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ISSN: 2162-6359
International Journal of Economics & Management Sciences
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Relationship between Reputation Perception and Job Pursuit Intention in Private Sector

Rab Nawaz Khan*

Department of Finance, Preston University, Canal Town, Peshawar 25000, Pakistan

*Corresponding Author:
Rab Nawaz Khan
Preston University
Department of Finance, Canal Town
Peshawar 25000, Pakistan
Tel: 923229100101
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: April 13, 2017; Accepted Date: April 26, 2017; Published Date: April 28, 2017

Citation: Khan RN (2017) Relationship between Reputation Perception and Job Pursuit Intention in Private Sector. Int J Econ Manag Sci 6: 422. doi: 10.4172/2162-6359.1000422

Copyright: © 2017 Khan RN. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

These days’ companies use the concept of branding in the area of Human Resource Management and the application of branding principles to HRM has been termed as Employer Branding. This ideology is applied to attract potential recruits and to reassure that the existing employees are involved in the company’s culture and strategy. Therefore, the aim this research study is to analyze how organizations’ reputation together with job attributes influence potential job seekers’ intention to apply for a job. This study is quantitative in nature and its scope is to find out the impact of organizational identity on potential recruits. To achieve this objective, a survey of a sample size of 100 students enrolled in the Masters and Graduate program of four business school Karachi was conducted with the help of questionnaire. Correlation test will be run to find out the relationship between reputation perception and job-pursuit intentions. Through the in-depth analysis of the conducted survey, it was seen that employer branding is positively associated with job seeker intention to apply and to attract more than more talented and qualified candidates therefore organization need to be attractive employer by focusing on different strategies of employer branding and through this approach their can increase applicant intention to apply. It can be concluded that reputation information of an organization creates brand equity that generate the perception of organization's prestige in the market and students get influenced by the reputation of a firm because due to that they want to associate with a branded organization to start their career.

Keywords

Human resource management; Job; Employees; Organizations

Introduction

Human resource professional’s daily struggle is to manage the best of talent. Gone are the days when companies used to recruit while focusing on compensation and benefits, now, these factors don’t give them any edge over their competitors. Leaders have recognized that the success of their organization is on the employee which eventually has increased concerns about managing key talent for the years to come. These days’ corporate themes are more focused on succession planning, growing and grooming. Some industries face talent shortage due to scarce skills while some are facing aging workforce which they need to replace. Apart from revenues, firms are competing for personnel these days. Tackling this issue won’t be a difficulty if concept of employer branding is put to use by these firm.

According to Hallen [1], in an era where abilities and knowledge of employees are amongst the main competitive enablers, organization will not disregard the significance of appealing, attracting and retaining talented people. The new economy is distinguished by a volatile and unstable talent demand–supply equation set against erratic attrition trends and boundless cutthroat competition and organizations have not ever had a harder time in finding, locating, organizing, and managing nurturing talent [2,3]. According to Boshard and Louw [4], research indicate that the impact and influence of talent shortage block and obstructs organizational efforts to execute against to growth strategies thereby rendering sustainability threats to organizations and straining economic growth.

Companies that are marketing focused value their brands as most treasured asset and keep brand management as their key activity. It was an old concept that branding can only be applied to products or the corporation as a whole, while the new industry practices suggests that branding in the area of human resource management is also applicable. Hence, once branding is applied in this area, it is known as ‘Employer Branding’ then. This ideology is applied to attract potential recruits and to reassure that the existing employees are involved in the company’s culture and strategy [5].

Corporate Manager and their human resource functionaries are going in the direction of putting a high premium on employer brand as a critical success factor for companies striving and trying to gain competitive advantage in the talent war [6,7]. The latest global survey by Deloitte LLP [8] in which this observation and fact is verified and this review discovered that the significance of employer brand seem to have the attention of companies with retention plans as more than seven in ten (72%) which will increase and boost their aim on employer brand in the year to come.

If we look into the deeper meaning of ‘Employer Branding’ then it’s actually the ability to manage talent within the organization which comprises of skilled and educated workforce. It aligns motivation and growth of talent with the corporate objectives. Employer branding should be given preference on leadership agenda as Generation ‘Y’ has increased the shortage of talent globally due to many reasons like ageing population, technological advances, mobility of workers, migration, cultural diversity and declining fertility rates.

