Relationship between Sexual Satisfaction and Body Image and Attachment Styles with Marital Satisfaction
Received Date: Oct 13, 2017 / Accepted Date: Jan 27, 2018 / Published Date: Feb 05, 2018
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between sexual satisfaction, satisfaction with the body image and attachment styles with marital satisfaction of married students of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. The statistical population of the study consisted of all married students living in married dormitories. A total of 127 residents of the dormitory were selected as sample size in an accessible manner. The instruments of this study were Enrich's Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire, Kermani's Sexual Satisfaction Questionnaire, Soutu's and Garcia's Satisfaction Questionnaire and Hazan and Shaver Attachment Styles Questionnaire. The data obtained from the questionnaires were analyzed by SPSS software using hierarchical regression, Pearson correlation coefficient and T-test for independent groups. Results showed that predictive variables can jointly explain 0.32 of variance in marital satisfaction.
Keywords: Marital satisfaction; Sexual satisfaction; Body image; Attachment styles
A family can be considered as an emotional unit and a network of interconnected relationships that are based on marital links between men and women and the consent of a person from marital life is considered as his consent from the family, and satisfaction of the family is the concept of life satisfaction, thereby facilitating the growth and excellence of material and spiritual progress of society . Marital life should be a satisfying relationship for spouses that can meet their emotional and psychological needs and each couple can, in addition to having psychological security, meet their sexual needs in a sincere atmosphere . Marital satisfaction is a general assessment of marital status  and one of its most important and complex aspects , which ensures the family's mental health  and one of the vital aspects of a marital system is a major contribution to the progression and achievement of life's goals . Reduction and lack of marital satisfaction is one of the most important reasons for couples to go to family counselors and therapists. The upward trend in divorce statistics and the existence of conflicts and disturbances in couples' relationships has raised the incentive for researchers to find suitable solutions to counter this social phenomenon .
One of the important dimensions of the relationship between the spouses, which is often neglected, is sexual intercourse. Unfortunately, the cause of many mental disorders and marital maladaptation is due to sexual dissatisfaction and, for years, neglecting the sexual instinct in man, the irreparable complications of social relationships and married people and laying the foundations of their families. Many studies have pointed to the effect of sexual satisfaction on marital satisfaction [7,8].
Sexual issues are important in terms of first-degree issues of marital life, with sexual pleasure, and with increased sexual satisfaction, marital satisfaction also increases  Understanding and studying these sexual behaviors is one of the most important issues in public health, especially mental health . Sexual satisfaction is an emotional state that is created by personal desires in the context of them sexual life, in other words, the seventh dimension of a person's sexual life. Six other dimensions are sex, position detection, will, desire, arousal, and orgasm . Sexual satisfaction is affected by various factors such as occupational stress, couples' relationships, age, problems and physical diseases, gender, education and culture, psychological problems, physical appearance, and so on. One of the factors influencing sexual satisfaction, physical appearance and the attitude towards it is that it can also affect marital satisfaction. The body image involves conscious and unconscious thoughts about the body, In other words, a concept consists of individual feelings about body size, gender, performance and body's ability to achieve goals  which has a multidimensional structure, but often as a degree of satisfaction with The physical appearance (size, shape and general appearance) is defined [13,14] which includes judgmental, emotional, cognitive and behavioral components . Satisfaction of body image is of particular importance  so that change can have a great influence on personality  and physical and mental health . One of the areas of communication between people with one another and the emotions that they are about to derive from their body’s composition and physical fitness , it is evident that if a person does not have a good and proper perception of their body, then Disillusioned with others [18,19].
Another important factor affecting interpersonal interactions is the type of attachment style that has developed in their childhood, with regard to the environment in which it evolved, at a later age.
Attachment is a relatively stable emotional bond that is created between the child and the mother or those who are in regular interaction with the infant . Individuals with different attachment styles act in different ways in different situations, including stressful situations, in different ways. In other words, attachment style is a factor for identifying and classifying individual differences. So couples with different attachment styles will experience different levels of marital satisfaction.
The most famous researches in this field are Hazan-Shaver, which examined the role of adult intercourse in couple’s relationships about the nature of emotional ties. The results showed that the characteristics of emotional bond between couples are comparable with the characteristics of the emotional attachment of the child to mother, and the well-known style of secure, avoidance and ambivalent attachment influenced the thoughts, feelings and behavior of couples in marital relationships. Research conducted in this field include research [21-23], which all indicate that subjects with a secure attachment style have less problems with marital problems, problems between a lesser person and a higher level of happiness than the subjects with ambivalent anxiety attachment style.
