alexa Research of Ascocotyle (Phagicola) longa in Heat Treated Fillets of Mullet (Mugil platanus) | OMICS International
ISSN: 2150-3508
Fisheries and Aquaculture Journal
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on
Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

Research of Ascocotyle (Phagicola) longa in Heat Treated Fillets of Mullet (Mugil platanus)

Marianna Vaz Rodrigues1*, Agar Costa Alexandrino de Pérez2, Thaís Moron Machado2, Fátima Maria Orisaka3, Jacqueline Kazue Kurissio1 and Andrea Lafisca4

1Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Biosciences Institute, Univ. Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Distrito de Rubião Júnior s/n, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil

2Reference Unit Laboratory Technology of Seafood–Instituto de Pesca, Agência Paulista de Tecnologia do Agronegócio, Secretaria da Agricultura e Abastecimento, Av Bartolomeu de Gusmão 192, Santos, São Paulo, Brazil

3Freelance veterinary Distrito de Rubião Júnior s/n, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil

4Veterinary, In-lingua scientific translations and linguistic services, Distrito de Rubião Júnior s/n, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil

Corresponding Author:
Rodrigues MV
Department of Microbiology and Immunology
Biosciences Institute, Univ. Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Distrito de Rubião Júnior s/n
Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil
Tel: +55 14 3380-0423
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: December 04, 2014; Accepted date: January 19, 2015; Published date: January 21, 2015

Citation: Rodrigues MV, de Pérez ACA, Machado TM, Orisaka FM, Kurissio JK, et al. (2015) Research of Ascocotyle (Phagicola) longa in Heat Treated Fillets of Mullet (Mugil platanus). Fish Aquac J 6:115. doi:10.4172/2150-3508.10000115

Copyright: © 2015 Rodrigues MV, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Visit for more related articles at Fisheries and Aquaculture Journal

Abstract

Seafood can present many biological hazards, such as zoonotic parasites. Among these, Ascocotyle (Phagicola)  longa trematode is generally found in mullets (Mugil platanus) and is the most common parasite involved in heterophyiosis outbreaks. This research aimed to detect viable metacercariae of Ascocotyle (Phagicola) longa after heating muscle of mullets. The method used was sedimentation followed by microscopy observation. It was found 100% (16/16) of inactivated metacercariae in the analyzed samples. This is the first study involving samples of mullets ready to eat sold directly to consumer. We conclude, consumers must be alerted to the risk of infection by raw mullet eating and proper heating or cooking kills this trematode.

Keywords

Parasite; Food safety; Public health

Introduction

The presence of parasites in marine and freshwater fishes is common and may carry risks, both economic and

[1]. Most of the parasites are found in organs that are discarded during fish processing, some worms may be found in the muscle. In case of consumption of the seafood in an inadequate preparation, consumers may fell ill [2-4]. Among the parasites reported in mullets (Mugil platanus), Ascocotyle (Phagicola) Ransom, 1920 (Digenea: Heterophyidae) trematode is very common and can cause disease in human by consumption of parasitized raw seafood [5-7].

Adult A. (Phagicola.) live in the gut of birds and mammals. Metacercariae develop in mullets tissues [8]. According to Simões et al. [9], mollusks presence is essential for the occurrence of heterophyiosis. Depending on the region studied, particular specie of mollusk is involved with the biological cycle. Simões et al. [9] also reported the presence of the snake Heleobia australis as intermediate host for this parasite, increasing the risk of human infection. Even the elevated risk of infection present, this fishborne disease is underestimated due to absence of characteristic clinical signals [10,11]. Heating is the best method for inactivation of these parasites. Coelho [12] recommends heating at 100°C for 60 minutes. Antunes et al. [13] observed ionization with doses of 4.0 kGy gamma rays can also be efficient to kill metacercariae, but this method is not approved by sanitary authorities in some countries. Therefore, this study aimed to detects and identify viable A. metacercariae in mullets (Mugil platanus) fillet after heat treatment.

Materials and Methods

Sampling

Officers of sanitary police of the State of São Paulo (Brazil) sampled 16 baked fillet of mulltes (Mugil platanus) from “mullet festivities” between June and July of 2009 in the following cities: Bertioga, Praia Grande, Santos, and São Vicente in the State of São Paulo (South Eastern Brazil) (Table 1).

City Number of fish sampled
Bertioga 4
Praia Grande 4
Santos 4
São Vicente 4
Total 16

Table 1: Number of mullets (Mugil platanus) sampled by city during June to July of 2009.

