Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Stony Brook University, New York, USA
Received Date:January 09, 2014; Accepted Date: January 15, 2014; Published Date: January 22, 2014
Citation: Meng Y (2013) Study of the Effect of Micro patterning on Apatite Formation in Osteoblasts. Bioceram Dev Appl 4:e102. doi:10.4172/2090-5025.1000e102
Copyright: © 2013 Meng Y. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Collaborators at Stony Brook University (Stony Brook, New York, USA) and New York Institute of Technology (Old Westbury, New York, USA) recently conducted a research project to investigate bone mineralization on artificially patterned biomaterials. This project aimed to seek out novel ways to enhance the osteogenic capability of osteoblasts by culturing them on substrates containing various micro topographies. This was the first study that combines micro patterning and synchrotron techniques to examine in-situ apatite production of cultured cells in response to altered surface dimension.
The rising demand for artificial orthopedic replacements is anticipated over the course of the next decade, as already there has been a steady increase in hip fractures  and artificial knee and hip replacements . Present day knee and hip implants, however, only last an average of 15 years due to implant rejection by the body and mechanical failure due to a more physically active population . With a rapid surge in the elderly population, the demand for better strategies in regenerative medicine is also expected to increase.
A recent project conducted at Stony Brook University investigated the potential of micro fabricated materials as a novel orthopedic implant material. This project utilized a micro patterning approach to examine the osteogenic response of cultured osteoblasts on patterned silicon. To evaluate their results, the research team combined traditional cell culture with synchrotron characterization tools.
The investigators used:
• Two murine osteoblast-like cell lines: MC3T3-E1 sub clones 4 and 24.
• One biomaterial: <100> orientation silicon.
•Two micro patterns fabricated using photolithography and reactive ion etching: 2 μm (2 μm depth, 10 μm pitch) and 20 μm (2 μm depth, 30 μm pitch).
• One synchrotron X-ray diffraction beam line (X6B) located at the Department of Energy (DOE)-funded National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory (Upton, New York, USA).
One particularly novel aspect of this study is that no a priori bioceramic coating (i.e. hydroxyapatite) was used, in contrast to previous reports in the literature (Figure 1).
Results from this study revealed that not only was the micro patterned silicon able to support osteoblast mineralization, the surface dimension also played a role in the osteogenic potential of the cells.
The lead author of the study, Dr. Kathryn Dorst, explains that “the dimensions of surface features modify the way cells interact with a material and greatly affect its cytocompatibility. These characteristics elicit variations in downstream responses through minute changes in cytoskeletal tension that ultimately guide cell fate”.
Collaborator Dr. Michael Hadjiargyrou (Professor and Chair, Department of Life Sciences, New York Institute of Technology, Westbury, New York, USA) adds that “as the world’s aging population increases, it will become even more pertinent for us to be able to design orthopedic implants that result in long term successful osteo integration and resist the common occurrence of loosening”.