and 3.67 g/kg to 8.66 g/kg of fresh weight [8]. Fruit juices play a vital role because they are a rich source of nutrients and energy, and provide necessary nutrients such as fructose, glucose, ascorbic acids, folic acid, other vitamins, minerals, antioxidant, polyphenol, and organic acids [9,10]. Despite having the vital role of juice in maintaining human health, soft drinks canned at low temperature had more water activity which causes microbial growth that can be prevented by addition of preservatives [11]. The most commonly used preservatives in soft drink industries are sodium benzoate and sorbate. Mostly at low pH, the efficiency of Sorbic acid attained its peck against yeasts and molds growth but sometimes it also works at pH of 6.5 [12]. Sorbates are safe, efficient, flexible, tasteless, odorless and non-toxic chemical additives, just because of these reasons they are using in the wide range of foods such as juices, jams, cakes, bread cheese, yogurt and many more types of food products [13]. By observation the above different feature, this research was carried out to minimize the postharvest loses of cherry fruits grown in Gilgit Baltistan.

Materials and Methods

The cherry fruit was bought from the local orchard and was brought PCSIR (Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Skardu Gilgit Baltistan.

Preparation of the samples

The sweet cherry fruits were washed, graded and sorted after that juice was extracted by using fruit pulper. Sodium benzoate and Potassium sorbate preservatives were added to the cherry juice and each sample was packed in PET (Polyethylene terephthalate) bottles of the volume 1000 ml.

Treatments

Following are the treatments:

CJ0=Cherry juice without preservatives

CJ1=Cherry juice+0.05% sodium benzoate+0.1% citric acid

CJ2=Cherry juice+0.05% potassium sorbate+0.1% citric acid

CJ3=Cherry juice+0.1% sodium benzoate+0.1% citric acid

CJ4=Cherry juice+0.1% potassium sorbate+0.1% citric acid

Storage

The samples were stored at ambient temperature for 90 days. The physicochemical analysis was conducted at 30 days interval during storage.

Physico-chemical analysis

The pH, Ascorbic acid, Total Soluble Solids (TSS), Titratable acidity, Sugar acid ratio, Reducing sugars, and Non-reducing sugars were determined by the standard method of AOAC [14].

Statistical analysis

All analytical parameters were tested in triplicates and the obtained data were calculated statistically by using Complete Randomized Design (CRD) two-factor factorial experiment and means were compared by LSD test as followed by Steel and Torrie [15].

Results and Discussions

The sweet cherry juice sample was analyzed for ascorbic acid content. The result demonstrated that the mean value of ascorbic acid content of sweet cherry juice was reduced significantly (p<0.05) from 8.66 mg/100 g to 5.10 mg/100 g during storage. The highest mean was observed in treatment CJ3 (7.81) followed by CJ1 (6.97) mg/100 g, while the minimum mean was observed in treatment CJ0 (6.17) followed by CJ4 (6.20). Maximum percentage reduction in ascorbic acid was examined in CJ0 (54.02%) followed by CJ4 (53.40%) and the minimum decrease was recorded in treatment CJ3 (27.68%) followed by CJ1 (33.52%) (Table 1). The ascorbic acid content of sweet cherry juice was significantly affected by the treatment applied and the storage time. Ayub et al. [16] checked the effect of potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate on ascorbic acid content and concluded the reduction of ascorbic acid from 49.9 mg to 32.8 mg. Ascorbic acid is nominal stable vitamin since it is responsive and ruined as the temperature boost and affected by light during storage. The outcome of this research study is excellent conformity with the termination of Muhammad et al. [17]; they inspected that the ascorbic acid decreased (18.96 mg to 12.93 mg) in citrus through the passage of time. Durrani et al. [18] also stated the humiliation of the ascorbic acid content (25.98 mg/100 g to 21.45 mg/100 g) during the preservation of apple pulp. Sabina et al. [19] work are also evidenced by the reduction of ascorbic acid (48.1 to 35.9).