In this event, the fish is put in an oven to cook. Normally the product reaches 50-56ºC in the centre for 2-3 minutes. The problem is when there are many people because they want the plate fast, and for that reason, the muscle doesn’t reach the right temperature. Thereby, if seafood is parasitized by Ascocotyle, it can cause illness in the consumer.

Parasitological analysis

To guarantee correct identification, it was taken a piece of muscle of fresh fish and treated by heat of the same animal to equate results. This procedure is essential because heat can cause alteration in the morphology of the parasite, harming their identification.

After sampling, fish were put in plastic bags and destined to the parasitology laboratory of Reference Unit Laboratory Technology of Seafood of the Fishing Institute (Instituto de Pesca), in Santos, São Paulo, Brazil, for detection and identification of metacercariae. Five grams of muscle of each fish were taken and submitted to centrifugation with 300 mL of clean, tap water. The content was transferred to the conical glass jar remaining 20 minutes for sedimentation. Supernatant was discarded and more 300 mL of potable water were added. After 20 minutes wait, the sediment was collected and put in a slide using Pasteur pipette, to perform microscopic analysis of the sample [14]. Microscopic identification of parasites was performed according to Simões et al. [9].

Statistical analysis

We analyzed the prevalence of parasites. According to the results, samples were divided in two classes: “present” or “absent”. The prevalence calculation was performed using R version 2.15.1 software [15].

Results and Discussion

In this study was observed in 100% of samples, the presence of parasites identified as Ascocotyle suggesting a contamination of mullets before cooking. Analysis of parasites suggested these were inactivated (Figure 1).

fisheries-aquaculture-journal-Ascocotyle-longa-metacercariae

Figure 1: Ascocotyle longa metacercariae inactivated by heating observed in microscopy. 100X. A, B, and C: different larvae forms, D: cysts.

The high prevalence of metacercariae in mullets we observed in this study had already been described by Hutton [16], Armas de Conroy [17], Almeida-Dias e Woiciechovski [18], Antunes and Almeida Dias [19], Knoff et al. [20], Conceição et al. [21], Oliveira et al. [10], and Santos et al. [22]. The high quantity of studies showing high prevalence of Ascocotyle stresses the importance of the detection of this parasite in the world.

In Brazil, Chieffi et al. [23,24], Antunes and Almeida-Dias [19] illustrated cases of heterophyiosis in the state of São Paulo, probably caused by Ascocotyle (Phagicola). Based on these data, metacercariae detection in the muscle, adequate processing, and consumer awareness are crucial to prevent fishborne disease. Inactivation strategies must be realized to guarantee seafood security, since Santos et al. [22] demonstrated adequate heating importance for the safety to consumers.

This is the first study involving research of Ascocotyle mullets samples ready to eat. “Mullet festivities” attract many consumers and the time of fish cooking varies a lot according to demand. Most of the times, mullets are roasted quickly in high fire, causing external overcooking and internal undercooking. According to Huss et al. [25], inactivation temperature of trematodes is 55ºC for 1 minute inside the product.

The presence of 100% of inactivated (dead) metacercariae in the samples observed in this study indicates, the temperature of roasting was adequate for parasite inactivation. All samples collected by officers of Sanitary Policy were too roasted, which is not common to observe during these parties, as it was observed by the authors. It is important to control both time and temperature to guarantee the inactivation of metacercariae as described by Huss et al. [25].

Oliveira et al. [10] report, fishes parasitized by Ascocotyle do not present any lesion suggesting any kind of parasitic infection. In 2010, this trematode was included in the Risk Classification of Biological Agents list of Brazil [26].

Sanitary inspection of seafood is not enough to guarantee safety for consumer, once this is based on visual analysis. It is necessary to explain to consumer that raw or undercooked fish eating may carry parasites, such as Ascocotyle which are dangerous to humans.

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank the officers of sanitary police of the State of São Paulo (Brazil) for sampling and help with all the information used in this research.

References

Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Post your comment

Share This Article

Relevant Topics

Recommended Conferences

  • World Aquaculture and Fisheries Congress.
    August 28-29, 2018 Amsterdam, Netherlands
  • 9th International conference on Fisheries & Aquaculture.
    September 17-19, 2018 Vancouver, Canada
  • 12th World Congress on Aquaculture & Fisheries.
    September 19-20, 2018 Macau, Hong Kong

Article Usage

  • Total views: 11884
  • [From(publication date):
    April-2015 - Jun 23, 2018]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views : 8069
  • PDF downloads : 3815
 

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2018-19
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri & Aquaculture Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

+1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Clinical Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Food & Nutrition Journals

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics & Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Materials Science Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Nursing & Health Care Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

Ann Jose

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

 
© 2008- 2018 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
Leave Your Message 24x7