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ISSN: 2155-9546
Journal of Aquaculture Research & Development
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Social Status of the Fish-farmers of Floating-net-cages in Lake Maninjau, Indonesia

Syandri H1*, Elfiondri2, Junaidi1 and Azrita3

1Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science Bung Hatta University, Padang, Indonesia

2Faculty of Humanities, Bung Hatta University Padang, Indonesia

3Department of Biology Education, Faculty of Education, Bung Hatta University, Padang, Indonesia

*Corresponding Author:
Syandri H
Department of Aquaculture
Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science Bung Hatta University
Padang, Indonesia
Tel: 9175423212
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: September 23, 2015; Accepted Date: October 28, 2015; Published Date: January 15, 2016

Citation: Syandri H, Elfiondri, Junaidi, Azrita (2016) Social Status of the Fishfarmers of Floating-net-cages in Lake Maninjau, Indonesia. J Aquac Res Development 7:391. doi:10.4172/2155-9546.1000391

Copyright: © 2016 Syandri H, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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The study surveyed the social status of fish-farming in Lake Maninjau of Indonesia. The stuctured interview using scheduled questionnaires were used in obtaining information from 240 fish farmers randomly selested from eight local sub-districts as the study areas. The eighth sub-districts were divided into three areas which involved the aquaculture zone of the lake. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The findings revealed that majority (39.16%) of the fish farmers were male with the age range of 31-40 years. It was about 55.41% of the fish farmer having household size 4-6 person, and 45.83% educational level was Senior High School graduates. The total annual income from sales of fish were IDR 10000000-IDR 20000000, 37.92% of fish farmers practiced the integrated fish-farming, and only 52.08% of the farmers practiced fish-production. 51.25% of the fish farmers got their information from their friends and fellow farmers. 73.33% of the fish farmers cultured Tilapia species, 77.91% of the fish farmers obtained their fingerlings from private hatchery, 96.66% of fish farmers stated that poor water quality as a major constraints to fish production. The results indicated that floating net-cages activities at the Lake Maninjau played essential role in the lives of fish-farmers for survival.


Aquaculture; Fish farmers; Lake Maninjau; Indonesia


Food is the most basic necessity for every human being [1-3]. Food is not only necessary to support growth and human development through a series of physiological processes, is also often associated with socio-economic status [4,5]. Development of the world community in the 21st century has shown a propensity for changes in behavior and lifestyle and food consumption patterns to fishery products [6-8]. The sustainability of fish food production is highly dependent on the motivation and participation of fishermen and fish farmers [9,10], technology options are applied and enforced policies and should have a positive impact for their welfare [4,9,11].

Dealing with the social economic status of fish farmer in Lake Maninjau, Syandri examined the study on invesment of floating net cages. He found that the investment was very beneficial economically [12]. He did not examine the social-economic status in perpsective of age, education, marital status, income, household size, and number of floating net cages per household. While in Borgu, Niger State, Ahmed YB(2013) studied the socio-economic status focused on income of the society and social technology awareness [13]. According to him, the female earned 6000-10.000 ₦, while male did 11000-30000 ₦ with the technology awareness of fish-farming, V-bottom boat, solar-tent driyer and tramel net. Syandri, et al., held reseach on water quality and tropic status in relation to mass fish-death with technology of floating net cages in Lake Maninjau [14]. The bad quality of water had caused fish to die in floating net cages. In addition, Pangemanan et al. studied the feasibility of the floating fich system-fish culture based on environtmental and economic aspects in Lake Tondano, Indonesia, which resulted that all costal areas were feasible for floating fish cage system-fish culture business except area of North Lake Tondano [15]. Study on the cost and return of fish-farming in Saki-East local government area of Oyo State, Nigeria resulted that the fish farming was profitable and expected to continue operating [16], while in Lake Abaya, Ethiopia, Sime SD found that majority of household (62.8%) gained their icome from agriculture and fishing, where fishing was important source of livehood compared to agriculture [17]. Thus the previous studies did not include the social status of fish-farmers based on the aspects of age, education, marital status, income, household size, and number of floating net cages per household.

