Review on Adverse Drug Reactions
|Jhansi Rani Konduru*
|Department of Biochemistry, Dr. L.B. College, Visakhapatnam, India
|*Corresponding Author :
||Jhansi Rani Konduru
Department of Biochemistry
Dr. L.B. College, Visakhapatnam, India
E-mail: [email protected]
|Received December 15, 2014, Accepted January 20, 2013, Published January 25, 2013
|Citation: Jhansi K (2015) Review on Adverse Drug Reactions. Adv Pharmacoepidem Drug Safety 4:05-R. doi:10.4172/2167-1052.1000005-R
|Copyright: © 2015 Jhansi K, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited..
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Adverse drug reactions are also known as side effects. Adverse drugs reactions (Adrs), are toxic, unintended, and undesirable impacts which occur as result of drug treatment. These reactions occur due to self-medication or due to intake of over dose of medicines without prescription. The prescribed drugs may produce undesirable effects along with main effect which leads to adverse drug reactions. Most of the adverse drug reactions are preventable. Hence, in order to avoid adverse drug reactions one should take only properly prescribed drugs
Adverse drug reactions are also known as side effects. Adverse drugs reactions (Adrs), are toxic, unintended, and undesirable impacts which occur as result of drug treatment. These reactions occur due to self-medication
or due to intake of over dose of medicines without prescription. The prescribed drugs may produce undesirable effects along with main effect which leads to adverse drug reactions. Most of the adverse drug reactions are preventable. Hence, in order to avoid adverse drug reactions one should take only properly prescribed drugs.
Adverse drug reactions; self-medication; Prescribed drugs; Bizzare effects; Chronic effects; Delayed effects
Adverse drug reaction (ADR) is occurred when combination of two or more drugs. When injury affected and taking a drug, it causes in single dose or continued dose of a drug. It results to cause the side effects. Adverse drug reactions in children square measure a crucial public unhealthiness. Pharmacists in organized health care systems have to develop comprehensive, in progress programs for observance and coverage adverse drug reactions. adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to spontaneous reporting systems and to investigate whether there are differences between different types of ADRs [1
An adverse reaction to a drug has been defined as any unintended reaction to a drug that's administered in customary doses by the right route for diagnosis and treatment. Some drug reactions could occur in everybody, whereas others occur solely in inclined patients. A drug allergic reaction is associate degree immunologically
mediate reaction that exhibits specificity and return on re-exposure to the offensive drug [3
ADR most common in Women, Elderly (>60 y old), Very young (1-4 y), Patients taking more than one drug (Figure 1)
Type A: Augmented pharmacologic effects
Type B: Bizarre effects
Type C: chronic Reactions
Type D: delayed Reactions
Type A: Maximum it is the dose dependent and predictable, Related to pharmacological action of drug. Extensions of the principal pharmacological action of the drug. Toxic reactions linked to excess dose or impaired excretion, or to both .These are three types Predictable, Common, Dose-dependent. Predictable is relatively easily predicted by preclinical and clinical pharmacological studies. Common Type A reactions is not serious and it is usually dose dependent. The toxicity of Drug overdose caused by excessive dosing.
Type B: It is dose independent and unpredictable and Drug Intolerance, Lower threshold to normal pharmacological
action of a drug, Undesirable pharmacological effect at recommended doses and single average dose of aspirin. Immune mediated response to a drug agent in sensitized patient eg. Anaphylaxis with penicillin. Idiosyncratic drug reactions are uncommon response to drug.
Type C: it is biological characteristics can be rationalized from chemical structure and associated with long-term drug therapy. It is well known and can be anticipated
Type D: it is the delayed effects and Carcinogenic, teratogenic effects. Carcinogenic leads to cancer.
Seriousness and severity: Adverse drug reactions cause Death, Life-threatening, Hospitalization, Disability - significant, persistent, or permanent change, impairment, damage or disruption in the patient's body function/structure, physical activities or quality of life. Requires intervention to prevent permanent impairment or damage [5
Nearly unavoidable secondary drug effect produced by therapeutic doses intensity is dose dependent. Occur immediately after initially taking drug or may not appear until weeks after initiation of drug use
Secondary pharmacological effect, development of diarrhea with antibiotic therapy
due to altered GIT bacterial flora, orthostatic hypotension with a phenothiazine
When two drugs taken together and they affect each other’s response pharmacologically or kinetically. Action of a drug on the effectiveness or toxicity of another drug
Importance of adverse drug reactions
Adverse drug reactions are a major clinical problem, accounting for 2-6% of all hospital admissions (box).3-6 Recent surveys
Figures at a glance