Treatments Storage Interval (30 days) %Decrease Means
Initial 30 60 90
CJ0 8.7 6.4 5.6 4 54.02 6.17c
CJ1 8.5 7.5 6.25 5.65 33.52 6.97b
CJ2 8.6 6.9 5.35 4.38 49.06 6.30bc
CJ3 8.85 8.55 7.45 6.4 27.68 7.81a
CJ4 8.8 6.4 5.5 4.1 53.4 6.20c
Means 8.66a 7.33b 6.16c 5.10d    

Mean values followed by different small letters are significantly (P<0.05) different from each other

Table 1: Effect of chemical preservatives and storage period on ascorbic acid content (mg/100 g) of sweet cherry juice.

The pH of sweet cherry juice was analyzed at every 30 days interval during three months of storage result indicated that pH was declined. Reduction in mean value of pH occurred significantly (p<0.005) from 4.38 to 3.32. Highest fall off was noted in treatment CJ2 (3.99) followed by CJ3 (3.66). On another hand lowest fall off was recorded in CJ0 (3.46) contrast to CJ1 (3.62). Reduction in term of percentage, the highest was found in CJ0 (29.09%) followed by CJ4 (26.66) while at the same time minimum was a note in CJ3 (20.85%) go after CJ1 (21.68) (Table 2). The tenure of storage and applied treatments had significant (p<0.05) effect on the pH of sweet cherry juice. The cause of reduction of pH was pectin conversion in pectic acid which was explored by Imran et al. [20]. Ali [21] research work was also evidence that the acidity in juice raised when the pH declined during storage. Hussain et al. [22] also concluded that as acidity was enhanced after that pH (4.30 to 2.90) were decreased. During apple pulp preservation Durrani et al. [18] also confirmed that pH was declined from (3.71 to 3.65).

Treatments Storage Interval (30 days) %Decrease Means
Initial 30 60 90
CJ0 4.33 3.28 3.18 3.07 29.09 3.46c
CJ1 4.15 3.63 3.45 3.25 21.68 3.62bc
CJ2 4.82 3.81 3.7 3.65 24.27 3.99a
CJ3 4.22 3.65 3.39 3.34 20.85 3.66b
CJ4 4.5 3.45 3.35 3.3 26.66 3.65b
Means 4.38a 3.59b 3.43bc 3.32c    

Mean values followed by different small letters are significantly (P<0.05) different from each other

Table 2: Effect of chemical preservatives and storage period on pH of sweet cherry juice.

During three month of storage, the sweet cherry juice was examined at every 30 days interval for total soluble solids content. The mean value increased significantly (p<0.05) from 14.73 to 15.17. The highest mean value was reported in CJ0 (15.37°Brix) followed by CJ4 (15.05°Brix) at the same time lowest value was obtained in CJ2 (14.82°Brix) nearby CJ3 (14.83°Brix). In term of percentage increment highest was noted in CJ0 (7.21%) go after CJ4 (5.62%) although the smallest increment was noted in sample CJ3 (1.80%) next with CJ1 (1.90%) (Table 3). The percentage increased in total soluble solids of cherry juice may be that the sucrose content is upturned in fructose and glucose because of temperature. The conclusion of Ayub et al. [16] is a harmony with our outcome that they found increment in TSS (16.5°C to 17.4°C). Rab et al. [23] preserved orange with heat treatments concluded that enrichment in TSS. Durrani et al. [18] during apple pulp preservation also reported that increment in TSS (9.71°C to 11.36°C). Muhammad et al. [24] et al. reported that an increment occurred in TSS (9.75°C to 11.39°C) in apple pulp during the period of storage.

Treatments   Storage Interval (30 days) %Decrease Means
Initial 30 60 90
 
CJ0 14.8 14.85 15.9 15.95 7.21 15.37a
CJ1 14.75 14.8 14.85 15.05 1.99 14.86b
CJ2 14.7 14.75 14.84 15 2 14.84b
CJ3 14.73 14.77 14.82 15 1.8 14.83b
CJ4 14.77 14.8 15.01 15.65 5.62 15.05ab
Means 14.73b 14.87b 14.88ab 15.17a    

Mean values followed by different small letters are significantly (P<0.05) different from each other

Table 3: Effect of chemical preservatives and storage period on TSS of sweet cherry juice.