The paper examined the aspects in Lake Maninjau. Activity of fish-farming with floating net-cages in Lake Maninjau started in 1992 consisting of 16 units of cages with production of 96 tons [12]. In 2013, the cages increased to be 16,120 units which produced 12,090 tonnes of fish with value production of USD 2.1726 billion [14]. The farmed fish-species are Majalaya (Cyprinus carpio) and Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), but recently the Tilapia was more dominant species compared with Majalaya [18]. Fresh water aquaculture in Lake Maninjau was growing so very rapidly that it the society obtained income and jobs in the region [14,18]. According to FAO [19], the fishery sector was valuable and its importance was related to employment, livelihood support, poverty reduction, food security as well as foreign exchange. Moreover Singh stated that fisheries sector occupied an important place in the socio-economic development of the country [8].

The objective of the study is to survey the social status of fishfarmers in Lake Maninjau in order to analyze the socio-economic characteristic of the fish farmers, the production level of fish farmers, fish-farming management, and the constraints to the fish farming in the study area.


Area of study

This study was carried out in Lake Maninjau West Sumatera Province, Indonesia. The lake is a tecto-vulcanic, on geographical position E: 00012'26.63"- S: 0025'02.80" and E: 100007'43.74"- E: 100016'22.48", located at altitude of 461.50 m above sea level with the surface area 9,737.50 ha. Based on the Schmidth-Ferguson climate classification, the lake has the characteristics of climate types A and annual rainfall 3,490 mm. The lake is a natural resource that has a very important role as a tourist destination, Hydroelectric Power Plants with a capacity of 64 MW, capture-fisheries and as the farming of floating net-cages [12] . The lake is located in the district of Tanjung Raya divided into 8 local government areas, namely Maninjau, Bayur, Duo Koto, Koto Kaciek, Koto Gadang VI Koto, Koto Malintang, Tanjung Sani, and Sungai Batang (Figure 1).


Figure 1: Map of Lake Maninjau of Agam Regency-Indonesia showing the study area.

Sampling technique, sample size and data analysis

Random sampling techniques were employed in the selection of the samples, in fisheries zones of fisheries development programme of Lake Maninjau. The zones consisted of three zones. Zone I involved Maninjau, Bayur, and Duo Koto. Koto Kaciek, Koto Gadang VI Koto and Koto Malintang were part of zone II. In Zone III, there were Tanjung Sani and Sungai Batang. In the 8 local government areas, 30 fish-farmers were randomly selected as the informats from each of the local governments that totally 240 fish-farmers were randomly selected informants of research. The research used data collected from primary and secondary sources. Primary data were collected by doing the scheduled and structured interview, while secondary sources were collected through library study on textbook and journal publication on Aquaculture. The interview was used to collect data from the fish farmers. The data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics [20].

Result and Discussion

Socio-economic characteristics of fish farmers floating net-cages as indicated in Table 1, majority of the fish farmers (39.16%) were 31-40 years. While the rest, 20.83% were 20-30 years, 19.63% were 41-50 years, and 19.58% were above 50 years. The mean age (60%) showed that the farmers were relatively young. The young famers were productive and innovative and brave to have investments. Such condition was in line with Silviyunan [21] who examined fish-farmers floating nets cages in Lake Laut Air Tawar. She reported that the age group of 35-44 years (39.36%) was the most productive farmers. In gender perspective, majority of the respondents (88.75%) were males, while 11.25% were females. The fish-farming was dominated by male in the study area. Generally in Indonesia, majority of fish-farmers in lakes and rivers were men [9] where men played important role in the farming. Unlike in Lake Kanji, Basin Nigeria, the men did not play significant role in the development of the fisheries resources of the lake, but the women played the role [22]. In river state Negeria majority of the fish farmers (34.4%) were male of the age, 41-50 years old [23]. In addition, marital status of the respondent showed that majority of the fish -famers (79.16%) were married, while 16.25% were single, and 4.58% were widow. Compared with marital status of cat-fish (Clarias gariepinus) farmers in Ibadan Metropolis, majority of the fish farmers (85.6%) were married [24].

