Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

^{1}Mathematics Discipline, PDPM Indian Institute of Information Technology, Design and Manufacturing, Jabalpur-482005, India

^{2}Applied Mathematics and Humanities Department, S.V. National Institute of Technology, Surat-395007, Gujarat, India

^{3}Department of Applied Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematical Sciences, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

^{4}Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Bonab, Bonab, Iran

- *Corresponding Author:
- Vishnu Narayan Mishra

Applied Mathematics and Humanities Department

S.V. National Institute of Technology

Surat-395007, Gujarat, India

**Tel:**+91 99133 87604

**E-mail:**[email protected]

**Received date:** February 23, 2017; **Accepted date:** April 20, 2017; **Published date:** April 26, 2017

**Citation: **Deepmala, Mishra VN, Marasi H, Shabanian H, Nosrati Sahlan M (2017) Solution of Voltra-Fredholm Integro-Differential Equations using Chebyshev Collocation Method. Global J Technol Optim 8:210. doi: 10.4172/2229-8711.1000210

**Copyright:** © 2017 Deepmala, et al. This is an open-access article distributedunder the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

**Visit for more related articles at** Global Journal of Technology and Optimization

In this paper, we use chebyshev polynomial basis functions to solve the Fredholm and Volterra integro-differential equations. We directly calculate integrals and other terms are calculated by approximating the functions with the Chebyshev polynomials. This method affects the computational aspect of the numerical calculations. Application of the method on some examples show its accuracy and efficiency.

Integro-differential equation; Chebyshev polynomial; Collocation method

We consider the integro-differential equations of Fredholm, Volterra and Fredholm-Volterra types in the forms

(1)

(2)

and

(3)

where λ, λ_{1}, and λ_{2} are real parameters. The functions f(x), k(x,t), k_{1}(x,t) and k_{2}(x,t) are known, y(x) is the unknown function to be determined and D is a linear differential operator. We suppose, without loss of generality, that the interval of integration is [-1,1]. Many problems in engineering and mechanics can be transformed into integral equations. For example it is usually required to solve Fredholm integral equations(FIE) in the calculations of plasma physics [1]. The numerical solution of these equations is a well-studied problem and a large variety of numerical methods have been developed to rapidly and accurately obtain approximations to y(x). Overviews and references to the literature for many existing methods are available in [2,3]. Collocation methods [2-6], Sinc methods [7], global spectral methods [8], methods for convolution equations [9], Newton-Gregory methods [10], Runge-Kutta methods [11,12], qualocation methods [13] and Galerkin methods [14] are several of the many approaches that have previously been considered. In this paper the aim is to obtain the solution as a truncated Chebyshev series defined by

(4)

where *T _{j}(x)* denotes the Chebyshev polynomials of the frist kind,

(5)

The paper is organized as follows: In Section Approximations we describe numerical approximations for differential operator and functions of integro-differential equation. The numerical results are presented in Section Numerical examples.

Let D be a linear differential operator of order *v* with polynomial coefficients defined by

(6)

We shall write for p_{r} (x)

(7)

Where α_{r} is the degree of p_{r}(x).

Let *y(x)* be the exact solution of the integro-differential equation

(8)

with

(9)

Where *f(x)* and *k(x,t)* are given continuous functions and λ, a, b, and *d _{j}* some given constants.

**Matrix representation for Dy(x)**

Let be a polynomial basis given by where and V is a non-singular lower triangular matrix with degree According to [17] the effect of differentiation, shifting and integration on the coefficients vector of a polynomial is the same as that of post-multiplication of by the matrices *Æž, rμ* and *l* respectively,

Where

We recall now the following theorem given by Oritez and Samara [15].

**Theorem 4.1.1** For any linear differential operator D defined by Eq. (6) and any series

we have

where

**Function approximation**

The solution of Eqs. (1), (2) and (3) can be expressed as a truncated Chebyshev series. Therefore, the approximate solution (4) can be written in the matrix from

y (x) = T^{T} (x)A, (10)

where

Consequently, using Theorem 2.1 and substituting Eq. (10) in Eq. (1), we get

(11)

Now using the chebyshev collocation points (5) in Eq. (11) we obtain the following new system of algebraic equations

(12)

and so, unknown coefficients *a _{j}* are found.

**Definition 4.2.1 **The polynomial will be called an approximate solustion of Eqs. (8) and (9), if the vector is the solution of the system of liner algebraic equations (12).