Although many researches have been done on marital satisfaction and the relationship of its various dimensions with human life, the study of this variable along with the variable of sexual satisfaction and the body image satisfaction and attachment styles is an important and controversial issue, as well as a lack of Internal research on tone design has raised the importance of this issue. Therefore, paying attention to the priority of mental health of couples is an incentive to conduct research in order to answer the question whether there is a relationship between marital satisfaction, satisfaction of body image and attachment styles of married students. Can marital Satisfaction be predicted through sexual satisfaction and body image and attachment styles? The present research seeks to answer these questions.
Sexual satisfaction and satisfaction from body image and attachment style significantly predict marital satisfaction.
There is a significant relationship between sexual satisfaction and marital satisfaction of married students of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad.
There is a significant relationship between body image satisfaction and marital satisfaction of the married students of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad.
There is a significant relationship between the attachment styles and marital satisfaction of the married students of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad.
There is a significant relationship between sexual satisfaction and body image satisfaction of married students of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad.
There is a significant relationship between sexual satisfaction and attachment styles of married students of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad.
This research is a fundamental purpose-based method and is a correlation descriptive method that examines the possible relationship between research variables (sexual satisfaction, body image satisfaction, attachment styles, and marital satisfaction) as well as prediction of one Variable (marital satisfaction) is measured by other variables (sexual satisfaction and attachment styles and body image satisfaction) arranges everything for you in a user-friendly way.
Society, sample and sampling method
The statistical population of the study included all married students living in married dormitories of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (FUM). 127 residents of the dormitory were selected in the available sampling as sample size.
Data analysis method
In this study, descriptive statistics including mean, median, standard deviation and inferential statistics, correlation coefficient and multiple regression were used by step-by-step method.
Enrich marital satisfaction questionnaire
The questionnaire was developed by Fornier et al. , with a short form of 47 articles. Answering the questions of the Enrich questionnaire by the Likert method, and as 5 options (I totally agree to totally disagree) that are scored 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, scores below 30 indicate severe discontent, 30 to 40 markers Dissatisfaction, 40 to 60 shows sexual and average satisfaction, 60 to 70 indicates a high degree of satisfaction, and scores above 70 represent an excellent marital satisfaction. The questionnaire has a key in which a number of materials are scored in reverse order. The lowest and highest scores in this questionnaire were 47 and 235. Fornier et al.  calculated the reliability of the marital satisfaction questionnaire by using the Cronbach's alpha coefficient 0.92. The validity of this questionnaire was evaluated using correlation questionnaire Marriage (FAD) r=0.65 (p<0.01).
Sexual satisfaction questionnaire
This questionnaire was created by Yavari Kermani and evaluates personal feelings and concerns about affection and sex with the spouse. The expressions of satisfaction with affection and expressing it, the degree of comfort in the discussion of sexuality, the attitudes toward sex, the combination, and decisions about controlling the birth and feelings of a person about sexuality, reflects. Low grades of dissatisfaction with affection in relationships, concerns about the role of gender in marriage, or disagreement with birth control decisions. The tool for collecting sexual satisfaction information is a researchermade questionnaire, which consists of 17 questions and a Likert type of attitude meter, each with a score of one to five points.
The constructor of the questionnaire after making the questionnaire presented it to 8 professors with doctoral degrees in psychology and counseling and they were asked to express each percentage for its validity.
In the final questionnaire, the method of two halves has been used so that individual and paired questions are score separately and the coefficient of reliability and correlation coefficient of this questionnaire are 0.75. This questionnaire was made in accordance with the conditions of Iranian culture. Validity and reliability of this questionnaire are 0.75.
The scale of satisfaction with body image
This scale was created in 2002 by Suoto and Garcia . This scale contains 23 items. The reliability of it was calculated using Cronbach's Alpha 0.91. The differential narrative of the scale could well differentiate between two handsome and poorly-owned groups. The factor validity of this scale was analyzed by Varimax rotation method on 375 students, which showed a general factor. The KMO coefficient was 0.896, which indicates that sampling is sufficient .
In this study, in order to standardize this scale in the Iranian society, the questionnaire was originally translated from English to Persian, and the translation was evaluated by three experts who were fluent in English and Persian. Reforms were carried out. The formal validity of this scale was confirmed by several experts. One of the questions was also removed from the questionnaire in terms of non-compliance with the norms and criterions of the Iranian society. The reliability of this scale was calculated by Cronbach's alpha of 0.91. To evaluate the validity of this scale, factor analysis was also used with the main components with varimax rotation. The KMO index was 0.89 and the Bartlett Correlation coefficient was 2293.3, which was significant at the level (P<0.001), indicating the sufficiency of sample sampling and its correlation matrix. The results of factor analysis showed that there was a main factor on the scale, which explains 31.95 of the variance. To assess the differential normativity of this scale, it was compared between those who came to a dietitian and asked to change their organs and those who expressed goodness. The results showed a significant difference between the two groups (t=27.35, p=0.001, CI=0.95). Therefore, this scale can easily be distinguished between people who are not satisfied with their own body image and those who are content with their own body image.