Parameters Frequency Percentase Mean
Age of respondents      
Less than  19 0 0 40,5
20-30 50 20.83  
31-40 94 39.16  
41-50 49 20.41  
More than 50 47 19.58  
Total 240 100  
Sex of respondents      
Male 213 88.75  
Female 27 11.25  
Total 240 100  
Marital status of respondents      
Single 39 16.25  
Married 190 79.16  
Widowed 11 4.58  
Total 240 100  
Household size (person)      
1-3 59 24.58 5
4-6 133 55.41  
7-10 48 20  
Total 240 100  
Educational level      
Primary and below 49 20.41  
Junior High School 65 27.08  
Senior High School 110 45.83  
Graduate and above 16 6.66  
Total 240 100  
Primary occupation of respondents      
Fulltime farming 172 71.66  
Farmings and business 27 11.25  
Farming and civil servant 16 6.67  
Retired civil servant and farmers 25 10.41  
Total 240 100  
Farming experience (years)      
1-5 23 9.58  
6-10 89 37.08  
11-15 77 32.08  
16-20 51 21.25  
Total 240 100  
Source ofventure funding      
Personal funding 121 50.41  
Family funding 33 13.75  
Juraganfunding 61 25.41  
Bank funding 23 9.58  
Total 240 100  
Number offloating net cages/ household (units)      
Less than 4 56 23.33  
5-8 71 29.58  
9-20 48 20.0  
More than 20 65 27.08  
Total 240 100  
Land Ownership      
Inherited 148 61.66  
Leased-rent 58 24.17  
Share cropping 34 14.16  
Purchased 0 0  
Total 240 100  
Annual income from sales of fish      
IDR 10000000- IDR 20000000 77 32.08  
IDR 21000000 – IDR 30000000 61 25.42  
IDR 31000000- IDR 40000000 48 20  
Above IDR 40000000 54 22.5  
Total 240 100  

Table 1: Demographic chararacteristic of fish-farmers (n=240).

Most of the respondents’ house hold size were 4-6 persons (55.41%), while 24.58% of them had 1-3 persons. The house hold average was 6 persons, it was large family size. It implied that more unproductive people were dependent on the productive ones. In education, most of the respondents (45.83%) were senior high school graduates, 27.08% were yunior high school graduates, and 6.66% were university graduates. The finding was that most of the fishfarmers in the study area were educated people who could easily adopt innovations. This was supported by Pontoh [25], who analized fishery business on floating net cages in the village of Tandengan, Minahasa, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. He found that most of respondents were also Junior High School graduates. Silviyunan also found the same finding on majority of floating-net-cages farmers in Lake Laut Air Tawar, Banda Aceh, Indonesia [21]. Furthermore, in Pujab India education levels of aqua-farmers was university graduate (26%), senior high school graduates (38%), and junior high school graduates (22%) [8]. The main occupation of respondents in the study area was fulltime fish farmers in majority (71.66%), and 10.41% of them were the retired civil servant-farmers. The rest of them worked as businessmen and farmers (11.25%) and as civil servants and farmers (6.67%). This implied that most of fish farmers devoted their time as fish-farmers.

The farmers had different experience in length. Most of them (37.08%) had 6-10 year-experience in fish-farming, 25.57% of them had 11-15 year-experience, and 21.25% of them had been experinced as the fish farmers for 16-20 years. Thus, most of the fish farmers in the study area were so experienced that they were potential to develop inovation for the increase of production. According to Pontoh O, human resources in the development of aquaculture were very important [25,26]. He stated that in the rural areas the human resources played very important role for the implementation of aquaculture operations.

Dealing with the fund of the farming, majority (50.41%) of the respondents had a personal funding, while 25.41% of them got funding from juragan, 13.75% from family, and 9.58% from Bank allowance. Personal funding could only have 8 units of floating net-cages maximally. Farmers who had funding from juragan and Bank could have more than 8 units of floating net-cages. Majority (61.66%) of land for farming in the study area belonged to the farmers them selves (their own lands), the rest 24.17% were rented, and 14.16% were the cropsharing- rented lands. The annual income of the fish farmers was that majority (32.08%) of the farmers earned from IDR 10,000,000 to IDR 20,000,000, 25.42% earned from IDR 21,000,000 to 30,000,000, while 22.5% earned above IDR 40,000,000. As claimed by Tunde et al. the fish farming was profitbale for the people who worked as the fish farmers. It was a profitably additional job for the people living the study area [16].