A Leading employer branding consultant from UK (Simon Barrow) defines four elements to go about working with employer branding. First is the service suite i.e. employment package which comprises of the job responsibilities, work/life balance, financial compensation and professional development. Second is the environment and culture which comprises of the external environment approach towards work and size of the firm. Third is integrity which is basically to deliver your commitments and last is performance of the management which is the most important in this process [9].

Hence, employer brand gives an edge. It was derived from a research that there is one determinant i.e. organizational reputation which enables the ability of an organization to manage new talent [10]. Strategically Pakistani organizations are utilizing their employer brand to build their overall corporate reputation which will help them in managing talent and will eventually help in the growth and prosperity of the organization.

Problem statement

In 2007 Armstrong research has revealed that the talent pool is shrinking globally and what talent management decision and conclusion should be made are uncertain and unsure by the organization. The connection and relation between employer brand and the attraction and retention of talent has been proves by research evidence [11], However, In 2006 claims by Minchington that many organizations are not developing or maintaining their employer brand appropriately, and talent shortages can render organizations vulnerable in terms of competitive sustainability [12,13]. The problems that are faced by the organization due to shrinking talent pool of applicant are qualified applicant prefer one organization over other and applicant intention to apply in employer branded organization refuse many opportunities of job offers. Some employer branded organization give unrealistic information’s which lead to low level of commitment, inflated and exaggerated expectation and create dissatisfaction with the current job.

Literature Review

For any organization granted with all financial, economic and strategic support with latest and up to dated technologies but the major driving force for any organization which lead them from one step of success to another step is only due to its workforce. Attract best and talented workforce by the organization is only possible, when it has positive image as an employer. Therefore intention to apply for the job and decision of job choice by applicant are only possible due to organization image and employer branding. There is highly correlation between potential and talented applicant’s initial job choice decisions and positive organization image because every applicant wants to initiate their career with organization which has strong name in market [14].

This question always rises in the mind of every employer, why candidates are more concerned and attracted towards a particular organization? According to Cable and Judge [15], the answer of this question that, now day’s applicants are more focus on organization characteristics such as organization image, branded name, positive reputation, locality of the organization, pay level and person fit organization rather than nature of job. Job application attitude and job application intention have positive and significant relationship with perception of person job fit organization [16]. Hence organization familiarity in the eye of applicants play a vital role in the rating of employer and due to that organization which is more familiar to candidate are rated as top attractive employers and more likely to have strong and positive image in the market [17]. The size and quality of organization applicant pool or applicant database are influence by the organization reputation and organization image [18]. Therefore corporate image is symbolization of information available to applicants and which serve as a link to attract potential and talented job seeker towards the organization. According to Collins and Stevens [19], explain that in starting the organization image create charm and this charm influence the decision to apply for the job held by potential and talented applicants, whereas it can be said that image create attraction which finally prove an positive effect on applicant intention to apply for the job in a particular organization.

The purpose of my research was to explore employer branding importance in the culture of Pakistan in the comparison and assessment with world. Organizations of Pakistan are now starting focusing on employer branding concept because this concept of reputation perception has now gained recognition among the practicing HR manager [20]. Whereas in the past, there was not much focus on the concept of employer branding and image of the organization, people were more concerned about the nature of job and show least concerned with name of the organization but as awareness is entering in the market about concept of employer branding and trend are changing people are getting more and more concerned about the organization image because their don’t want to associate with negative image organization.

Currently organizations are facing severe competition in the market and to win this competition organization start adopting different strategies, main focus are on paying attention on the name of the company along with corporate culture. Hence organization can only win the war of talent if they have good and positive corporate image in the market along with potential, talented and qualified resource in face of employees. Therefore my research focuses on direct and indirect factors of perceived employer branding of the particular company in the mind of applicant and how these factors attract and affect applicant’s intention to apply in a particular organization.

