alexa SPE: A Time for Lowering Cost | OMICS International
ISSN: 2157-7064
Journal of Chromatography & Separation Techniques

Like us on:

Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on
Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

SPE: A Time for Lowering Cost

Alrefaee S*, Hattab M and Almosaad S

J.Al-Ahmad Armed Forces Hospital, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Clinical Laboratories, Ministry of Defense, Sabhan, UAE

*Corresponding Author:
Alrefaee S
J.Al-Ahmad Armed Forces Hospital, Clinical Biochemistry Department
Clinical Laboratories, Ministry of Defense, Sabhan, UAE
Tel: 0096597601407
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: May 19, 2017; Accepted Date: May 30, 2017; Published Date: June 05, 2017

Citation: Alrefaee S, Hattab M, Almosaad S (2017) SPE: A Time for Lowering Cost. J Chromatogr Sep Tech 8:367. doi: 10.4172/2157-7064.1000367

Copyright: © 2017 Alrefaee S, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Visit for more related articles at Journal of Chromatography & Separation Techniques


Serum protein electrophoresis (SPE) is usually ordered to diagnose multiple myeloma (MM). Although levels of proteins in the serum change in predictable way in response to different clinical situations that can be detected from SP bands on a gel; people tend to use other multiple laboratory tests. 44 patient's samples negative for MM were analyzed using automatic agarose gel electrophoresis system/compact Microgel Interlab. Readings for bands were compared to each other's and compared to albumin/globulin ratio (G/A). Bands studied showed 14 cases with polyclonal bands, one with sign of hemolysis, other hyperlipidemia, and one with low serum globulin. All bands showed significant positive correlation with A/G except for α2 negative correlation; p<0.05. SPE can predict clinical situation other than MM when used with trained personnel.


Electrophoresis is the main technique used nowadays for diagnosing multiple myeloma (MM) [1]. Since it is a powerful informative and reasonably easy and inexpensive technique. However; this test is underestimated due to insufficient diagnostic evidence [1]. Most of the proteins demonstrated by electrophoresis are readily available for specific assay by nephelometry or other immunoassay techniques [2]. Therefore; extensive line of testing done to evaluate the clinical picture of a diseases even in the presence of SPE result. We studied SPE as tool for detecting the clinical situation of patients other than MM [2] in one setting & possibility of excluding sophisticated multiple test usually done for follow up.

Methods & Material

44 patients were involved attending J.A. Armed forces hospital- Kuwait (20 males & 24 females). Samples were withdrawn by venipuncture using BD vacutainer plain tubes. Samples separated using Beckman-coulter Allegra 6 centrifuge with speed set to 6800 rpm for 10 minutes. Using Jencons Sealpette Pro Advanced Single Channel Pipe; 29 μl of serum pipetted each patient into sepate well. In each gel use 29 μl of normal and abnormal control provided by the manufacturer. Run the gel as instructed by the manual using automatic agarose gel electrophoresis system/compact Microgel Interlab.

Nephlometry testing for immunoglobulin (IgA, IgM & IgG) were also done using Beckman Immage immunoassay system while routine biochemical analysis including total protein (TP), transferrin (TRN), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and Lactate dehydrogenase (LD) were analyzed using Beckman DXc600 I analyzer. MM free samples were chosen and analysed; each fraction was reported & compare to normal & abnormal control. Results were also compared with other laboratory tests (biochemical & immunology).


Descriptive statistics for 44 patients are shown in Table 1.

  α1 g/l α2g/l Βg/l Γg/l Albuming/l A/G
Median 1.1 0.49 054 1.1 1.3 0.047
Minimum 0.4 1.7 1.7 5.1 2.7 0.6
Maximum 31.9 13.3 15.3 35.7 47 1.7
25% 1.7 7 7.0 10.2 27.6 0.8
95% 29.4 12.9 13.8 35.7 45.2 1.74

Table 1: Descriptive statistics of patient's bands.

