alexa Study of the Composition of the Volatile Fraction of the Pistacia lentiscus

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Study of the Composition of the Volatile Fraction of the Pistacia lentiscus

Abdelkader M1*, Bouyahia Naima B1 and Boudiaf Nassima B2
1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University Badji Mokhtar-Annaba, LM2 PM, BP 12 Campus, Sidi Amar, Algeria
2Faculty of Pharmacy de Annaba, LM2 PM, BP 12 Campus, Sidi Amar, Algeria
*Corresponding Author: Abdelkader M, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University Badji Mokhtar-Annaba, LM2 PM, BP 12 Campus, Sidi Amar, Algeria, Tel: +213661718929, Email: [email protected]

Received Date: Aug 16, 2017 / Accepted Date: Aug 22, 2017 / Published Date: Aug 28, 2017

Abstract

In this work, the study of the composition of Pistacia lentiscus volatile fraction in El Kala region is targeted. The chromatographic analyses (CPG and CG-SM) of the Pistacia lentiscus extracts allowed to identify solvent, that is the hexane, thirty components, in which three of them are considered major 2-Methoxy,4-vinlphenole (36.5%), 2,3- dihydrobenzofuran (25.50%). and phenyl ethanol (10.85%) and thirty-six other components by the polar solvent with the DMSO as a major one, the oleamide (26.07%).

Keywords: Volatile fraction; CPG; CG-SM; Pistacia lentiscus

Introduction

The Pistacia lentiscus is a shrub that can reach three meters of height that finds its roots in places like scrublands this dioecious plant belongs to the family of anacardium [1] and is distinguished by foliage compared to other pistachio trees. Several tests have been carried out on the oil extracted from the ripe fruit proving that it contains unsaturated and saturated fatty acids and vitamin [2,3]. However, our bibliographic research has shown that no study has been carried out on the basis of the determination of volatile scopes. We are interested in warring out this work to determine the chemical constituents of volatile fractions with the help of the CPG-MS technical.

Materials and Methods

Materials and vegetal

The conditions for harvesting the fruit are summarized in the Table 1.

Botanical Name Date harvested lieu Development Stage season Middlevegetative
Pistacialentiscus November2016 Oued Hout Fruit ripe rain Forest

Table 1: Summary of harvest conditions.

The fruits are washed with distilled water to remove organisms responsible of the deterioration of their quality then they are immersed in nitrogen liquid for chemical and physical stabilization. The fruits are dried in an oven at 95º C for 8 hours and then ground with a coffee grinder to obtain a fine powder [3-5].

Volatile extracts preparation

The extraction of the volatile fraction on 160 g of powder has been realized by hydro distillation, using an apparatus of (Clevenger 1928) type, for 3 hours, in a liter of water within a balloon of 2 liters [6,7]. The balloon is surmounted by a column of 60 cm length, related in its turn to a refrigerant followed by liquid extraction-hydrolat liquidusing the hexane and the DMSO as solvents. The extraction output of these substances is less than 0.4%.

Chromatographic analysis

The analyses were realized with a chromatograph (Agilent technologies 6890) enhanced with a flame ionization detector (FID) of a capillary column HPS (30 m × 0,32 mm) film thickness 0.25 mm) the helium is the vector gas. The injector temperature is 270º C, and des detector one is 250º C. The furnace temperature program consists of one isotherm at 80º C/min, followed by a temperature ramp of 5º C/min up to 310º C (2 min) [8]. The injection is made by mode split less. The volume injected is 1 μl. The components identification was executed drawing on their indices of KOVATS (IK) and on gas phase coupled to mass spectrometry (CG-SM). The latter was made on a gas phase chromatograph of Agilent Technologies 6890 type, coupled to mass spectrometer Autospee M-610. The ionization mode is the electronic impact of 70 eV and the detection is made by an HRMS analyzer (high resolution mass spectrometry) type E-B-E within the masses range of 50-800 Da [9].

The temperature programming is identical to the one used previously for the detection by FID and the injection is by mode split less. The apparatus is related to data processing system managing a mass spectral library NIST 98 [10,11]. The components identification is based on the comparison of their mass spectra (CPG-SM) respective to library spectra (NIST 98) and (Adams 1995) library. Ans also based on the indices calculation of Kovats, these indices of Kovats were calculated following the equation 1 after an analysis under the same conditions of the chromatography of alkane series.

Equation

Tri=retention time of the volatile fraction compound

Trn=retention time of the alkane at n carbon

Trn-1=retention time of the next alkane

Results and Discussion

The results obtained (Table 2) by solvent hexane and DMSO show that there is a great diversity of the chemical constituents of qualitative and quantitative aspects of the composition of the volatile liquor contains alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, nitrogen compound and furanic derivatives.