Theoretical framework

The chosen model elaborates on how “job seekers reputation perceptions affect job pursuit decisions”. The model depicts those job seekers perception about organizational reputation is a function of organization reputation and image, recruitment advertisements and familiarity of the organization (Figure 1).

economics-and-management-sciences-perception

Figure 1: Job seekers reputation perception.

Organization’s image is analogous and which is similar to a Brand name. Job seekers value reputation in two contexts:

To make assumption about the quality of attributes of job because these assumption are difficult to learn earlier than the job acceptance.

To improve one’s self esteem through association with firms having favorable reputation [21].

According to the model it is not possible for the job seekers to acquire substantial knowledge and information about the job attributes and the prevailing organizational culture before starting the job, therefore the decision of short listing the organizations to apply for, becomes difficult in the initial phases of the employment i.e. in the early stage of interview and site visits of an organization. Therefore a job seeker tends to use organization image and reputation as a green signal about attributes of the job of the organization.

A corporation with a positive image and reputation will result in attracting a job seekers attention as association/affiliation with the positively reputed organization will result in pride [22].

On the other hand no one would like to be associated with the organization having a negative image or reputation. To be associated with the reputed organization job seeker are enthusiastic and willing to pay a premium which is in the form of minimum salary [23] (Figure 2).

economics-and-management-sciences-relationship

Figure 2: Illustration of the relationship between a unique and attractive employer brand and the brand related behaviour of employees, as seen through the lens of SIA.

Using the model as the theoretical framework will be studied to what extend websites influence applicants to apply for the job.

Research Objective

To find out recruitment outcomes which are influence by reputation perception and the relationship between reputation perceptions and job-pursuit intentions, the objective of this research focus on:

• Relationship between reputation perception and job pursuit intention to apply for job?

• To determine if organization reputation affect job applicants decision to refuse or accept the job offers?

Research question

What organizational attributes develop an effective response on potential applicants which leads intention to apply?

What is the relationship between overall attractiveness of employer brand image and the applicant intention to apply?

Why organization reputation matter the job seeker decision at initial phase of employment?

Does corporate/company website help to create employer image and job applicant intention to apply for job ?

Research methodology

The main reason of this chapter is to implement the most accurate and appropriate methodology for the research.

Research methodology and method

Research Methodology is a combination of tools and techniques that are used to gather data for a particular research [24]. It helps in studying a subject in depth and assist in making important decisions during the whole research (ibid).

The two research methodologies i.e. Qualitative and quantitative are that can be used depending on the type of research being conducted, Frankel and Devers [25]. The methodology that I have adopted for my research is Quantitative. Quantitative Research can be described as the research that involves the calculations and measurement of things while Qualitative Research is the research type that focuses on concepts, meanings, characteristics, symbols and description of things [26].

The reason for adopting quantitative research method is because its depend upon numerical data representation and this research methods aims to explore the observations derived from the participants and further these observation analysed to reach conclusion what actually those observations are trying to represent. As according to Creswell, has concisely defined quantitative research is based on numerical results derived from the participants and further explains the logic of those numerical results. This research are of several types, for instance categories as research survey, research based on correlation and relation, experimental based research and research based on casual and comparative. In my research questionnaire will be considered as potential method and reason for selecting this method will be discussed further.

Questionnaire

Questionnaire is a core technique for my research and it is consider as most common method of quantitative research. A questionnaire is a collection of structured investigation questions that are constructed and designed in such a manner that assist in collection of responses from the respondents. The overriding objective of questionnaire is that it translates the researcher need of information into a set of questions that the respondents are willing and able to answer.

There are many ways in which structure of questionnaire can be designed because there are many types of questionnaire like Unstructured and structured questionnaire. Unstructured questionnaire which are open-ended questions and it allow the respondent to express their opinions without any restricting and responses based on their own opinions. Whereas structured questionnaire is close-ended questions which specify the set of response as their format. A structured question may offer multiple-choices, or a scale.

The questionnaire which will I used in my research will be structured questionnaire and Likert scale will be the measurable instrument. “A Technique for the Measurement of Attitudes.” [27,28]. The Likert scale end-points are typically “strongly disagree” and “strongly agree.” This scale will be used for questionnaire development which is rating scale; hence rating will be used to check the degree of the score by the respondents. Likert scale are based upon agree- disagress approach through which attitude of respondents will be measured. It is comparative scaling technique and unidimensional that is measuring single trait in nature.

