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Studies on Camels Feeding and Utilization of Camels Milk in Buttana Area, Gaderif State, Sudan

Osman AM1, Abdelkreim M1*, Abukashawa SMA2 and Ibrahim MT3

1Department of Range Science, College of Forestry and Range science, Sudan University of Science and Technology (SUST), Sudan

2Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, Sudan

3College of Animal Production Science and Technology, Sudan University of Science and Technology (SUST), Khartoum, Sudan

*Corresponding Author:
Abdelkreim M
Department of Range Science
College of Forestry and Range science
Sudan University of Science and Technology (SUST), Sudan
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: May 04, 2015; Accepted date: July 09, 2015; Published date: July 12, 2015

Citation: Osman AM, Abdelkreim M, Abukashawa SMA, Ibrahim MT (2015) Studies on Camel’s Feeding and Utilization of Camel’s Milk in Buttana Area, Gaderif State, Sudan. J Adv Dairy Res. 3:141. doi:10.4172/2329-888X.1000141

Copyright: © 2015 Osman AM, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

The study was conducted in different locations in Butana area (Gadarif, Showak (Sharif Hassab Allah, Umgargoor, Alsobagh). a set of detailed structured questionnaires were used to collect information from a total of sixty camel owners in different locations in Butana area. The interviews were conducted over single visits to each owner. The objective of this study is to assess the uses of camel milk and their feeding in Buttana area, Gaderif State, Sudan. The results showed that most of she-camels produced from 2 to 3 litre milk/day during the lactation period of 10 months. The majority of camel owners used calves to stimulate milk let-down and they milked she-camels twice a day. The milk let-down in the presence of the calf is the main method adopted by camel owners (96.7%).The majority of owners consumed the produced milk, while few of them sold the produced milk and took the milk for calves. The study showed that the main source of camels feed was the pastures and the camels preferred to consume trees, bushes and grasses. The main source of water is river, wells and natural water net. The results showed that most of camel owners (85%) reared their camels in the pastures and animals preferred trees and shrubs (81.7%). The milking frequency in the present study ranged between 2 to 3 times in a day. The results revealed that the first serious constrain was the presence of camel diseases, followed by lack of feed, lack of water, financial problems and lack of security. The study concluded that the mean values of camel milk yield and component were affected by feeding.

Keywords

She-camel; Lactation; Calf; Trees; Watering  

Introduction

Camels can produce more milk and for a longer period of time than any other dairy animal reared under the same harsh conditions [1]. Many factors affect camel milk yield such as genetic origin, environmental conditions, feeding management conditions [2], number of lactations and stage of lactation [3]. Camel’s size helps in browsing at higher levels above the ground than cattle, sheep and goats [4]. They usually browse on multi plants by taking a few bites then move to another. Dereje and Uden [5] noted that camels do not graze for a long time from one plant, but they move continuously, taking small bites of each plant. During summer, camels feed mainly at night especially during moonlight nights, and then rest from morning until afternoon wherever they have to bed down. The highest food consumption of 30-40 kg fresh forage (8-12 kg dry matter) is found on salty pastures, and the lowest food intakes (5 kg/day) is noted from dried grass pastures [6]. During the six or seven cool months in Sahara regions camels do not drink even if water is offered to them. Where green forage is available in mid climates, the camel may go several months without drinking [7]. Camels under very hot conditions may drink only once every eight to ten days and lose up to 30 percent of body weight through dehydration [8]. The objective of this study is to assess the feeding system of camels and the uses of camel’s milk in Buttana area, Gaderif State, Sudan.  

Material and Methods

The study was conducted in different locations in Butana area (Gadarif, Showak (Sharif Hassab Allah, Um-gargoor and Alsobagh). The Butana plain is a semiarid clay region that covers most of the present Kassala and Gedaref States in Eastern Sudan. It lies between latitude 13° 40' and 17° 50’ North and longitude 32° 40’ and 36° 00' East. A set of detailed structured questionnaire was used to collect information from a total of 60 camel owners in different locations in Butana area. The questionnaire was designed to obtain information on general household information, relation with camels and life mode of camel owners, purposes of keeping and rearing camels, breeding practices, milk production and milking practices, feeding and watering, constrains of camel production and veterinary services.

The collected household data was summarized and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences, (SPSS, and version 16.0). Descriptive statistics such as percentage and frequency were used to present the results.  

Results

Milk production and milking practices

The result in Table 1 (10, show that most of she-camels (60%) produced from 2 to 3 litres milk/day followed by 38.3%that produced 3-5 litres milk/day and about 2% that produced more than 5 litres milk/day.

