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ISSN: 2167-0587
Journal of Geography & Natural Disasters
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Regional Distribution of Allergic Tree Pollen in Japan

Reiko Kishikawa1,6*, Eiko Koto1, Chie Oshikawa1, Akemi Saito2, Norio Sahashi3,6, Nobuo Soh4, Toshitaka Yokoyama5, Tadao Enomoto6, Atsushi Usami6, Toru Imai6, Koji Murayama6, Yuma Fukutomi2, Masami Taniguchi2,Terufumi Shimoda1 and Tomoaki Iwanaga1

1The National Hospital Organization Fukuoka Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan

2The National Hospital Organization Sagamihara Hospital, Sagamihara, Japan

3Toho University, Funabashi, Japan

4Soh ENT clinic, Fukuoka, Japan

5Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan

6NPO Association of Pollen Information, Tokyo, Japan

*Corresponding Author:
Reiko Kishikawa MD
PhD, Department of Allergology
The National Hospital Organization Fukuoka Hospital 4-39-1
Yakatabaru Minami- Ku Fukuoka Japan (zip code) 811-1394
Tel: +81 92 565 5534
Fax: +81 92 5660702
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: November 02, 2016; Accepted date: November 10, 2016; Published date: November 14, 2016

Citation: Kishikawa R, Koto E, Oshikawa C, Saito A, Sahashi N, et al. (2016) Regional Distribution of Allergic Tree Pollen in Japan. J Geogr Nat Disast S6:003 doi: 10.4172/2167-0587.S6-003

Copyright: © 2016 Kishikawa R, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Keywords

Tree pollen allergy; Japanese Cedar/cypress family; Beech and Birch family; Oral allergic syndrome

Short Communication

In Japan patients with Japanese Cedar (JC) pollinosis have increased nation widely since the latter of 1970’s. Japanese Governments has begun to take preventive measures against JC pollinosis and airborne pollen monitoring has been begun to investigate as a causative agent since 1986 [1]. We have estimated the longitudinal investigation result for effective prevention and treatment against pollinosis in Japan.

Method

We have monitored airborne pollen all year around since July 1986 by gravitational pollen sampler, Durham’s sampler, at 15 locations for long time in Japan Island. Pollen samples were sent to our hospital and we stained by Calberla solution and counted pollen number per cm² through microscope [2]. And then we classified pollen grains as the allergic causative agent. We estimated distribution of main allergic pollen in Japan.

Result and Discussion

We have collaborated these facilities for monitoring as shown Figure 1, Sapporo (Wagatsuma children Clinic), Sendai (Tohoku University), Niigat (Fujisaki Clinic), Toyama (Toyama University),Takasaki (Sato Clinic), Sagamihara (NHO Sagamihara Hospital), Hamamatsu (Tokai Pollinosis Institute), Tsu (NHO Mie Hospital), Wakayama (Wakayama Red Cross Hosp.), Fukuoka (Kyushu University), Kumamoto (Kumamoto University), Miyazaki (Miyazaki University) and Yakushima (Kagoshima University, The Foresty Agency).

geography-natural-disasters-airborne-pollen-monitoring

Figure 1: The locations of airborne pollen monitoring by Durham’s Sampler.

Table 1 shows each pollination season approximately of main important pollen from start to end of pollen grains dispersing term all Japan Island.

English name J F M A M J J A S O N D
Pine     * *** *** *            
Endl         * **            
Himalayan Cedar                     ***  
Japanese Cedar   *** *** **             * *
Cypress Family     * *** *              
Ginkgo       **                
Willow     * * *              
Betula   *** *** *** ***              
Beech Family     * *** *** *            
Elm       ** **       **      

Table 1: Tree pollen pollination season in Japan.

Table 2 and Figure 2 show each arithmetic mean pollen counts and the bar chart. Japanese Cedar pollen number was the most of all, more than 40%, next cypress family, about 20%. They were occupied of more than 60% of all and they increased with the remarkable annual fluctuation as the allergen of JC pollinosis [3]. Beech family pollen counting was also increasing and occupied about 10% of all pollen counts. There is cross-reactivity between beech and birch family which related with oral allergic syndrome [3].

geography-natural-disasters-important-pollen-count

Figure 2: The prevalence of important pollen count at each location.