Research design

This part defines the research design and its purpose is to transform my research questions into a research project. The research design consists of the strategy, planning and structuring of the research process so that research goal can be achieved [29]. The first step in the formation of research design includes the information of research participants, respondents and sample size for the research. The second step in the formation of research design is based on the tests which I adopt in my research and in the last step of my research design I will discuss the ways to analyze my research data.

Population

Population can be defined as the whole group in which we are interested for our research. It is the group from which we can collect data [30]. Since the population is a large group that cannot be covered fully for the research purposes so a small group is usually selected to conduct the research (ibid). The population for my research is the students of different universities or final year students, who are seeking for the job. These respondents were selected for research since they were in completion of their mater and graduation and planning to start their profession and corporate career. Consequently the brand image of organizations is important to know in the perception of these respondents.

My study participants comprise of four universities like IBA, IoBM, Szabist and PAF KIET because these are top well-known business schools of Karachi. In my research employer branding is explored, focusing on attraction and recruitment strategies that will help in analyzing the effects of reputation perception on job-pursuit intentions and also to gain an understanding of how the concept of reputation perception is being utilized by multinational and local companies operating in Pakistan. The aim was to find out how organizations’ reputation work together with job attributes influence potential job seekers’ intention to apply for a job.

Sample size: Sample is the division of population through probability and non-probability sampling. The sampling techniques are of two types i.e. “probability of representative sampling and nonprobability or judgmental sampling”, “In probability sampling, each unit is drawn with known probability.” “Non probability sampling or judgment sampling depends on subjective judgment.” [31].

Probability sampling is the best approach while conducting quantitative research which includes Simple Random, Stratified, Systematic and Cluster Sampling. The sample size of respondents is selected through Cluster sampling which is probability sampling to ensure the participation of respondents that are relevant to this research. Cluster sampling can easily defined as a group of sampling element from which you can select a smaller sub sample. As Sukhatme (n.d.) [32] tell us: “The smallest units into which a population can be divided are called the elements of the population, and group of elements the clusters.” Whereas according to Henry [33], Cluster sampling is similar to stratified sampling because its divide the population into discrete group prior to sampling.

The nature of my research is based on quantitative and its scope is to find out the impact of organizational identity on potential recruits. To achieve this objective, my research was conducted with a sample size of 100 students who were enrolled in the Masters of Business Administration program from the four business schools of Karachi. As there are many students are enrolled in four universities and it is not possible for me to capture the response of all of them so that why I have selected Cluster Sampling which is most common sampling technique.

Analyzed the data

In the last step of formulating the research design, I will discuss how I will analyze the data which is obtained from the filled questionnaire by respondents. After the data are collected through questionnaire, I will assign codes to each answer which is determining through respondents responses. After coding is complete, I will prepare excel sheet in which I will enter the respondent’s response. These coding lists put directly to SPSS software, which is most common tool that produce statistical test and to check reliability of the data. To get a clear understanding about the opinion of respondent’s bar charts will be constructed to give the evaluator a clear idea about the topic.

Test used in research: Relationship between reputation perception and job pursuit intention is analyzed by correlation techniques. To check the data reliability and validity SPSS software will be used and to find out relationship correlation and cross tabulation test will be run.

Correlation: I would use “Correlation Test” to compare employer branding and reputation perception relationship between job pursuit intentions. The term correlation means finding relationship between more than two variables. In non-experimental research correlation is used as a descriptive tool. Correlation technique range from -1 to +1 which represent stronger relationship between the variables. They are two of correlation which is i) Positive and negative and ii) Linear and non Linear. In short, if changes occur in one variable, other variable will be automatically changed and this relationship between variables are said to be correlation.

Cross tabulation: Contingency table is created from the multivariate frequency distribution of statistical variables. It has a row for each category of one variable, and a column for each category of the other variable and which easily give reader idea of respondent perception because it explain category vise.

