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ISSN: 2161-0983
Entomology, Ornithology & Herpetology: Current Research

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Species Diversity of Snakes in Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve

Sandeep Fellows*

Asst Conservator of forest, Madhya Pradesh Forest Department (Information Technology Wing), Satpura Bhawan, Bhopal (M.P)

*Corresponding Author:
Sandeep Fellows
Asst Conservator of forest
Madhya Pradesh Forest Department (Information Technology Wing)
Satpura Bhawan, Bhopal (M.P), India
Tel: (0755) 2424079
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: August 18, 2014; Accepted date: September 22, 2014; Published date: September 24, 2014

Citation: Fellows S (2015) Species Diversity of Snakes in Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve. Entomol Ornithol Herpetol 4:136. doi: 10.4172/2161-0983.1000136

Copyright: © 2015 Fellows S. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

Madhya Pradesh (MP), the central Indian state is well-renowned for reptile fauna. In particular, Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve (PBR) regions (Districts Hoshangabad, Betul and Chindwara) of MP comprises a vast range of reptiles, especially herpetofauna yet unexplored from the conservation point of view. Earlier inventory herpetofaunal study conducted in 2005 at MP and Chhattisgarh (CG) reported 6 snake families included 39 species. After this preliminary report, no literature existing regarding snake diversity of this region. This situation incited us to update the snake diversity of PBR regions. From 2010 to 2012, we conducted a detailed field study and recorded 31 species of 6 snake families (Boidae, Colubridae, Elapidae, Typhlopidea, Uropeltidae, and Viperidae) in Hoshanagbad District (Satpura Tiger Reserve) and PBR regions. Besides, we found the occurrence of Boiga forsteni and Coelognatus helena monticollaris (Colubridae), which was not previously reported in PBR region. Among the recorded, 9 species were Lower Risk – least concerned (LR-lc), 20 were of Lower Risk – near threatened (LR-nt), 1 is Endangered (EN) and 1 is vulnerable (VU) according to International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) status. Hence, there is an urgent need for strategies to conserve these rare and threatened snakes in PBR.

Keywords

Herpetofauna; Species diversity; Check list; Satpura Tiger Reserve (STR); Pachmari Biosphere Reserve (PBR)

Introduction

There is growing evidence about the rich herpetofaunal diversity of India [1-4]. Herpetofauna includes both reptiles and amphibians. Among the herptofauna reported, reptiles (518 species) [5] were higher in India as compared to amphibians (314 species) [6]. The government of India has established 18 Biosphere Reserves. Pachmarhi biosphere reserve (PBR) is one among the biodiversity rich in fauna and flora, established on 3rd March 1999. PBR lies in between latitude 20°20 00 to 22°50 00 North and longitude 77°45 00 to 78°56 00 East and encompass total area 4926.28 km2, includes three districts (Hoshangabad, Betul and Chindwara) of Madhya Pradesh (MP). The total area of Hoshangabad district is 5408.23 km2, includes three protected wildlife areas. It includes three wildlife conservation units i.e. Bori Sanctuary, Satpura National Park and Pachmarhi Sanctuary covering the areas 518.00 km2, 524.37 km2 and 461.37 km2 respectively. Satpura Tiger Reserve (STR) lies between the latitude 22° 19’ 28” N to 22° 45’ 30” N and longitude 77° 53’ 48” E to 78°34’ 0” E. The total area of PBR is 4926.28 km2. STR is encompassed of moist deciduous forests. The forest has prominent floral species includes teak, saja, tendu, Harra, Mahua, and Dhawda. There are three clear season found in this region are dry, wet and cold. The cold season starts from November and last up to end of February. It’s followed by hot season which last up to middle of June. The coolest months are December to January and the hottest most are March, April and May. The average rainfall is about 2000 mm per year.