Decrease in α2 (3.5 g/l) in parallel with increase in levels of enzyme LD (194 IU/l). A patient showed increased β (11.7 g/l) band compared to LDL (LDL 4.3 mmol/l; TRN 2.9 g/l). A case diagnosed with a gammaglobuliemia with low albumin (27.4 g/l, DXC600i)) in parallel with SPE pattern low albumin (27.2 g/l) & β (2.7 g/l), high α1 (1.6 g/l), α2 (9.1 g/l) and normal γ (8.4 g/l). Nephelometry showed also normal immunoglobulins (IgM 1.81 g/l; IgG 10.2 g/l; IgA2.0 g/l).

A positive case for Salmonella and Brucella (agglutination tests) presented with polyclonal band (20.51 g/l) with SPE pattern (albumin 39.6 g/l, α1 2.0, α2 8.3g/l, β 9.3 g/l) & normal nephelometer pattern (I gm 1.11g/l; IgG 11.9 g/l, IgA 1.66 g/l).

Using statistical analysis α1 (p=0.29; t=107) & albumin (p=0.4; t=0.9) were independent variables of γ band while α2 (p=0.03; t=-2.25) is inversely related to γ compared to β that was directly related (p=0.024; t=2.34). No significant gender differences affected bands readings (p>0.05).

14 cases with polyclonal bands in the γ region demonstrated a negative correlation between A/G and γ (p=0.0, t=-5.01), β (p=0.003; t=-3.3), α2 (p=0.0; t=-5.8) & α1 (p=0.03; t =-2.3) but not albumin (p=0.0; t=10.3). Two cases showed normal nephelometric reading for immunoglobins. Nephelometric measurements didn’t show any correlation with γ band measurement except for IgM correlated with α2 (r=0.85; p=0.004). Interestingly; γ related to α1 (r=0.7; p=0.005) while total protein related directly to γ, β, IgG & IgA (p<0).


Plasma protein levels display reasonably predictable changes in response to acute inflammation, malignancy, trauma, necrosis, infarction, burns, and chemical injury (acute-reaction protein pattern) along with associated conditions or disorders [2].

However, it is debatable whether one needs to evaluate so many early clinical applications of electrophoresis other than MM. Technique still underestimated, however, here we tried to prove that SPE is powerful tool to evaluate many clinical situations in one run from couple aspects of view:

1st albumin: globulin ratio although not specific but can tell a lot since protein synthesis in the liver can be evaluated through measurement of albumin and total protein [2]. Welder V studied albumin/globulin ratio (A/g) as a picture of albumin and globulin in blood since albumin reflects amount of tissue damage either in liver diseases or burns or malnutrition [3]. Kyle RA found it correlating with all bands in the SPE gel.

2nd α1 could be a predictor of amount of IgM in blood in cases involving changes in the immune system and malignancy [3]. β reflects amount of immunoglobins migrating from nearby region (γ) and it can detect high cholesterol levels [3] as seen in case with high LDL [4]. α2 inversely proportionate to γ as a result of decreased synthesis of proteins detected in this band a result of increase synthesis of immunoglobulin in γ band.

3rd Hemolysis [5] can be detected from presence unexplained low α2 with normal Transferrin strongly suggest presence of hemoglobin generated from hemolysis. Similar to routine testing techniques it may or may not affect readings. Finally, Response to inflammation can also collect group of changes in one test.

A lot of information from SPE still concealed and need to be evaluated such as conditions that affect size and shape of proteins such as drugs since albumin is a famous carrier for therapeutic medicines [4].

SPE could be powerful tool to predict future diseases in presence of polyclonal gammopathy, alteration in albumin charge and drug bioavailability. To detect abnormal proteins, absence or change in concentration of one or group of proteins.


Analysis of SPE may give a rough idea about clinical situation of a patient and guide towards further analysis and thus decrease time and cost of testing in clinical laboratory by excluding unnecessary testing. However; further studies needed.


Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Post your comment

Share This Article

Recommended Conferences

Article Usage

  • Total views: 704
  • [From(publication date):
    June-2017 - Jul 21, 2018]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views : 658
  • PDF downloads : 46

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh

Peer Reviewed Journals
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2018-19
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri & Aquaculture Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

+1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals


[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Clinical Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Food & Nutrition Journals

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics & Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Materials Science Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Nursing & Health Care Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

Ann Jose

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

© 2008- 2018 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version