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ISSN: 2157-7110
Journal of Food Processing & Technology

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Sensorial Assessment of Beef Sausage Processed by Wheat Germ Flour

Elbakheet SI*, Elgasim EA and Algadi MZ

Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Sudan

*Corresponding Author:
Elbakheet SI
Faculty of Agriculture
University of Khartoum, Sudan
[email protected]

Received date: December 30, 2016; Accepted date: January 17, 2017; Published date: January 23, 2017

Citation: Elbakheet SI, Elgasim EA, Algadi MZ (2017) Sensorial Assessment of Beef Sausage Processed by Wheat Germ Flour. J Food Process Technol 8: 652. doi:10.4172/2157-7110.1000652

Copyright: © 2017 Elbakheet SI, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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The term sausage is derived from the Latin word (salsus) meaning salt or literally translated, refers to chopped or minced meat preserved by salting. In this study beef sausage was processed by additions of different replacement levels of meat by wheat germ flour (WGF) replacement levels were: 0% (as control) 10% and 15%. The processed beef sausages were packaged in foam trays, over wrapped with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and stored refrigerated at 4°C ± 1 for up to 7 days. Several variables were determined using subjective and objective measurements, to evaluate the effects of replacement levels and storage periods on the sensory attributes of the processed beef sausage. The evaluation was conducted immediately after processing, three and seven days post processing day. Results demonstrated that lower scores in over all acceptability, aroma and flavor; but higher score (p< 0.05) in deviation from meat aroma. Fifteen percent replacement level sample had the highest (p< 0.05) on overall acceptability, flavor and aroma scores. Overall acceptability score, flavor score and aroma score, were increase with the increased of replacement levels. WGF act as binder in beef sausage production and could be a good substitute to others plant binders which are used as meat binder or extenders.


Sensory assessment; Sausage; Polyvinyl chloride; Processing


Nutritionally, meat is a very good source of essential amino acids, to a lesser extent, of certain minerals. Although vitamins and essential fatty acids are also present, meat also provides calories from protein, fat and limited quantities of carbohydrate [1]. Germ constitutes about 2.5% of the grain weight and comprises minimal amount of protein, but greatest share of fat, vitamins especially tocopherols [2]. Wheat germ is a by-product of wheat milling, and recently, it has attracted much attention due to its unique nutritional value. It contains 42% to 45% carbohydrate, 25% to 30% protein, 16% simple sugars, 4% to 5% minerals (total ash) and 10% to 12% lipid [3]. The continues successes of marketing meat on the innovation and consistent production of high quality products. Consumers are looking for convenient food products with new/exciting flavor, textures etc. [4]. Meat and meat products are highly perishable materials so sanitation and cooling is essentials in handling, marketing and processing of meat. The sanitation in the Sudan, in general is very poor regarding slaughtering, handling, marketing and processing of meat, except for very few meat plant and slaughter houses. Generally, meat products are widely consumed throughout the world; but unfortunately, their cost is high. To reduce this cost there is increasing interest in use of various non-meat proteins especially plant protein. The objectives of this study to evaluate the effects of partial replacement of meat by wheat germ flour on the quality characteristics of beef sausage.

Material and Methods


Food materials: Meat loins and round were obtained from Animal Production Research Center Kuku. The beef meat was stored frozen at -11 ± 1°C in freezer at Regional Training Center for Meat Quality, Grading and Meat Technology, Elkadaro. Wheat germ was obtained from Seen flour mills stored frozen. Spices, salt and sugar were obtained from local market of Khartoum North. The additional fat needed in the formulation was obtained from the local market. Uniform rendered fat free of protein was used.

Chemicals and reagents: Chemicals and reagent used were brought from the central lab stores of Khartoum University, sodium nitrite and ascorbic acid, were obtained from Looly Company, Khartoum.

Casings: Cellulose casings 23 mm in diameter were obtained from Looly Company, Khartoum.


Raw materials preparation

Meat preparation: Stored beef was allowed to thaw and sliced then ground through a 0.75 In, plate using a meat grinder. Ground beef was stored refrigerated at 4°C ± 1°C, for about 20 hr, a sample was taken to be analyses for protein fat and moisture content following AOAC Method [5] (Table 1).

Material Protein % Fat % Moisture content % Ash % Crude fibre % Carbohydrate pH
Beef meat 22.6 3.2 71 0.98 - 0.3 6.29
Wheat germ 27.2 9.3 10.35 2.17 2.53 48.3 6.17

Table 1: Proximate analysis and pH of beef meat and wheat germ.

Wheat germ preparation: Stored wheat germ was ground, to form wheat germ flour (WGF). Then a sample was taken and analyzed for protein, fat and moisture content, following AOAC Method [5] (Table 1).

Calculation for sausage formulation: The experiment designed to produce sausage with the following specification, protein 15%, fat 20% moisture, 58.3% added starch 4.7%, salt 1.5%, and spices 0.5% (Tables 2 and 3). Three batches with three replacements of meat by wheat germ were used every batch weight 2000 g.

Components Percentage Weight in gms
Proteins 15 300
Fat 20 400
Starch 4.7 94
Water 58.3 1160
Salt 1.5 30
Spices 0.5 10

Table 2: Sausage formula.