Apart from flora, faunal species such as Tiger, Leopard, Bison, Wild dogs, Bear, Chital, and Sambar Indian Giant Squirrel etc. were found in these forests. This reserve occupies a diverse range of habitats suitable for Herpetofauna, especially for reptiles. Snakes are the one among this reptile fauna frequently found in this reserve and their diversity in this region is poorly understood or not yet totally explored. Earlier study conducted by Kailash Chandra and Pawan [7] reported the vast herpetofaunal diversity of MP and Chhattisgarh (CG). After this preliminary report, there is no literature available regarding snake diversity in this region. This situation prompted us to conduct the present study to update the species diversity of snakes in the PBR and adjoining regions.

Methodology

Study area and field survey

The study survey was conducted during 2010 to 2012 in selected habitat of reptiles at Different tehsils of Hoshangabad, Betul and Chindwara district (Figure 1) for the possibility of availability of the species with the help of local communities residing on selected zone of PBR by interviewing and showing different colors photographs of snakes. On the basis of identification by the local communities, check list was prepared as a primary data. The secondary data for this observation were obtained after the examination and careful identification by the MP Forest Department (Figures 2-7).

entomology-ornithology-herpetology-Biosphere-Reserve

Figure 1: Study area.
Study survey was conducted at Pachamrhi Biosphere Reserve

entomology-ornithology-herpetology-Pachamrhi-Biosphere

Figure 2: Pachamrhi Biosphere Reserve Studies.

entomology-ornithology-herpetology-Xenochorpis-piscator

Figure 3: Checkered Keelback (Xenochorpis piscator).

entomology-ornithology-herpetology-Naja-naja

Figure 4: Cobra (Naja naja).

entomology-ornithology-herpetology-Bungarus-caeruleus

Figure 5: Common Krait (Bungarus caeruleus).

entomology-ornithology-herpetology-Python-molurus

Figure 6: Indian Rock Pyhton (Python molurus).

entomology-ornithology-herpetology-Gongylopis-conicus

Figure 7: Common Sand Boa (Gongylopis conicus / Eryx conica).

Results and Discussion

We recorded 31 species of 6 snake families (Boidae, Colubridae, Elapidae, Typhlopidea, Uropeltidae, and Viperidae) (Table 1) in STR and PBR regions. An earlier study conducted by Kailash Chandra and Pawan [7] reported only 3 species of 3 snake families include Typhlopidea (R. braminus), Uroleptideae (U. ocellata), and Viperidae (T. gramineous) in the PBR region of Hosangabad. In the present study, we recorded the availability of 3 more snake families includes Boidae, Colubridae, and Elapidae. Besides, we found the occurrence of B. forsteni and C. h. monticollaris (Colubridae) in PBR region. None of the earlier study reported these 2 species in Madhya Pradesh region. Similarly, two studies reported the availability of C. h. monticollaris. A study conducted by Nitin [8] concluded the new locality of C. h. monticollaris in Vansda National Park, Navsari, Gujarat, India. Subsequently, Bhupathy and Sathishkumar [9] reported C. h. monticollaris in highest number at Meghamalai area, Western Ghats, India.