The result of the study revealed that majority (52.08%) of the farmers were fish farmers having business focused on fish-farming activity only, while others were the fish farmers with the integrated fish-farming activities: 20.41% practiced fish and rice farming, 20% practiced fish and cocoa farming, and 7.5% of them practiced fish and cattle farming (Table 2). The integrated fish-farming in a region was highly dependent on the location, topography, rainfall, growingseason, and technology owned by the farmers [11,27,28].

Integrated fish farming activities Frequency Percentase
Fisheries and rice agriculture 49 20.41
Fisheries and cattle farm 18 7.50
Fisheries and cocoa agriculture-plants nutmeg 48 20.00
Fisheries  only 125 52.08
Total 240 100.00

Table 2: Integrated fish farming activities (n=240).

Regarding with the information on the fish farming, majority (51.25%) of the respondents got the information from their friends and fellow farmers, 29.16% from mass media, 8.75% from agents and juragan, while 2.08% of the farmers got the information from internet (Table 3). Compared with that of River State Nigeria, majority (58.9%) got information from friends and fellow farmers, and 3.3% from internet [29]. Table 4 indicated that majority (73.33%) of fish farmers cultured Tilapia species as their fingerlings, 17.91% cultured Common carp, and 8.75% cultured tilapia and Common carp respectively. Furthermore, majority (77.91%) of the fish farmers obtained their fingerlings from private hatchery, 20% of the fish farmers got their fingerlings from personal hatchery. This implies that most of the fish farmers did not have hatchery in their farms.

Sources of information for fish farmers Frequency Percentase
Extension agents 21 8.75
Friends/fellow farmers 123 51.25
Mass media 70 29.16
Juragan 21 8.75
Literature 5 2.08
Internet 0 0
Total 240 100

Table 3: Sources of information for fish farmers (n=240).

Types /species of fingerlings used frequency Percentage
Tilapia 176 73.33
Common carp 43 17.91
Tilapia and Commoncarp 21 8.75
Total 240 100.00
Source of fingerlings    
Personal hatchery 48 20.00
Government hatchery 0 0.00
Private  hatchery 187 77.91
Wild 5 2.08
Total 240 100.00

Table 4: Types species and source of fingerlings (n=240).

Table 5 revealed that majority (96.66%) of the farmers stated that poor water quality was a major constraint to fish production in the study area. Other factors which were constraints to fish-farming in the study area were: high price of input (88.33%), high cost of feeds (83.33%), diseases (71.66%), and inadequate infrastructure (68.33%). The constraints factors reduced fish-production and social income in the study area.

Constraints Percentage
Inadequate infrastructure 68.33
Inadequate supplay  of fish feeds 15.83
Irregular electricity supplay 17.50
Poor finance 50.41
Poor hatchery facilities 20.00
High cost of feeds 83.33
Hight price of input/production 88.33
Diseases 71.66
Poor water quality 96.66
Poor services 65.00
High cost of management 42.50
Poor marketing 30.41

Table 5: Constraints to fish farming in the study area (n=240).


The research resulted in that the aquaculture of the floatingnet cages played an important role to increase fish production and fish farmer’s income. Majority of the fish farmers obtained annual income which could support the daily need. In farming, a few farmers practiced the integrated fish-farming, and most of them practiced fishproduction farming. The farmers were dominated by men with the age range of 31-40 years. They had 4-6 person-household in avarage, and educationally majority of them were Senior High School graduates. Information on the farming was gained from their friends and fellow farmers. No information they got from internet due to being busy with their farming. Poor water quality of Lake Maninjau led most of farmers to culture Tilapia species of which the fingerlings derived from privatefarmed hatchery.The poor water quality was a major constraint to fish production.


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