Ingredient Replacement level of meat*
0% protein 10% protein 15% protein
Beef meat 1327.43 1194.7 1128.32
Wheat germ - 110.3 165.44
Starch 94 94 94100
Fat 357.52 355.15 94
Water 217.53 300.34 341.3
Salt 30 30 30
Sugar 10 10 10
Black pepper 3 3 3
Nutmeg 2 2 2
Cinnamon 2 2 2
Garlic 2 2 2
Sodium nitrite 0.13 0.12 0.11
Vitamin C 0.62 0.55 0.52

Table 3: Sausage formulation for all treatments.




Sodium nitrite 100 ppm.

Vitamin C 0.466 g/kg

First replacement level: Wheat germ 0% so the required protein was 100% from meat beef therefore beef require image


Moisture from starch = 6

Total moisture = 948.47

Moisture to be added = 1166 - 948.47 = 217.53

Required sodium nitrite = 0.13 g

Required Vitamin C = 0.62 g

Second replacement level: Wheat germ 10% so the required protein was 90% from beef and 10% from wheat germ


Moisture in 100 g starch = 6

Total moisture = 865.66

Moisture to be added = 1166 - 865.66 = 300.34

Sodium nitrite to be added = 0.12 g

Vitamin C to be added= 0.56 g

Third replacement: Wheat germ 15% so the required protein in 85% from beef 15% from wheat germ.


Moisture in 100 g starch = 6.

Total moisture = 824.23

Moisture to be added =1166 -824.23 = 341.8

Sodium nitrate = 0.11 g

Vitamin C to be added = 0.52 g

Sausage preparation: Minced meat, salt, sugar, minced fat, spices, vitamin C, sodium nitrate and half of calculated ice water were introduced to a Hobart Chopper; the Chopper was then started for about 4 min. The added materials were dispersed uniformly. Then the ground wheat germ, starch were added together with the remainder of the calculated water. The entire mass was chopped for about 5 min. then transferred to manual stuffer to be stuffed into cellulose casing of 23 mm in diameter and linked at lengths of 15 cm. The framed sausage were heated in water at 98°C for about 40 min, followed by immediate cooling in ice water, for 15 min. The cooled processed sausage was peeled and packed in foam trays over-wrapped with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and stored refrigerated for up to 7 days. The WGF replacement levels in beef sausage formulation and processing were performed following the same procedures explained above.

Method of analysis

Sausage were assessed at 0 day (i.e., immediately after processing) after three and seven days post processing.

Sensory evaluation: Ten member sensory panel consisting of M.Sc. and B.Sc. student of food science and technology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, semi-trained according to the procedure of Cross et al. [6]. The panel evaluated the cooked sausage sample with the different treatment for juiciness, tenderness, test, odor, differential from meat taste and over all acceptability. By mean of the scale (7 = Extremely like, 1 = Extremely dislike), (Table 4). Panelists received samples which were randomly numbered. Water at room temperature was made available to panel for cleaning the palate between the tested samples.

Samples A B C
  Extremity like moderately like Like slightly like slightly dislike dislike Extremity dislike
Aroma -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Flavour -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Deviation from
meaty aroma
-- -- - -- -- -- --
Juiciness -- -- - -- -- -- --
Tenderness -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Overall acceptability 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Table 4: Sensory evaluation form (Flavour, deviation from meat aroma, juiciness, tenderness, and overall acceptability. Using scores as follows: 7 = Extremity like; 6 = moderately like; 5 =Like; 4 = slightly like; 3 = slightly dislike; 2 = dislike; 1 = Extremity dislike).

Statistical analysis: The data collected from the different treatments was subjected to analysis of variance and whenever appropriate the mean separation procedure of Duncan was employed [7]. The SAS program [8] Was used to perform the general linear model (GLM) analysis.

Results and Discussion

Sensory evaluation

The sensory evaluation of beef sausage extended with three replacement level is shown in (Table 5), the control samples scored high values in deviation from meat aroma that could be due to flavor of wheat germ flour. According to Canasambandam and Zayas [9] aroma and flavor are probably the most important attributes that influence the sensory properties of comminuted meat product extended with non-meat protein additives. Fifteen percent replacement levels had the highest score in: aroma, flavor, Juiciness, tenderness and over all acceptability among the treatment. Generally, it was relatively like control sample in juiciness and deviation from meat aroma, and these agrees with the finding of Canasambanadam and zayas [10] a trained panel found suggested an effect due to increasing levels of wheat germ protein flour on aroma and flavor of frankfurters. 10% replacement level sample usually, scores higher than 0% and less than 15% in: aroma, flavor, deviation from meat aroma, Juiciness, tenderness and over all acceptability.

Independent variables Replacement levels of meat by WGF S.E
0% 10% 15%
Taste 4.5 4.95 5.6 ± (0.34)
Order 4.6 5.05 5.65 ± (0.3)
Variation from meat taste 5.20 4.60 5.15 ± (0.19)
Juiciness 5.15 4.85 5.37 ± (0.15)
Tenderness 5.20 5.35 5.85 ± (0.2)
Overall acceptability 4.85 5.00 6.10 ± (0.39)

Table 5: Sensory characteristic of cooked beef.


The relative high scores of tenderness and Juiciness in the sample with replacement levels 15% may be due to high water binding of these samples. Judge et al. [1] indicated that many of the physical property of meat include color, texture and firmness of raw meat, Juiciness and tenderness of cooked meat are partially dependent on WHC. And mention that the portion of water present in free form and the ability of meat to bind water and factors that increase this ability will increase juiciness.


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