City duration Pine Endl Japanese Cedar (1) Japanese Cedar (2) Cypress family Ginkgo Willow Birch Family Beech Family Elm Others Unknown Total
Sapporo 7 233.6±363.5 0.0±0.0 52.9±73.6 0.1±0.3 150.5±134.0 6.1±8.3 44.3±62.8 463.6±503.2 284.9±414.2 48.9±55.1 0.0±0.0 0.0±0.0 1284.9±124.3
Sendai 28 721.2±276.1 0.5±1.1 2256.9±1872.3 3.0±5.8 390.8±392.7 84.2±71.1 6.9±6.4 78.8±59.1 399.8±277.2 127.6±170.2 27.3±53.4 2.6±6.0 4099.6±516.7
Niigata 27 2878.7±497.7 0.8±2.1 1531.0±1162.3 4.1±5.8 208.4±290.0 9.0±7.4 8.1±11.3 96.2±62.5 337.4±176.5 113.5±110.8 34.7±59.7 4.3±7.7 5226.2±702.4
Toyama 27 561.5±189.2 1.3±2.7 3890.0±3005.8 15.0±21.2 566.6±664.1 15.0±20.0 7.2±9.6 283.2±194.3 794.3±357.1 484.8±678.6 32.5±50.3 6.0±11.4 6657.4±870.1
Takasaki 16 1017.2±325.5 5.0±9.1 6687.8±4284.8 8.8±11.4 1688.3±1588.4 18.2±11.2 68.5±70.6 155.0±94.9 819.7±275.5 519.4±362.5 84.1±73.8 18.1±22.0 11090.0±1506.4
Sagamihara 28 1333.9±605.6 0.0±0.0 6066.6±6348.4 20.0±30.3 2717.9±2991.7 580.9±577.8 5.0±9.1 369.6±375.9 1334.4±878.4 453.3±535.8 64.9±257.0 169.8±349.5 13116.4±1440.2
Hamamatsu 28 560.8±238.2 7.7±14.8 4421.7±2715.3 80.7±149.9 2146.9±2092.9 5.5±3.4 31.2±48.4 171.1±144.8 978.2±527.1 259.1±330.7 48.0±74.8 6.7±13.0 8717.6±1064.7
Tsu 28 539.9±363.6 2.5±5.8 2841.5±1978.6 16.0±17.0 1736.0±1532.8 13.5±24.3 2.9±8.2 92.8±55.0 693.8±446.6 55.3±68.3 17.2±28.4 2.2±5.4 6013.6±724.4
Wakayama 27 502.9±168.3 3.0±7.4 1171.6±907.8 4.6±5.6 791.3±933.6 27.8±21.5 2.3±3.0 117.1±85.4 837.2±589.9 68.6±58.1 42.7±75.5 6.3 ± 19.8 3572.7 ± 348.0
Fukuoka 28 425.5 ± 221.1 4.5 ± 8.2 1498.1 ± 841.5 8.2 ± 13.9 1029.3 ± 1129.7 30.6 ± 21.9 3.6 ± 10.4 52.1 ± 27.4 239.0 ± 139.2 48.5 ± 48.6 19.2 ± 30.7 1.6 ± 3.4 3360.2 ± 394.3
Fukuoka 28 225.2 ± 108.1 27.3 ± 52.9 1094.3 ± 752.3 6.4 ± 8.2 1450.2 ± 1513.0 11.7 ± 12.0 0.9 ± 1.3 50.6 ± 31.2 369.4 ± 222.1 23.0 ± 16.4 21.5 ± 33.7 2.1 ± 4.9 3282.6 ± 392.3
Nagasaki 28 279.3 ± 359.7 17.8 ± 35.2 2924.9 ± 2247.9 22.5 ± 25.5 1130.6 ± 1258.0 19.5 ± 30.6 1.9 ± 3.1 47.6 ± 48.3 754.9 ± 868.5 76.7 ± 91.1 45.6 ± 71.7 6.6 ± 12.9 5328.0 ± 688.1
Kumamoto 28 276.5 ± 155.4 48.7 ± 88.1 1454.8 ± 864.7 7.6 ± 9.3 1186.7 ± 1068.2 318.7 ± 276.9 1.9 ± 3.5 110.5 ± 101.5 513.5 ± 315.5 113.9 ± 108.1 11.5 ± 19.1 3.5 ± 7.2 4047.8 ± 406.0
Miyazaki 28 178.9 ± 161.3 7.8 ± 15.2 1812.5 ± 1127.2 26.2 ± 58.8 337.3 ± 348.4 2.1 ± 3.1 1.9 ± 3.0 68.4 ± 76.9 416.1 ± 402.4 78.1 ± 117.6 69.1 ± 143.8 7.1 ± 10.9 3005.5 ± 406.7
Yakushima 16 28.3 ± 14.5 1.7 ± 2.4 647.4 ± 483.8 17.6 ± 25.0 20.1 ± 16.8 0.4 ± 1.1 2.4 ± 4.0 4.6 ± 2.9 157.4 ± 62.9 1.7 ± 1.5 240.1 ± 136.5 49.1 ± 24.1 1170.8 ± 145.2

Table 2: Main Tree Pollen Counts per cm²per year at each location in Japan

Perspective and Conclusion

In future new occurrences of oral allergy syndrome due to increasing allergic tree pollen grains would be appeared. The continuous pollen research should be important for patients with pollinosis in Japan.

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