alexa Ruminants
ISSN: 2155-9821
Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques
Like us on:
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on
Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

Steam Bioprocessing Philosophy of Cereals for Ruminants: Time for a New History

Akbar Nikkhah*
Chief Highly Distinguished Professor, Department of Animal Sciences, University of Zanjan, Iran
Corresponding Author : Akbar Nikkhah
Chief Highly Distinguished Professor
Department of Animal Sciences
Faculty of Agricultural Sciences
University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran
Tel: +98-24-330-528-01
Fax: +98-24-330-532-02
E-mail: [email protected]
Received September 03, 2014; Accepted September 03, 2014; Published September 06, 2014
Citation: Nikkhah A (2014) Steam Bioprocessing Philosophy of Cereals for Ruminants: Time for a New History . J Bioprocess Biotech 4:e114. doi: 10.4172/2155-9821.1000e114
Copyright: © 2014 Nikkhah A. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Visit for more related articles at Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques


This editorial concisely and elaborately describes and criticizes historical misuses of cereal grains in managing food-producing ruminants. The article also presents clear-cut philosophies for optimal utilization of cereal starch and protein by high-producing modern dairy and beef ruminants. Securing this knowledge is very crucial since mismanagement in feeding differently dry- and steam-processed cereal grains causes prolonged Subacute Rumen Acidosis (SARA), challenges immunity, reduces nutrient intake, and ruins farm economy [1].

Starch is the core storage carbohydrate in cereals. Starch is made of amylase and amylopectin. Amylose is a linear polymer of 1-4, D-glucose units, while is amylopectin a branched polymer with linear chains of D-glucose with a branch point in every 20-25 glucose units. Harder grains include corn and sorghum and softer grains usually refer to wheat, barley and oats. Harder grains typically have lower degradation rate and extent than softer grains, especially shortly after feed presentation. An optimal global processing philosophy for harder grains (e.g., corn and sorghum and some varieties of wheat and barley) is that steam-treatment should help starch granules timely swallow under moist heat to be fermented more effectively and synchronously in the rumen [2-4]. Thus, steam-processing is to increase rumen fermentation rate and extent to degrees within which nitrogen and energy supplies become optimally rapid and synchronous to augment microbial biomass. In softer grains such as barley and wheat, however, the processing philosophy is totally different. Despite increasing rumen fermentation rate and extent of corn and sorghum grains, steam-processing aims to reduce and control starch degradation rate in too-rapidly degradable barley and wheat grains [5].

For limited small intestinal capacity of starch assimilation, it has been aimed to optimize starch and energy use by shifting digestion site from the small intestine to the rumen [3]. Undoubtedly, in barley and wheat grains that are already overly rapidly fermentable, the goal must be to moderate rumen degradation rate to shorten periods of SARA (e.g., <3 h/d). Such different philosophies ought to be optimally appreciated by ruminant specialists and farm managers for rumen health, microbial efficiency and food production to be improved.

To state simply and globally, causing problems and searching for solutions is by all means unwise. With improved management, problems must be prevented or at the very least be maintained under timely control. Vainness in overfeeding cereal grains (i.e., 40-50% barley in dairy diet DM) will mean ingesting a minimum of 24-30% starch just coming from grains with ineffective fibers for rumen health [6,7]. Elongated SARA would, as a result, occur. Such an over modernization must be avoided in today’s farm management [5].

It should be remembered that except for unique conditions, in standard nutrition programs, it is not feed or starch that pushes animal to produce, but it is rather ruminant physiology that drives responses to feeding management strategies. Continual contemplations are required for optimal cereal bioprocessing philosophies and techniques to be suitably acknowledged and practiced by modern and postmodern ruminant farmers. Of utmost importance is to cease ongoing through a mistaken history or overfeeding cereals blindly regardless of bioprocessing techniques aiming to maximize profits. The paramount is generating a new history that necessitates feeding optimal amount of cereal grains with right bioprocessing philosophy. This is the future in helping boost economy.

The Ministry of Science Research and Technology, and University of Zanjan, Iran, are thankfully acknowledged for supporting the author’s global programs of improving science edification in the new millennium.

Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Post your comment

Share This Article

Relevant Topics

Recommended Conferences

  • International Conference on Nanobiotechnology
    July 10-11, 2017 CHICAGO, USA
  • Global Biotechnology Congress 2017
    July 10th - 13th, 2017, Boston, MA, USA
  • 17th Euro Biotechnology Congress
    September 25-27, 2017 Berlin, Germany
  • 2nd World Biotechnology Congress
    December 04-06, 2017 Sao Paulo, Brazil

Article Usage

  • Total views: 11487
  • [From(publication date):
    September-2014 - Jun 26, 2017]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views : 7725
  • PDF downloads :3762

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh

Peer Reviewed Journals
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version