Ethical issues: McNamara [34], identifies in his research five ethical concerns which should be considered which doing research by the researcher and these guidelines are voluntary participation, no harm to respondents anonymity and confidentiality, identifying purpose and sponsor, and analysis and reporting. To avoid these issues respondents answer will remain confidential and if any respondent want that his or her name should be remain secret, so it shout not be mentioned in the research. I will make sure that my questionnaire does not contain any question which affects the moral of the respondents.

Proof of validity and reliability

“George and Mallery provide the following rules of thumb about Cronbach Alpha: (Table 1).

Cronbachalpha value Correlation between scores
Greater than 0.9 (>0.9) Excellent
Greater than 0.8 (>0.8) Good
Greater than 0.7 (>0.7) Acceptable
Greater than 0.6 (>0.6) Questionable
Greater than 0.5 (>0.5) Poor
Less than 0.5 (<0.5) Unacceptable

Table 1: Rule of thumb about Cronbachalpha.

While increasing the value of alpha is partially dependent upon the number of items in the scale, it should be noted that this has diminishing returns. It should also be noted that an alpha of 0.8 is probably a reasonable goal. It should also be noted that while a high value for Cronbach’s alpha indicates good internal consistency of the items in the scale, it does not mean that the scale is unidimensional (one dimensional)” [35].

General Question (From Q1 – Q10) (Table 2).

Mean Variance Std. Deviation No. of items
72 31.5 5.612 17
Cronbach's Alpha No. of items
0.764 10

Table 2: Reliability statistics.

Interpretation: The overall cronbach alpha is 0.764 which is reliability coefficient considered acceptable and represents the degree of internal consistency among a set questionnaire item. The item- total statistics table represents that the cronbach alpha if the 1st question deleted it will drop the overall cronbach alpha 0.744 with the removal of 1st question it will increase the overall reliability of the questionnaire, however 9th question is certain because it increases the cronbach alpha value from 0.764 to 0.804 (Table 3).

Mean Variance Std. Deviation No. of items
9.8333 22.967 4.79236 10
Cronbach's Alpha Cronbach's Alpha based on standarised items No. of items
0.783 0.796 10

Table 3: Likert Scale Reliability Statistics.

Interpretation: The overall cronbach alpha is 0.783 which is reliability coefficient considered acceptable and represents the degree of internal consistency among a set questionnaire item. The item- total statistics table represents that the cronbach alpha if the 1st question deleted it will drop the overall cronbach alpha 0.775 with the removal of 1st question it will increase the overall reliability of the questionnaire, however last question is certain because it increases the cronbach alpha value from 0.783 to 0.839.

In this case the corporate reputation drives job seeker to apply for the job hypothesized a positive correlation between the decisions of short listing the organization to apply during initial phase of employment was 0.274, Since the significant value 0.006 (which is less than 0.05), we can say that there is a significant correlation between corporate reputation drives job seeker decision to short listing the organization at initial phase of the employment.

Whereas the good organizational reputation increase job applicant intension to accept offer represent Pearson Correlation value 0.257 which mean corporate reputation which drives the job seeker to apply for the job has positive relationship with the good organizational reputation increase job applicant intension to accept job offer, since the significant value is 0.05 (which is less than 0.05), we can say there is significant correlation between these two questions.

The corporate reputation drives the job seeker to apply for the job represent positive Pearson correlation (0.237) with the poor organizational reputation increase the applicant refuse the job offer. Its significant level is 0.018 which is below 0.05; we can say that our data support our research question.

The decision of short listing the organization became difficult at initial phase of the employment represent positive Pearson relationship with organizational reputation increase applicant intention to accept and refuse job offer. Whereas 0.596 Pearson correlation value represent that there is positive and significant relation between decision of short listing organization and reputation impact on accepting job offer. This question has extremely strong relationship between the poor organization reputation increase the job applicant intention to refuse the job offer 0.601 as the Pearson’s value is closer to 1 and its significant level is 0.000 which is below 0.05, we can say that our data support our research question.

Pearson value is positive which means there is a positive correlation between two variables as if one variable increase the other will also increase, we can conclude that the good reputation increase the applicant intention to accept the job have significant relation with poor reputation increase applicant intention to refuse job offer as it Pearson value is 0.307 and sign value is 0.002.