Compound RI Hexane (%) DMSO (%)
2-Ethylhexanol 1038 1.45 1.28
Eucalyptole 1045 1.10 -
2,3 dihydrolenzofurane 1050 25.50 -
Phényléthanal 1053 10.85 13.28
1 propylbenzene 1056 - 10.02
2-methyoxyphénol 1085 2.07 0.03
methyl benzoyl formate 1073 - 0.22
O-methoxyphenylacétate 1095 - 0.07
Thozone 1102 0.48 -
2,6 dimithyleyclohexanol 1107 - 0.75
2-indanone 1150 0.56 -
3-Phenylprop 2-énal 1157 - 1.30
Bornéol 1162 1.39 0.65
Terpinen-4-ol 1173 - 0.16
m-methylacétophone 1181 - 0.12
a-terpinol 1186 1.50 -
2,2’ dibutoxyéthylether 1189 - 3.88
Verbenone 1206 0.34 1.27
Benzothiazole 1120 1.90 2.65
2,5 diméthyle3 enylformate 1226 0.40 -
2-butylcyclohexanone none 1260 0.071 -
2 propylpiperidine 1250 - 0.02
Thymol 1300 1.84 -
2 methoxy-4-vinylphénol 1310 36.51 -
4-hydroxy 2-methylacitophone 1311 - 15.60
1,4 diéthoxy-benzené 1341 - 0.58
Eugénol 1353 0.75 0.18
gdicalactone 1358 0.30 0.45
3,5,5 trimethyhexan 1 1364 0.25 -
Vanilline 1395 - 3.16
g Cadinene 1422 - 0.06
Esterméthylique de l’acide 9 oxononanoique 1430 - 0.29
bionome 1480 - 0.17
bcubebene 1475 - 0.51
4,6 de tert butyl 2 méthylphénol 1506 0.28 0.88
Benzophénone 1619 0.14 0.21
T murolol 1635 - 0.16
acadinol 1645 - 0.30
3,5 di-tertbutyl 4 hydrobenzaldchyde 1556 0.35 0.65
Icosanol 1786 - 0.10
2,6,10,15 tetraméthylheptadécane 1791 - 0.42
Tetradicanamide 1814 - 0.01
13 epimanol 2042 0.02 -
Linolèate de methyle 2086 - 1.98
Isotréatate de méthyle 2119 - 0.20
Déamide 2351 0.13 26.07
Squatène 2812 0.59 -
Isopropyl palmitate 2018 0.21 -
Nom identifie 1266 0.32 -
Indolizine 1290 0.32 -
Non identifiée 1338 0.49 -
Diheptylèther 1041 - 0.98
Camphre 1140 1.17 -
Indolizine 1290 0.32 -
DMSO=Dimethyl sulfoxide
1=KOVATS index Relative to alkanes C8-C30

Table 2: Composition of Pistacia volatile extracts Pistacia lentiscus .

On the one hand, in the hexane extract, thirty components chemical reaction with a predominance of alcohol with 2-methoxyphenol vinyl chloride (36.51) and then the 2,3 dehydrobenzofuran, 25.50% followed of the phenyl ethanol (10.85%) on the other hand the monoterpene compounds and oxygenated monoterpenes are found in large quantities on the other hand the DMSO extract, thirty-six compounds, aldehydes and ketones such as verlanone (1.27%), the range dicatactnoe (0.45%) vanilla (3.16%) and also the alcohols (borneol, eugenol) the terpene compounds are present in small quantities.

Conclusion

The chromatographic analysis of both extracts allowed us to identify the volatile fraction obtained from Pistacia lentiscus oil extract. The detected molecules have different chemical and physical characteristics, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and nitrogen compounds.

The predominance within the hexane extract fraction is for alcohols, aldehydes and ketones, then are dominant in DMSO extract. Oleamide is a typical component of DMSO extract.

The vanillin is an aroma which has a peach note in DMSO extract with a salient relative rate. When encountering this identified and composed panoply, it is important to assign those that bestow typicality to the fraction volatile aroma.

The information obtained on the various substances could perhaps serve in particular studies on the sensory characterization using CPGolfactometrie which would be an interesting alternative. Forthcoming, this evaluation would serve as a main object of publication in your paper.

References

Citation: Abdelkader M, Naima BB, Nassima BB (2017) Study of the Composition of the Volatile Fraction of the Pistacia lentiscus. Nat Prod Chem Res 5: 287. DOI: 10.4172/2329-6836.1000287

Copyright: © 2017 Abdelkader M, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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