Hazan Shaver's attachment styles questionnaire
Adult Attachment Scale that is made using Hazan and Shaver attachment test material and standardized for students in Tehran University is a 15-item test and has three secure, avoidant and ambivalent attachment styles on a 5-point Likert scale (very low-1, low-2, medium-3, high-4, very high-5). Avoid style questions are 1-2-3-4-5; Secure style is 6-7-8-9-10; and ambivalent style is 11-12-13-14-15. The minimum and maximum score in the subscales of the test are 5 and 25, respectively. Cronbach's alpha coefficient (reliability) the questions of secure, avoidant and two-way subjective scales for a student sample (1480 including 860 girls and 620 boys) for all subjects were 0.86, 0.84, 0.85 (for female students 0.86, 0.83, 0.84 and for male students 0.84, 0.85 and 0.86), which is a sign of good internal consistency of adult attachment scale. The Kendall consistency coefficients (validity) for secure, avoidant, and bi-directional attachment styles were calculated to be 0.80, 0.61 and 0.75, respectively.
Sexual satisfaction, body image satisfaction and attachment styles significantly predict marital satisfaction.
The subjects tested in this study are 127 people. The demographic information that has been answered by the examiners includes age, gender, duration of marriage and the number of children.
Table 1 describes the statistical variables of the age variable studied. Based on the results of the frequency and percentage of people in different spectra, the highest and lowest frequencies belong to the age group under 20 and 20 to 30 years, respectively.
|Under 20 years old||3||2.4|
|20 to 30||88||69.4|
|30 to 40||36||28.2|
Table 1: Number and percentage of subjects in terms of age.
In Table 2, the statistical description of the participants in the research is presented in terms of gender variable. Based on the results presented in the frequent table of participants, 63 male and 64 female subjects participated in this study.
Table 2: Number and percentage of subjects in terms of gender.
In Table 3, the statistical description of the variables' scores is the length of the marriage studied. Based on the results of the frequency table and the percentage of people in different spectra for the duration of their marriage, the most frequent is the period of 1 to 5 years and the lowest frequency is less than one year and more than 10 years.
|Length of marriage||Abundance||Percentage|
|Less than a year||14||11|
|1 to 5 years||72||56.7|
|5 to 10 years||27||21.3|
|More than 10 years||14||11|
Table 3: Number and percentage of subjects in terms of length of marriage.
Table 4 describes the statistical variables of the number of children of the participants studied. Based on the results of the frequency table and the percentage of people in different spectra, in terms of the number of children, the most frequent participants were parents without children (75 people), and the lowest number of children belonging to the participants with 4 children (3 people)
|number of children||Abundance||Percentage|
|more than 3||3||2.4|
Table 4: Number and percentage of subjects in terms of the number of children.
In order to test this assumption, the preconditions of the regression test were examined.
The distance scale, the independent observation (it is usually assumed that the observations are independent), all of which are observed. There is also a linear relationship between variables which, according to the distribution matrix of Figure 1, can be concluded that this assumption is also observed. The normal distribution, which, in Pearson's correlation, was also assumed.
Based on this study, the correlation coefficients were obtained as Tables 1 and 2.
In Table 5, the variables were showed in abbreviated form BI (Body Image) SS (Sexual Satisfaction) AAS (Avoidant Attachment Style) SAS (Secure Attachment Style) AAS (Ambivalent Attachment Style). According to Table 5, the variables of sexual satisfaction, body image satisfaction and secure attachment style with marital satisfaction have a direct and significant correlation. There was a significant negative correlation between avoidance and ambivalent style and marital satisfaction. Also, variables of satisfaction from body image and secure attachment style with sexual satisfaction had direct and significant correlation, and the variables of avoidant attachment style had a negative and significant correlation with sexual satisfaction. There was no significant relationship between ambivalent attachment style and sexual satisfaction.
Table 5: Correlation coefficient of variables with each other.
To predict the effect of the main variable, marital satisfaction, on predictive variables such as sexual satisfaction, body image satisfaction, and attachment styles, a hierarchical regression is used to control the effects of variables such as age, number of children, duration of marriage, and gender. In the first model, these variables entered, and in the second model, predictive variables were introduced into the model. The results of the hierarchical regression analysis are summarized in Table 2.