The decision of short listing the organization became difficult at initial phase of the employment represent positive Pearson relationship with organizational reputation increase applicant intention to accept and refuse job offer. Whereas there is positive and significant relation between decisions of short listing organization and reputation impact on accepting job offer.

The Pearson’s for the correlation between companies should go for employer branding and in initial stage of your career, you would prefer branded employer is 0.249 which is positive relationship and significant level is 0.013 (less than 0.05). Whereas it also indicate positive correlation between seeking advice from the family and a company should go for employer branding which is 0.237.

The Pearson’s correlation between seeking advice from friends and company should go for employer branding is showing negative correlation value -0.148. We can conclude that there is no statistically significant correlation between two variables as significant value is 0.148 which is greater than 0.05, that mean increase or decrease in one variable do not significantly relate to increases or decreases in other variable.

There is positive correlation between companies should go for employer branding and seeking advice from recruitment consultants, as Pearson’s value is 0.180 which mean as one variable value increase and second variable value also increases. 0.074 Sig value is greater than 0.05 which mean there is no statistically significant correlation between two variables.

There is positive and significant correlation between companies should go for employer branding and seeking advice from current employee, as Pearson’s value is 0.204 and Sig value is 0.041 which is less than 0.05.

There is positive Pearson correlation (0.420) between companies should go for employer branding and seeking advice from media, which mean if one variable increase other variable also increase. This relationship also indicates significant relation 0.000 which is less than 0.05.

There is positive correlation between a company should go for employer branding and give preference to the organization detail before appearing for an interview, as Pearson’s value is 0.146 which mean as one variable value increase and second variable value also increases and 0.147 Sig value is greater than 0.05 which mean there is no statistically significant correlation between two variables.

In the initial stage of career you will prefer branded employer has positive and significant relation with seeing advice from family, seeking advice from recruitment consultants and give preference to organization detail before appearing for an interview. We can conclude that when the amount of first variable increase, so it significantly increase second variable value.

In the initial stage of career you will prefer branded employer has positive and but no statistically significant relation with seeing advice from friends, seeking advice from current employee and seeking advice from media. That mean, increases or decreases in one variable do not have significantly relate to increases or decrease in second variable.

There is negative relation -0.265 and significant correlation (0.008 which is less than 0.05) between seeking advice from family and seeing advice from friends.

There is positive relation and no statistically significant correlation as Sig value is greater than 0.05 between seeing advice from family and seeking advice from recruitment consultant current employee and gives preference to organization detail before interview.

Pearson’s value (0.311) is positive which mean there is positive and significant correlation (0.002 which is less than 0.05) between two variables as if one variable increase the other will also increase

There is negative relation and no statistically significant correlation as Sig value is greater than 0.05 between seeing advice from friends and seeking advice from media and gives preference to organization detail before interview.

There is positive relation and no statistically significant correlation as Sig value is greater than 0.05 between seeing advice from friends and seeking advice from recruitment consultant, and seeking advice from current employee.

The Pearson’s for the correlation between seeking advice from recruitment consultant and seeking advice from current employee is 0.559 which is positive relationship and closer to 1 and significant level is 0.000 (less than 0.05).

There is positive correlation between seeking advice from recruitment consultant and seeking advice from current employee and give preference to the organization detail before appearing for an interview, as Pearson’s value is 0.020 and 0.154 which mean as one variable value increase and second variable value also increases and 0.840 and 0.125 Sig value is greater than 0.05 which mean there is no statistically significant correlation between two variables.

There is positive relation and no statistically significant correlation as Sig value is greater than 0.05 between seeking advice from recruitment consultant, and seeking advice from media and give preference to the organization detail before appearing for an interview, That mean, increases or decreases in one variable do not have significantly relate to increases or decrease in second variable.

There is positive correlation between seeking advice from media and give preference to the organization detail before appearing for an interview, as Pearson’s value is 0.448 which mean as one variable value increase and second variable value also increases and 0.000 Sig value is less than 0.05 which mean there is statistically significant correlation between two variables.

