Study on Distribution of Cattle Tick from Mid Hills to Plain of Nepal
Received Date: Oct 24, 2018 / Accepted Date: Oct 28, 2018 / Published Date: Nov 15, 2018
Tick causes the serious economic losses in livestock production in worldwide. A study was conducted to determine the abundance of tick population on different body parts of cattle as well as in different geographical regions in 2017/018. Three study sites were taken from mid hill, inner terai and terai region of Nepal. Randomly total 45 dairy cattle (15 from each region) were included for the study. Regarding to the ticks distribution in cattle body part, higher number of ticks were recorded on dewlap (38.61%) followed by perineum and udder (25.10%), ear base (15.06%), tail base (9.07%), abdomen (7.34%) and withers (4.83%). Similarly, highest numbers of ticks were recorded in Chitwan (19.46 average number of ticks) cattle followed by Dang (9.13 average number of ticks) and least in Lamjung (5.73 average number of ticks) cattle. This result indicates that higher tick infestation was found in warm, moist, hidden sites with good vascular supply and thin skin in cattle body. Similarly, more number of tick population recorded in cattle keeping with poor animal husbandry practices
Keywords: Tick; Cattle; Distribution; Region
Ecto-parasite, transmitted several pathogens and zoonotic diseases, is serious problems in livestock industry [1-3]. Among the ectoparasites, ticks cause the greatest economic losses in livestock production at global level [4-6]. It is reported that about 80% of the world cattle population is infested with ticks . Moreover, tick borne diseases are the problems of cattle and other livestock in Africa, Asia and Latin America . Tick transmit the viral, bacterial and protozoan pathogens causing diseases like hemorrhagic fever, ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis, theileriosis, and babesiosis in animals . The global losses due to hard tick infestation is estimated to be US$7.0 billion annually .
Nepal is no different to global scenario when it comes to tick problem in dairy cattle. There is very few information regarding to the ticks distribution in different climatic areas in Nepalese context . Conducted a study about the tick distribution in western part of Nepal. However, there was no any study on distribution of ticks in present study sites where commercial growing of livestock is common. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the abundance of tick population on different body parts of cattle as well as in different geographical regions.
Materials and Methodology
Three study sites were taken for the study as Sundarbazzar municipality, Lamjung; Bharatpur Metropolitan, Chitwan; Lamahi municipality, Dang; lies in mid hill, inner terai and terai region of Nepal respectively. Sundarbazzar, Lamjung lies in 28.1448°N, 84.4120°E, with 982 msal, Bharatpur, Chitwan in 27.6487°N, 84.4173°E, with 208 msal and Lamahi, Dang lies in 27.8771°N, 82.5727°E, with 250 msal. The climatic condition included from tropical to subtropical type.
Collection of ticks
Randomly 15 cattle (total 45 from three study sites) from each district were selected for the study. Then total ticks in cattle were collected and counted for the study of tick distribution in different geographical region. Similarly, ticks in six different cattle body parts viz. perineum and udder, abdomen, wither, dewlap, tail base, and ear were also counted separately. Ticks were collected and counted manually using a forcep and gloves. Similar procedure was followed in remaining of two study sites. The collected ticks were stored in a sterile container containing 70% ethanol [12,13].
Identification of ticks
All the information collected during study including qualitative information were coded and tabulated in Excel sheet. Statistical tools R 4.2.2 were used for the analysis. The recorded data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and significant mean differences were separated by Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at 0.05 percent level of significance .
Number of ticks in different body part of cattle
Table 1 and Figure 1 presented the average number of ticks in different body parts of cattle. As presented in this table and figure highest numbers of ticks were recorded in dewlap of cattle followed by perineum and udder whereas least in wither in all three districts.
|S. N.||Animal body Region||Average number of Ticks in Lamjung||Average number of Ticks in Chitwan||Average number of Ticks in Dang|
|1||Perineum and Udder||2.00 ab||5.25 b||3.50 a|
|2||Abdomen||0.50 cd||2.00 cd||1.00 c|
|3||Wither||0.25 d||0.75 d||0.50 c|
|4||Dewlap||3.00 a||7.75 a||4.00 a|
|5||Tail Base||0.75 cd||1.75 cd||1.00 c|
|6||Ear||1.50 bc||2.25 c||2.25 b|
|Test of Sign||***||***||***|
Table 1: Average number of ticks and mean comparison by DMRT in different body part of cattle in Lamjung, Chitwan and Dang. *Means followed by the same letter in each column are not significantly different by DMRT at <0.05 percent level.