As Table 6 shows, with the control of the effect of demographic variables, predictive variables can jointly explain 0.32 of variance in marital satisfaction, which is significant. Among the predictors of the variable, sexual satisfaction alone can predict 0.38 of marital satisfaction variance in marital students. Also, avoidant attachment style can negatively affect the satisfaction variance (-0.16%) Anticipate marriage. Therefore, it can be said that the main hypothesis of the research is confirmed.
|R2=0.35, Modified R2=0.32, f(121, 5)=13.38, P=0|
Table 6: Regression with Inter method to predict marital satisfaction On variables of sexual satisfaction, body image and attachment styles.
Discussion and Conclusion
Satisfaction with marital affairs is important as a component directly related to mental health in families. But this satisfaction is not easily achieved and in itself influenced by many variables. In the first hypothesis, the results of the assumption that relations between sexual satisfaction and marital satisfaction of students are established are confirmed. This shows that there is a positive and significant relationship between sexual satisfaction and marital satisfaction in married students of (FUM). As their sexual satisfaction increases, their marital satisfaction increases and vice versa. Outputs consistent with the research [7,8,26-29]. Sexual life in couples and the degree of satisfaction or dissatisfaction with it are somehow tied to other aspects of the life of couples. Problems with sexual issues such as lack of tendencies, disability, early ejaculation, perhaps due to fear and anxiety, shame and embarrassment, or feelings of unprofessional and falsehood, are not expressed, but such problems cause sexual dissatisfaction among couples And in many cases, these problems may reveal themselves to symptoms and other complications such as physical illness, depression and dissatisfaction with marital life and marital separation, and lead to marital conflicts to the point of deep divorce and family disputes.
In the second hypothesis, the results of this assumption were confirmed. These findings indicate that there is a positive and significant relationship between the concept of man and marital satisfaction. Results consistent with the researches [30-32].
The results of this research and previous studies in this field indicate that it is important that satisfaction with body image is a determinant factor in the level of marital satisfaction in couples, so the more positive this mental image is to that of the body, the more positive will relationship between couples be and ultimately lead to greater marital compatibility and marital satisfaction in couples.
The third hypothesis was also confirmed, indicating that satisfaction with the body image and sexual satisfaction has a positive and meaningful relationship, so that as much as satisfaction from the tone is greater, sexual satisfaction also rises and vice versa. The results are in line with the research [30,31,33-37].
Most people who experience low levels of satisfaction of body image might spend hours assessing their limbs and face in the mirror and engage in mental affairs in this regard. This leads to the fact that they often revive the limbs that they do not like, boosting the root of these thoughts, and stimulating ruminations around their hideful organs. And this is why they are in the treatment. These individuals are advised to avoid rating more than usual in the mirror. These ongoing ruminations reduce self-esteem in a person  and may prevent them from being present in places that may be the despised body part might be exposed, like a pool, and so on. This feeling of embarrassment from the limb may also be reflected in the sexual relations between the husband and wife, and each of the couples may not be able to respond responsibly to the wishes of the other party in a manner that is desirable because of this lack of Sexual dissatisfaction may arise in terms of sexual expectations from each of the couples.
There is a significant relationship between attachment styles and marital satisfaction of married students of (FUM). This assumption is confirmed and indicates that attachment styles and marital satisfaction have a positive and significant relationship. The results are consistent with the research [21-23,39-41]. A study on attachment styles (avoidance, ambivalent, secure) shows that there is a significant relationship between insecure attachment styles and a wide range of emotional and psychological abnormalities and marital satisfaction of couples it affects. The results of the studies show that avoidant and ambivalent attachment style has a negative and significant relationship with couples' marital satisfaction and secure attachment style has a positive and significant relationship with marital satisfaction.
There is a significant relationship between attachment styles and sexual satisfaction of married students of (FUM). This assumption is confirmed and indicates that attachment styles and marital satisfaction have a positive and significant relationship. The results are consistent with the research [18,42].
With regard to the research done and the results obtained from this study, it can be assumed that people with a secure attachment style (compared with those with an avoidant attachment style) because of their higher sense of security and relationship with their partner with more psychological intimacy They also experience more sexual desire and satisfaction in their sexual relationships, but those with an insecure attachment style have less experience of libido because of the discomfort caused by intimacy and the inability to form close relationships with others. They avoid sexual intercourse. On the other hand, people with an ambivalent attachment style are often involved in sexual behavior because of their distress in their attachment style, the need for emotional aspects of sexual intercourse and emotional intimacy and the constant fear of rejection by the sexual partner. Higher sexuality, but less sexual satisfaction.
Thank you from the officials of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad for the coordination necessary to carry out this research.
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Citation: Givi HG, Setayesh S (2018) Relationship between Sexual Satisfaction and Body Image and Attachment Styles with Marital Satisfaction. J Psychol Psychother 8: 335. DOI: 10.4172/2161-0487.1000335
Copyright: ©2018 Givi HG, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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