Similarly we can develop the method for the problem defined in the domain [0, 1]

In this case we obtain the solution in terms of shifted Chebyshev polynomials T^{*}_{j} (x) in the form

where Similar to the previous procedure and using the collocation points defined by

(13)

one can get the following system of algebraic equations

(14)

where

Solving the nonlinear system, unknown coefficients aj are found. Similarly, we obtain the fundamental equation for Volterra and Fredholm-Volterra integral equation. In this study, instead of approximating integral terms, we directly calculate integrals. Examples show that this method affects the computational aspect of the numerical calculations.

The results obtained in previous sections are used to introduce a direct efficient and simple method to solve integro-differential equations of Volterra and Fredholm type.

**Example 5.1** We consider the following Fredholm integrodifferential equation of the second kind

y(0)=0,3*mm*

The exact solution is *y(x) =cx*. We assume the solution of y(x) as a truncated Chebyshev series

(15)

Here, we have

The fundamental equation of the problem is defined by

where

Therefore, using Theorem 4.1.1 we obtain

The system yields the solution

Substituting these values in (15), we get the exact solution of the problem

**Example 5.2** *We consider the following Fredholm-Volterra integrodifferential equation*

y(0) = 0,3mm

The exact solution is *y(x) = x ^{2}* . Let us suppose that

Using the procedure in section Approximations, we obtain the approximate solution of the problem.

In **Table 1**, we compare the numerical results of the problem by the proposed method of N=3 with the method discussed in an earlier study [16].

X | The method discussed in [16] | Presented method N=3 |
---|---|---|

0 | 4.930 × 10^{-4} |
3.3590 × 10^{-15} |

0.1 | 2.240 × 10^{-3} |
3.7764 × 10^{-15} |

0.2 | 1.571 × 10^{-3} |
4.2889 × 10^{-15} |

0.3 | 1.514 × 10^{-3} |
4.8711 × 10^{-15} |

0.4 | 7.015 × 10^{-3} |
5.5788 × 10^{-15} |

0.5 | 1.6336 × 10^{-2} |
6.2727 × 10^{-15} |

0.6 | 1.1862 × 10^{-2} |
7.0499 × 10^{-15} |

0.7 | 4.971 × 10^{-3} |
7.8825 × 10^{-15} |

0.8 | 4.338 × 10^{-3} |
8.9928 × 10^{-15} |

0.9 | 1.6068 × 10^{-2} |
9.8809 × 10^{-15} |

1.0 | ---- | 1.0880 × 10^{-15} |

**Table 1:** Comparison of the absolute errors of example (3.2).

**Example 5.3** *We consider the following Fredholm integro-differential equation of the second kind*

The exact solution is y(x) = x^{2} + 2x + 2 . Talking N = 2,4, the approximate solutions are obtained by this method. Results are compared with those of the methods in literature [17]as shown in **Table 2**.

x | Method in [13] | presented method N=2 | presented method N=4 |
---|---|---|---|