The sweet cherry juice samples were analyzed at every 30 days of interval, results indicated that the titratable acidity was increased significantly (p<0.05) during 3 months of storage statistically. Mean value increased from 0.80 to 1.15. Treatment CJ3 (1.04) contained highest % acidity nearby CJ1 (1.02), on the other hand, CJ0 (0.95) indicated minimum mean value nearby CJ4 (0.98). The peak enhance was verified in treatment CJ0 (27.27%) next with CJ4 (26.54%) as well lowest increment was found in CJ3 (25.21%) go after CJ1 (25.64%) (Table 4). Titratable acidity of cherry juice was affected significantly (p<0.05) by storage time and treatment applied. Nunes et al. [25] worked on strawberry is the witness of our study they investigated that % acidity increased significantly due to treatments applied and storage time. The main reason for increment in acidity may be due to the effect of sugar content and temperature. The work of Clyesdale et al. [26] is a proof that they concluded that the breakdown of pectin into pectic acid increased the acidity. This research was also in accordance with Iqbal et al. [27]. During the period of preservation of strawberry juice, Sabina et al. [19] also found upgrading in % acidity (1.31 to 2.09).

Treatments Storage Interval (30 days)% %Increase Means
Initial 30 60 90
 
CJ0 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 27.27 0.95bc
CJ1 0.87 0.97 1.07 1.17 25.64 1.02a
CJ2 0.85 0.95 1.05 1.15 26.08 1.00c
CJ3 0.89 0.99 1.09 1.19 25.21 1.04c
CJ4 0.83 0.93 1.03 1.13 26.54 0.98ab
Means 0.85c 0.94c 1.04b 1.15a    

Mean values followed by different small letters are significantly (P<0.05) different from each other

Table 4: Effect of chemical preservatives and storage period on the acidity of sweet cherry juice.

When the sweet cherry juice samples were analyzed at every 30 days of the interval during storage, reduction in sugar acid ratio was found. Table 5 contained significantly (p<0.05) degraded mean value from 17.42 to 13.37. The greatest mean value of sugar acid ratio hold by treatment CJ0 (16.35) followed by CJ4 (15.53) at the same time treatment CJ3 (14.41) enclosed minimum value next with CJ1 (14.73). Reduction in term of percentage, highest was observed in CJ0 (24.57%) go after CJ4 (24.12%) at the same time as treatment CJ3 (21.62%) and CJ1 (22.17%) illustrated the minimum fall off in sugar acid ratio (Table 5). This research work exposed that the storage intervals and applied treatments had significant (p<0.05) impact on the sugar-acid ratio of sweet cherry juice. Reduction in sugar acid ratio (14.31 to 13.81) also experienced in apple pulp preservation using various chemical preservatives by Durrani et al. [18]. Muhammad et al. [24] described that drop off in sugar acid ratio (29.14 to 28.13) during preservation of mashed variety of apple.

Treatments Storage Interval (30 days) % Decrease Means
Initial 30   60 90
 
CJ0 18.5 16.5 15.9 14.5 24.57 16.35a
CJ1 16.95 15.25 13.87 12.86 22.17 14.73c
CJ2 17.29 15.52 14.13 13.04 23.83 14.99d
CJ3 16.55 14.91 13.59 12.6 21.62 14.41e
CJ4 17.79 15.91 14.57 13.84 24.12 15.53b
Means 17.42a  15.62b 14.42c 13.37d    

Mean values followed by different small letters are significantly (P<0.05) different from each other

Table 5: Effect of chemical preservatives and storage period on sugar acid ratio of sweet cherry juice.

In all the products which based on fruits, the sugars are a crucial constituent because it worked as flavor contributor and natural preservatives. The mean values of Reducing sugar were enhanced significantly (p<0.05) from 10.37 to 11.25. The maximum mean value was found in treatment CJ1 (11.00) go after CJ3 (10.77) at the same time the lowest mean value was found CJ2 (10.40) nearby CJ0 (10.62). Increment in term of percentage, highest was found in treatment CJ0 (12.78%) compared to CJ4 (9.21%) while CJ3 (3.18%) showed minimum increment followed to CJ1 (6.11%) (Table 6) The treatment applied and duration of storage had significant (p<0.05) impact no reducing sugar content of sweet cherry juice. Kink et al. [28] concluded that in the rise of temperature and action of acid present in juice convert the sucrose content in reducing sugar. Conversion of pectin into glucose and fructose due to a temperature increase during storage had studied by Patil et al. [29]. Ruiz-Nieto et al. [30] research worked is a good resemblance to our outcome. An increment in reducing sugar from 16.3 to 18.1 was also observed by Ayub et al. [16].