Answer Each Research Question

Research question 1

What organizational attributes develop an effective response on potential applicants which leads intention to accept and refuse job offer? (Table 4).

Correlations
  The good organisational reputation increase job applicants intention to accept job offers The poor organisational reputation increase job applicants intention to refuse job offers
The good organisational reputation increase job applicants intention to accept job offers Pearson Correlation 1 0.307
Sig. (2-tailed)   0.002
N 100 1
The poor organisational reputation increase job applicants intention to refuse job offers Pearson Correlation 0.307 1
Sig. (2-tailed) 0.002  
N 1 100

Table 4: Good and poor organizational reputation increase job applicant intention to accept and refuse job offers.

Interpretation: Pearson value is positive which means there is a positive correlation between two variables as if one variable increase the other will also increase, we can conclude that the good reputation increase the applicant intention to accept the job have significant relation with poor reputation increase applicant intention to refuse job offer as it Pearson value is 0.307 and sign value is 0.002 which is less than 0.05 which mean that there is significantly correlation between two variables.

To comparison with my literature review a corporation with a positive image and reputation will result in attracting a job seekers attention as association/affiliation with the positively reputed organization will result in pride. On the other hand no one would like to be associated with the organization having a negative image or reputation.

Research question 2

What is the relationship between overall attractiveness of employer brand image and the applicant intention to apply? (Table 5).

Correlations
  In the initial stage of your career, would you prefer branded employer The corporate reputation drives job seeker to apply for the job
In the initial stage of your career, would you prefer branded employer Pearson Correlation 1 0.403
Sig. (2-tailed)   0
N 100 100
The corporate reputation drives job seeker to apply for the job Pearson Correlation 0.403 1
Sig. (2-tailed) 0  
N 100 100

Table 5: In Initial stage of your career you prefer branded employer and reputation drives job seeker to apply for job.

Interpretation: The relationship between overall attractiveness of employer brand image and the applicant intention apply is my research question, this can easily explain through that there is positive and significant relationship between the corporate reputation drives job seeker to apply for the job and in the initial stage of career you would prefer branded employer as Pearson value is 0.403 and significant value is 0.000 which is less than 0.05, which mean that there is significant correlation between two variables (Table 6).

Correlations
  The decision of short listing the organisation to apply, becomes difficult at initial phases of employment The job applicants are more likely to purchase jobs at firms with positive reputations because they feel pride from association with that firm
The decision of short listing the organisation to apply, becomes difficult at initial phases of employment Pearson Correlation 1 0.242
Sig. (2-tailed)   0.015
N 100 100
The job applicants are more likely to purchase jobs at firms with positive reputations because they feel pride from association with that firm Pearson Correlation 0.242 1
Sig. (2-tailed) 0.015  
N 100 100

Table 6: Organization reputation matter in job seeker decision.

According to my literature review the applicants tend to judge an organization with respect to trait inferences in terms of symbolic and intangible attributes. Such trait inferences play a vital role in developing a perception about the organization in the early recruitment stages [36]. Applicants show preference towards those organizations which traits are similar to traits of applicants [37-43].

Research question 3

Why organization reputation matter the job seeker decision? (Table 7).

Correlations      
    The decision of short listing the organisation to apply, becomes difficult at initial phases of employment The job applicants are more likely to purchase jobs at firms with positive reputations because they feel pride from association with that firm
Before applying for a job in a company, do you visit the corporate website Pearson Correlation 1 .171
  Sig. (2-tailed)   .090
  N 100 100
The website of an organization play a major role in applying for the job. Pearson Correlation 171 1
  Sig. (2-tailed) 090  
  N 100 100

Table 7: Company website helps to create employer image & job seeker intention to apply for the job.

Interpretation: Pearson value is positive which means there is a positive correlation between two variables as if one variable increase the other will also increase, we can conclude it like.

The decision of short listing the organization to apply became difficult at initial phase of the employment has 0.242 which is significant positive relation with the job applicants are more likely to purse job at firm with positive reputation because they feel pride from association with the firm. Significant value is 0.015 which is less than 0.05, which mean there is statistically significant correlation between two variables [43-48].