S. No Family Zoological Name English Name Genus IUCN status
1 Boidae Eryx  johnii(Russell, 1801) Red Sand Boa Eryx LR-lc
Gongylopis conicus / Eryx conica(Schneider, 1801) Common Sand Boa Gongylophis LR-nt
Python molurus(Linnaeus, 1758) Indian Rock Python Python LR-nt
2   Colubridae Ahaetulla nasutus(Andersson, 1898) Common Green Whip Snake Ahaetulla LR-nt
Amphiesma Stolatum(Linnaeus, 1758) Buff striped keel back
(sita ki laad)
Amphiesma LR-nt
Argyrogena fasciolata(Shaw, 1802) Fosicoled Banded Racer Argyrogena LR-nt
Atretium schistosum(Daudin, 1803) Olive Keelback Water Snake Atretium LR-nt
Boiga forsteni(Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854) Forsten's Cat Snake Boiga   LR-lc
Boiga trigonata(Schneider in Bechstein, 1802) Common Cat Snake Boiga LR-lc
Coelognatus helena  monticollaris(Sculz, 1992) Montane trinket snake Coelognathus   VU
Dendrelaphis tristis(Daudin, 1803) Common bronze back tree snake Dendrelaphis LR-lc
Elephe helena helena(Daudin, 1803) Common trinket snake Coelognathus LR-nt
Lycodon aulicus(Linnaeus, 1758) Common aulicus Lycodon LR-lc
Lycodon striatus(Shaw, 1802) Barred Wolf Snake Lycodon LR-nt
Macropisthodon plumbicolour(Cantor, 1839) Green Keel Back Macropisthodon LR-nt
Oligodon arnesis(Shaw, 1802) Common Kukri Snake Oligodon LR-lc
Oligodon taeniolatus (Jerdon, 1853) Russell Kukri Snake Oligodon LR-nt
Psammophis longifrons(Boulenger, 1890) Stout sand snake Psammophis LR-nt
Ptyas mucosus(Linnaeus, 1758) Rat Snake Ptyas LR-nt
Sibynophis subpunctatus (Duméril & Bibron, 1854) Common Satak Sibynophis LR-nt
Xenochorpis piscator(Schneider, 1799) Checkered Keelback Xenochrophis LR-Ic
3   Elapidae Bungarus caeruleus(Schneider, 1801) Common Krait Bungarus LR-nt
Bungarus fasciatus (Schneider, 1801) Banded Krait Bungarus LR-nt
Naja naja (Linnaeus, 1758) Cobra Naja LR-nt
Naja Naja Kaouthia (Lesson, 1831) Monocled Cobra Naja EN
4 Typhlopidea Ramphotyphlops braminus(Daudin, 1803) Brahminy worm Snake Ramphotyphlops LR-nt
Grypotyphlops acutus (Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1844) Beak-nosed Worm Snake Typhlops LR-lc
5 Uropeltidae Uropeltis ocellata(Beddome, 1863) Ocelate Sheild tail Uropeltis LR-lc
6   Viperidae Echis carinata(Schneider, 1801) Saw Scaled Viper Echis LR-nt
Trimeresurus (Lachesis) gramineous(Shaw, 1802) Bamboo Pit viper Snake Trimeresurus   LR-nt
Vipera russelli(Shaw & Nodder, 1797) Russell's viper Daboia LR-nt

Table 1: List of snake species found in STR.

Among the recorded, 9 species (E. johnii, B. forsteni, B. trigonata, D. tristis, L. aulicus, O. arnesis, X. piscator, G. acutus, and U. ocellata) were Lower Risk – least concerned (LR-lc), 20 (G. conicus / E. conica, P. molurus, A. nasutus, A. Stolatum, A. fasciolata, A. schistosum, E. h. helena, L. striatus M. plumbicolour, O. taeniolatus, P. longifrons, P. mucosus, S. subpunctatus, B. caeruleus, B. fasciatus, N. naja, R. braminus, E. carinata, T. gramineous, and V. russelli) were of Lower Risk – near threatened (LR-nt), 1 (N. N. Kaouthia) is Endangered (EN) and 1 (C. h. monticollaris) is vulnerable (VU) according to International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) status (Table 1) and few belongs to rare category that is globally threatened. Hence, there is an urgent need for strategies to conserve these rare and threatened snakes in STR and PBR. Further well planned systematic approaches are needed in future to conserve the herpetofauna in these regions.

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to IFS officers of MP Forest Department, Shri S.S. Rajput, Shri R.P Singh, (Field Director STR), Shri.S.S Rajpoot, Shri Anil Nagar, Shri Dhirendra Bhargav & my colleagues Shri Advait Advagaonker, David Raju & Prof. Javed Khan (Safia College, Bhopal) for providing necessary facilities and support.

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  1. T. Shrineevsan
    Posted on Aug 10 2016 at 11:18 am
    This is an excellent report,
 

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