Camel’s Milk Production litre/per day Percentage of she-camels
2-3 60%
3-5 38%
More than 5 2%
overall 100%

Table 1: Camel’ milk production litre/per day.

The lactation period varied between camels of different owners. 5% of camel owners left a period of 8 months lactation for a period of 10 months was practiced by about 53% of camel owners, lactation for 14 months was practiced by 42% of the camel owners and (Table 2).

Lactation period No. of respondents %
8 months 3 5.0
10 months 32 55.3
14 months 25 41.7
Overall 60 100

Table 2: lactation period of she-camels.

The results revealed that about 97% of the 60 camel owners used calves in milk let-down stimulation while the rest milked their animals without calves (Table 3).

Methods No. of respondents %
With calf 58 96.7
Without calf 2 3.3
Overall 60 100

Table 3: Methods of milk let down.

The majority of owners (61.7%) milked she-camels twice a day, while about 37% milked their animals three times a day and only 1.7%milked their animals once a day (Table 4).

Milking frequency/day No. of respondents %
Once 1 1.7
Twice 37 61.7
Three times 22 36.6
Overall 60 100

Table 4: Milking frequency (day).

The majority of camel owners families (95%) consumed the produced milk, while 3.3%sold the produced milk and 1.7% took the milk for calves (Table 5).

Uses of milk No. of respondents %
For calves 1 1.7
For family consumtion 57 95
For sale 2 3.3
Overall 60 100

Table 5: Uses of camel milk.

Feeding and watering

The results (Table 6), indicated that the main source of feeding is rangelands (85%) while rangelands combined with green fodder represent only 15%.

Source of feed No. of respondents %
Rangelands 51 85
Rangelands and green fodder 9 15
Overall 60 100

Table 6: Source of feed.

The majority of plant coverage in the area of the study is trees (60%), while grasses showed only (18.3%), (Table 7).

Plant No. of respondents %
Trees 36 60
Bushes 13 21.7
Grasses 11 18.3
Overall 60 100

Table 7: Plant coverage in studied area.

The data in Table 8 shows that the main source of water for camels watering is river (41.7%) in addition to wells (30%) and natural water net (ponds).

Water source No. of respondents %
River 25 41.7
Well 18 30.0
Natural water net 17 28.3
Over all 60 100.0

Table 8: Water sources in the studied area.

Table 9 shows that the majority of camel owners (71.7 %) watered their camels in summer every three days than 20% of owners watered their camels every two days and about (8%) of owners watered their camels daily. However, in winter more than 50%of camel owners wate their camels every six days followed by 40%owners watering their camels every four days and 5% of camel owners watering their camels every three days.  

Watering frequency
Winter Summer
Frequency (Days) No. % Frequency (Days) No. %
Three 3 5.0 One 5 8.3
Four 24 40.0 Two 12 20.0
 Six 33 55.0 Three 43 71.7
Over all 60 100.0 Over all 60 100.0

Table 9: Watering interval.

Veterinary services

 

Most of camel owners (70%) responded that there is no veterinary service and the majority of them (80%) mentioned that the veterinary service was provided by the private sector while 20% mentioned that the veterinary service is provided by the government (Table 10).

Source veterinary services Availability of veterinary services
  No. % Availability No. %
Government 12 20 Yes 18 30
Private 48 80 No 42 70
Total 60 100 Overall 60 100

Table 10: Sources and availability of veterinary services according to respondents.

Discussion

The study shows that there are different modes of behviour of camel owners in Butana area milking practices, lactation period, milk let-down stimulation, milking frequency The milk production is within the estimated range of east african camels. The milk yield of 2-5 litres per day increasing with one to 3 times of milking per dayis low compared to other studies Wernery reported production of 20 to 30 litres daily for good milkers while Schwartz and Walsh estimated lactation yield for East African camels at between 1,500 and 2,500 litres. The low yield can be explained by the lack of marketing (95%) is used for family consumption

Full tree grazing is the main mode of feeding. The majority of owners braught their animals to the river or the nearby wells for watering

Chalenges facing camel owners in Butana area include scarcity of veterinary services, and marketing of camel’s milk, most of the milk produced is consumed by the owners.

The data generated from the study is useful for owners, government and researchers.

Conclusion

The study concluded that the mean values of camel milk yield and component that were affected by feeding. Camel in the pastures and animals preferred trees and shrubs. The main constrain can face the camel production such the veterinary services.  

References

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