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ISSN: 2168-9873
Journal of Applied Mechanical Engineering
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Rapid Prototyping Technology in Bone Tissue Engineering

Md Enamul Hoque1* and R.G.S.V Prasad2
1Department of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, JalanBroga, Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia
2Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technology Research Group, Nano Research for Advanced Materials, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
Corresponding Author : Md Enamul Hoque
Department of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering
University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus
Jalan Broga, Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia
Tel: +6 016 2690 62
E-mail: [email protected]
Received December 12 2013; Accepted December 12, 2013; Published December 20, 2013
Citation: Hoque ME, Prasad RGSV (2013) Rapid Prototyping Technology in Bone issue Engineering. J Appl Mech Eng 2:e124. doi:10.4172/2168-9873.1000e124
Copyright: © 2013 Hoque ME, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Tissue engineering/regenerative medicine promises to solve problems in organ transplantation crisis. Autogenous bone grafting is considered to be the gold standard for the treatment and management of bone defects like, craniofacial disorders and orthopedic conditions such as, fractures and nonunions. 3D polymeric scaffolds can mimic the natural extracellular matrix of bone. Designing a scaffold with the required properties is a key factor that governs the bone tissue engineering. Complex porous 3D structures are fabricated by various processes like, foaming [1], salt leaching [2], emulsification [3] etc. However, scaffolds fabricated by these conventional methods can only justify partial requirements of tissue engineering approaches. The major drawbacks of these procedures include lack of control in morphological characteristics like, pore shape, size,distribution and pore connectivity. One of the recent techniques that add complexity reminiscent of tissue engineering is RapidPrototyping (RP) technology, which arranges/deposits drops or fibres of polymeric materials in required geometry. RP technology helps in designing 3D parts which are built layer-by-layer based on a Computer AidedDesign (CAD) file [4-6]. By far, there are number of commercial RP techniques available for different materials. This technique is best suited to directly generate complex-shaped porous scaffolds with well controlled internal structures. The material choice is very flexible as long as it can produce osteogenic effect. One of the widely studied materials for bone tissue regeneration is powder based bioceramic like, HydroxyApatite (HA) [7]. In this method ceramic powder is printed with a binder solution (usually a polymer-based binder solution). This slurry is now deposited layer-by-layer according to the design producing 3D scaffolds. The scaffolds generated by this process can withstand high pressures of 22 MPa, which is essential for bone tissue engineering. The cells are seeded onto the 3D scaffolds and nurtured until they are sufficiently grown. The cell construct (scaffold along with cells) can then be implanted to the defect site for the regeneration of the bone. Hence, RP technology can be considered to be an ideal process for fabricating bone tissue engineering scaffolds.
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