According to my research literature review theoretical model of job seeker reputation perception by Cable and Turban, it is not possible for the job seekers to acquire substantial knowledge and information about the job attributes and the prevailing organizational culture before starting the job, therefore the decision of short listing the organizations to apply for, becomes difficult in the initial phases of the employment i.e. prior to the interviews and organization site visits. Therefore a job seeker tends to use organization image and reputation as a green signal about attributes of the job of the organization and a corporation with a positive image and reputation will result in attracting a job seekers attention as association/affiliation with the positively reputed organization will result in pride [49].

Research question 4

Does corporate/company website help to create employer image and job applicant intention to apply for job?

Interpretation: In this case the website of an organization play a major role in applying for the job have a positive relation with before applying for a job, visit corporate website and represent Pearson correlation 0.171 that mean if one variable increase the other variable will also increase. It also represent significant value 0.090 which is less than 0.50, we can say that there is a significant correlation between these two questions [50-56].

According to my research literature review recruitment advertisements have been considered as one of the most conventional approaches for recruiting employees. It is crucial that the recruitment advertisements attract the potential applicants and encourage them to apply. At the initial phase of recruitment job seekers use these advertisements to collect information regarding potential employer through company websites. Therefore contents of these advertisements available on the company website have the potential to influence jobseekers decision [57-59].

Conclusion

On basis of my literature review and students opinions major findings and conclusions are discussed below:

The research observes the relationship between reputation perception and job pursuit intention to apply. Result indicates that there is a positive relationship of employer branding for organizational attractiveness and respondents have given more importance and intentions to join a prestigious employer.

The repute of the organization always make them highly prestigious and people prefer to work with these organizations and on the other hand no one would like to be associated with the organization having a negative image or reputation. In Pakistan good reputation organization along with strong market and brand name are easily attract more and more talented candidates and It can be concluded that reputation information creates brand equity that generate the perception of organization's prestige in the market and students get influenced by the reputation of a firm because due to that they want to associate with a branded organization to start their career.

On basic of above mentions discussion and finding show that good reputation and strong market name help the organization to attract good and potential talent for the company because reputation image of the organization attracts the candidate and provide a job with less amount of salary. It can be concluded that young generation or job seeker decision related to job acceptance decision is associated with organization reputation because now generation has created a perception that branded name at the initial start of their career will give a potential start of their professional life. Whereas company website help to create employer image and job applicant’s intention to apply for the job. Statistical testing shows that there is positive relationship between that company’s website give competitive advantages because it’s attract the potential applicants and encourage them to apply. Whereas corporate website helps organization to express its positive image and became a channel to provide sufficient knowledge about organization to job seekers and consequently through this media job seeker perceive information about organization environment and its corporate culture.

Recommendation

• Local organization also initiates on campus recruitment drive and at the same time run information sessions to communicate effectively about their current job opening.

• From the analysis one of the findings was that students from top universities feel more inclined towards working for branded organization, therefore local organizations should put more effort in changing its perception of these students, so that their image is improved. Local organizations should identify and communicate more about its career advancement opportunities, prospects for high earnings in the future and also new learning opportunities.

• Both the companies whether local or branded can benefit more from utilizing above the line and below the line activities. This will help in facilitating awareness in terms of organizational values, vision, mission, job openings, recruitment programs, CSR activities, corporate recognition awards etc. From the analysis it was observed that though students were familiar with organizations through their websites.

• The management of local organization needs to incorporate employer branding strategies for effective human resource management, this will enable them to not only attract the right talent but also create a sense of ownership among existing employees and enhance corporate reputation among potential recruits.

Limitation of Study

We always come across certain limitations while we conduct a research. My research limitation includes:

• Due to lack of time my current research focuses on employer reputation and brand image overall and intention to apply for the job by applicants but in future this thesis can be studied on employer branding specific dimensions. In this research the respondents are only graduate students who are about to start their career but in future this research can be conducted on working employees to explore their perception about organization image and identity.

• Since my research is questionnaire based and the population required to fill the questionnaires, the difficultly I came across will be getting hold of students together to fill the questionnaires since they don’t have time and the students mostly not serious while filling the questionnaire and mostly give biased answer never response the question appropriately.

References

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