0 | 0.0187621362 | 0.0036921151 | 0.002472602103 |

1/15 | 0.0200637354 | 0.0036087818 | 0.002472602236 |

2/15 | 0.0212780889 | 0.0035254484 | 0.002472602365 |

3/15 | 0.0215334191 | 0.0034421151 | 0.002472602492 |

4/15 | 0.0205212581 | 0.0033587818 | 0.002472602617 |

5/15 | 0.0192905931 | 0.0032754484 | 0.002472602740 |

6/15 | 0.0181294338 | 0.0031921151 | 0.002472602862 |

7/15 | 0.0170353464 | 0.0031087818 | 0.002472602984 |

8/15 | 0.0160143431 | 0.0030254484 | 0.002472603106 |

9/15 | 0.0150618428 | 0.0029421151 | 0.002472603229 |

10/15 | 0.0141627843 | 0.0028587818 | 0.002472603353 |

11/15 | 0.0133104506 | 0.0027754484 | 0.002472603479 |

12/15 | 0.0125010566 | 0.0026924451 | 0.002472603607 |

13/15 | 0.0117309887 | 0.0026087818 | 0.002472603788 |

14/15 | 0.0109968073 | 0.0025254484 | 0.002472603873 |

1.0 | 0.0102952225 | 0.0024421151 | 0.002472604012 |

**Table 2:** Comparison of the absolute errors of example (3.3).

**Example 5.4** *We consider the following Volterra integro-differential equation of the second kind*

The exact solution is *y(x) = e ^{x}* . See

X | Exact | Presented method N=11 |
---|---|---|

-1 | 0.36787944 | 0.36787445212 |

-0.8 | 0.44932896 | 0.44932342567 |

-0.6 | 0.54881164 | 0.54881194564 |

-0.4 | 0.67032005 | 0.67032187409 |

-0.2 | 0.81873075 | 0.81897235137 |

0 | 1 | 0.99988319565 |

0.2 | 1.22140276 | 1.22140675944 |

0.4 | 1.49182470 | 1.49189543017 |

0.6 | 1.82211880 | 1.82211675430 |

0.8 | 2.22554093 | 2.22554075420 |

1.0 | 2.71828183 | 2.71828147693 |

**Table 3:** Comparison of numerical results for example (3.4).

- Farengo R, Lee YC, Guzdar PN (1983) An electromagnetic integral equation: Application to microtearing modes. Phys Fluids 26: 3515-3523.
- Brunner H (2004) Collocation Methods for Volterra Integral and Related Functional Equations, Cambridge University Press, New York 2004.
- Delves LM, Mohamed JL (1985) Computational Methods for Integral Equations, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
- Blom JG, Brunner H (1991) Discretized collocation and iterated collocation for nonlinear Volterra integral equations of the second kind. ACM Trans Math Software 17: 167-177.
- Yang C (2012) Chebyshev polynomial solution of nonlinear integral equations. J Franklin Inst B 349: 947-956.
- Hosseini SM, Shahmorad S (2003) Tau numerical solution of Fredholm integro-differential equations with arbitrary polynomial bases. Appl Math Model 27: 145-154.
- Muhammad M, Nurmuhammad A, Mori M, Sugihara M (2005) Numerical solution of integral equations by means of the sinc collocation method based on the double exponential transformation. J Comput Appl Math 177: 269-286.
- Tang T, Xu X, Cheng J (2008) On spectral methods for Volterra type integral equations and the convergence analysis. J Comp Math 26: 825-837.
- Lopez-Fernandez M, Lubich C, Schadle A (2008) Adaptive, fast, and oblivious convolution in evolution equations with memory. SIAM J Sci Comput 30:1015-1037.
- Delves LM, Mohamed JL (1985) Computational Methods for Integral Equations, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
- Sharp PW, Verner JH (2000) Extended explicit Bel'tyukov pairs of orders 4 and 5 for Volterra integral equations of the second kind. Appl Numer Math 34: 261-274.
- Sharp PW, Verner JH(2000) Some extended explicit Bel'tyukov pairs for Volterra integral equations of the second kind. SIAM J Numer Anal 38: 347-359
- Chandler GA, Sloan IH (1990) Spline qualocation methods for boundary integral equations. Numer Math 58: 537-567.
- Shaw S, Whiteman JR (2000) Numerical solution of linear quasistatic hereditary viscoelasticity problems. SIAM J Numer Anal 38: 80-97
- Ortiz EL, Samara L (1981) An operational approach to the tau method for the numerical solution of nonlinear differential equations. Computing 27: 15.
- Rahmani L, Rahimi B, Mordad M (2011) Numerical Solution of Volterra-Fredholm Integro-Differential Equation by Block pulse Functions and Operational Matrices. Gen Math Notes 4: 37-48.
- Chuong NM, Tuan NV (1995) Spline collocation methods for ferdholm Integro-Differential Equations of second order. Acta Mathematica Vietnamica 20: 2085-2098.

Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language

- Android Technology
- Applied Theories on Machines
- Automation Devices
- Automobile Engineer
- Automotive Engineering
- Automotive Industry
- Cloud
- Computation theory
- Computer Hardware
- Computer Simulation
- Conditioning Monitoring
- Control System
- Controllers
- Cryptography
- Development Process
- Diesel Engine
- Dynamic Information
- Engine
- Engine Performance
- Engineering Design
- External Force
- Fluid Bodies
- Flying Wheel
- Fuel Economy
- Global optimization
- Helmet
- Human-Machine-Interfaces
- Hydraulic Engineering
- IT Management
- Ignititon System
- Image Recognition
- Information Systems
- Information Technology
- Information Visualization
- Internet Communication Technology
- Internet computing
- Machine
- Machines
- Mathematical Model
- Mathematical optimization
- Mechanical Properties
- Mechanical Systems
- Mechanism
- Mechatronics
- Mechatronics and Robotics
- Modeling and Simulation
- Modular Architecture
- Network
- Parallel Processing
- Power System
- Product Quality
- Project development
- Real Time
- Robotics Methods
- Sensor Technology
- Signal Processing
- Simulator
- Soft Computing and Computational Intelligent
- Software Architecture
- Software Component
- Software Quality
- Software design
- Spark Ignition
- Splitting Method
- Technology
- Thermodynamics Methods
- Ubiquitous Computing
- Web Service
- Wireless Sensor
- Wireless Technology

- Total views:
**743** - [From(publication date):

April-2017 - Jul 22, 2018] - Breakdown by view type
- HTML page views :
**639** - PDF downloads :
**104**

Peer Reviewed Journals

International Conferences 2018-19