Treatments Storage Interval (30 days) %Decrease Means
Initial 30   60 90
 
CJ0 10.03 10.05 10.90 11.50 12.78 10.62bc
CJ1 10.75 10.85 10.95 11.45 6.11 11.00a
CJ2 10.10 10.15 10.30 11.05 8.59 10.40c
CJ3 10.65 10.70 10.75 11.00 3.18 10.77ab
CJ4 10.35 10.40 10.45 11.40 9.21 10.65abc
Means 10.38b 10.43b 10.72b 11.25a    

Mean values followed by different small letters are significantly (P<0.05) different from each other

Table 6: Effect of chemical preservatives and storage period on reducing sugar of sweet cherry juice.

When the sweet cherry juice was analyzed at every 30 days of the interval during three months of storage the mean value of nonreducing sugar was decreased significantly (p<0.05). Initially in treatments (CJ0 to CJ4) non reducing sugars were 1.55,1.15,1.45,1.95 and 1.40, that later on declined up to 1.10,1.00,1.25,1.80 and 1.20. Reduction happened in mean values significantly from 1.52 to 1.29. Among treatments, the highest mean value was found in CJ3 (1.88) go after CJ2 (1.34) at the same time minimum was observed in CJ1 (1.07) as compared to CJ4 (1.28). Reduction in term of percentage, maximum was shown by treatment CJ0 (40.90%) followed by CJ4 (16.66%) while lowest reduction noted in CJ3 (8.33%) nearby CJ1 (15.00%) (Table 7). Result illustrated that the storage duration and applied treatment had a significant impact on sweet cherry juice. During canning of citrus fruit, Karim [31] reported that increment in reducing sugar and reduction in nonreducing sugar occurred at ambient temperature is good accordance of our results. Ali [21] finds out the breakdown of sucrose into glucose and fructose results in enhancement of reducing sugar while reduction of non reducing sugar. Similarly, Hussain et al. [32] concluded in their research work that degradation in non reducing sugar from (8.82 to 7.3) and Akesowan [33] also found the same result.

Treatments                              Storage Interval (30 days) %Decrease Means
Initial 30   60 90
 
CJ0 1.55 1.30 1.18 1.10 40.90 1.29b
CJ1 1.15 1.10 1.05 1.00 15.00 1.07c
CJ2 1.45 1.35 1.30 1.25 16.00 1.34b
CJ3 1.95 1.90 1.85 1.80 8.33 1.88a
CJ4 1.40 1.30 1.24 1.20 16.66 1.28b
Means 1.52a 1.41b 1.34bc 1.29c    

Mean values followed by different small letters are significantly (P<0.05) different from each other

Table 7: Effect of chemical preservatives and storage period on non-reducing sugar of sweet cherry juice.

Conclusion

The research work was carried out on the sweet cherry juice treated with two different chemical preservatives like potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate and it was revealed that the treatments and storage periods had significant (p<0.05) impact on cherry juice physicochemically. The sweet cherry juice was packed in PET (polyethylene terephthalate) bottles at a volume of 1000 ml and stored at room temperature for 90 days. Treatment CJ3 that contained 0.1% sodium benzoate +0.1% citric acid had shown the best result maintaining maximum quality followed by CJ1, CJ2 and CJ4 on the other hand, CJ0 (control) sweet cherry juice without preservative had shown worse results under the sensory acceptability grade. The result showed that sodium benzoate had excellence effect on keeping maximum quality of sweet cherry juice as compared to potassium sorbate.

References

Citation: Hussain S, Riaz A, Ali M, Ullah N, Hussain N (2019) Quality Assessment of Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium) Juice Treated with Different Chemical Preservatives. J Food Process Technol 10: 786. DOI: 10.4172/2157-7110.1000786

Copyright: © 2019 Hussain S, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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