History Programme, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Bangi Selangor, Malaysia
Received date: January 17, 2017; Accepted date: May 19, 2017; Published date: May 26, 2017
Citation: Uqbah I (2017) Review: Colonial Administration and the Issue of Land Ownership in Kelantan 1881-1941 (Malay Version). Anthropol 5: 182. doi:10.4172/2332-0915.1000182
Copyright: © 2017 Uqbah I. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Written by Nik Haslinda Nik Hussain, the colonial administration, and the issue of land ownership in Kelantan between 1881 to 1941 is the biggest challenge ever faced by Kelantan when the enforcement of the New Land in 1914 by the British. British action streamline existing land administration system to make it more efficient has triggered conflicts and struggles of the people. Tok Janggut struggle in 1915 was to maintain the heritage rights were being eroded and the loss of land ownership is widespread in the hands of operators of foreign real estate. However, measures of Malay Reserve Act (1930) and the Land Enactment Kelantan visits to some extent protect their rights and restrict foreigners from owning the land sales and mortgage When the enactment of these, most areas in the country Kelantan Malay declared as reserves and lands in Kelantan only be alienated or transferred to someone Kelantan Malays and natives. Thus, the provisions of the Land Enactment Kelantan were the main contributor to the sustainability and security of land rights of the people of Kelantan to date. This book was written based on official sources of the British government stored in the National Archives of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, and Kelantan branch. Among the records referenced are colonial office records (C.O.), Foreign Office (F.O.), State Secretary of Kelantan, files of British Adviser of Kelantan and Annual Report Kelantan.
In Malaysia, the issue regarding the land issue is an issue that remains a major and important issue. Recognizing this, many parties come forward to lead the scientific exploration in this aspect. Bibliography regarding written works on land issues began to be published for the use of researchers. Most of this bibliography is collected by government publications, research reports, seminar presentations, articles in journals, magazines, thesis, university students and various other sources. In Malaysia, focusing on the land issue is not so widespread consideration to the question of resources was a strong influence on the decision to select the area to be studied. The question concerned the problem is rooted in the soil since the colonial era. However, the land issue is not a new issue for Malaysia. Indeed, the theme has been one of the main themes in the writing of Malaysian history since the 19th century. Issues relating to land, especially the land reform during the colonial era has been widely used as a study by researchers such as Maxwell disputing pattern miliktanah rights system in the community that existed in the 19th century . However, opinions differ with the views of Maxwell Frank Swettenham . He denied there is an owned land rights system in the Malay states before the arrival of the British because this system only existed in the days of British rule. However, Frank Swettenham stressed that taking part the result of farmers by the government was arbitrary, not based on that proprietary system particularly.
Frank Swettenham view was also supported by David Wong . Wong does not agree with Maxwell, as he said Maxwell tried to link the concept of land ownership as that posed by the British colonial interests. Wong stance despite the monarchy but the relationship between the authorities and ordinary citizens, nor is founded on the principle of land ownership in the hands of the king, even deny the fact that they had to work on the instruction of the authorities and forced to hand over part of their produce to the sultan. On the other hand, and afford the payments had to be made by the people to the sultan in fact considered as a sign of their loyalty to the government. The question of loyalty is a key element not only in politics but also in the form of economy donations. This view is also important to be highlighted because of all the rules of customary land run by the Malays before the British presence and involvement in local affairs was never written and is only passed down orally from generation to generation. Therefore, the land management is not so clear. He stressed that despite the system of land ownership but implementation and administration irregular and depends on the tastes of the sultan.
Thus, this book aims to provide a comprehensive view of the nature of the relationship between the colonial period with land problems occurring in Kelantan. In other words, he tried to provide an analysis of the impact of land policy of the colonial powers against Kelantan. The police force of colonial or colonial administration could be made more clear through the definition of Hobson-Lenin evaluate policies of British colonial office in London, especially the British attitude towards investment and traders granted the concession in the country.