Figure 1 clearly shows that average number of ticks were recorded higher on dewlap (38.61%) followed by perineum and udder (25.10%), ear base (15.06%), tail base (9.07%), abdomen (7.34%) and least in withers (4.83%).
Distribution of ticks in different region
Average number of ticks recorded from mid hills to plan of Nepal is presented in Figure 2. As presented in the figure highest average number of ticks were recorded in Chitwan (19.46 average ticks per cattle) cattle followed by Dang (9.13 average ticks per cattle) and least in Lamjung (5.73 average ticks per cattle) cattle.
Relative abundance of tick species
Abundance of different tick species is presented in Table 2. As shown in this table, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus were found highest relative abundance in all three study sites Lamjung (94.19%), Chitwan (95.25%) and Dang (95.62%) followed by Haemophysalis sp. Similarly, abundance of Ixodex sp. was also recorded in all three districts as 1.16% in Lamjung, 1.36% in Chitwan and 0.73% in Dang. Amblyomma sp. was not found in Lamjung whereas in Chitwan (1.02%) and Dang (0.73%) it was found least abundance as compare to previously presented three tick species.
|S. N.||Ticks Species||Relative abundance in Lamjung (%)||Relative abundance in Chitwan (%)||Relative abundance in Dang (%)|
|1||Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus||94.19||95.25||95.62|
Table 2: Abundance of tick species in Lamjung, Chitwan and Dang.
Present finding on higher number of tick population on dewlap was supported by several previous reports . Garcia also reported higher number of ticks on dewlap (38.7%) followed by perineum and udder (23.87%), ears base (14.19%), tail base (9.03%), abdomen (7.09%) and withers (4.51%). Hasson  reported perineum, udder and external genitalia (98%) as the most tick infested sites in cattle followed by dewlap, inner thighs, neck and back, tail, ears, around eyes, flanks and legs in Pakistan. Similarly, it is reported that ticks predilection sites were more prevalent on cattle's udder (41%) . Present finding on higher number of ticks on dewlap followed by perineum and udder was in line with earlier reported cases of high tick infestation in secluded sites with less hair [19,20]. Higher tick infestation on these sites could be due to tick’s preference for warm, moist and hidden sites with good vascular supply and thin skin .
Higher numbers of ticks were found in Chitwan in present study. In Chitwan cattle were found grazed in jungle and ticks might transmit from wild animals. Kovats  reported that pasture spelling and rotational grazing were found effective to reduce the population of one-host ixodid tick Boophilus microplus on dairy farms in Australia. Ministry of Agriculture  also reported that the habitat modification and pasture management give efficient result for the control of ticks. It is reported that different tick species attach on vegetation and stealthily attach to the cattle passing nearby, Muchenje et al. , Muhammad et al.  reported as vegetation provides the shade and optimum humidity in during adverse situation. Similarly, sheds of study site of Chitwan was without cemented which contains many cracks and crevices. According to Muchenje et al. , cracks and crevices in the buildings were appropriate for the ticks to hide and breed which play important role to increase tick population. Similarly, changes in the climatic situation cause changes in the geographical distribution of ticks . This means that the temperature has strong correlation with tick activities by initiation and termination of host-seeking by individual tick [26,27]. Likewise, the relative humidity, on the other hand, remains an important factor for survival of ticks by regulating the water balance and prevents dehydrations as stated by Hassan . Higher temperature and optimum relative humidity also favour higher number of tick population in Chitwan. These findings supported the present finding of higher prevalence of tick population in Chitwan.
Finally, higher numbers of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus were also reported by Bohara et al.  as in present finding in western parts of Nepal. Similarly, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus was the main tick species in cattle population in Nigeria, Titus et al. , Walker et al.  also reported as the more population of Rhipicephalus followed by Hyalomma and least Boophilus in cattle. In present study Rhipicephalus was also recorded as the most abundant tick species.
These results indicate higher tick infestation was in warm, moist, hidden sites with good vascular supply and thin skin in cattle body parts. Similarly, good animal husbandry practices such as regular grooming, appropriate sanitary practices, stall feeding, and raising livestock in cemented stalls etc. seem effective for the management of ticks. Knowledge of these results is important for management of ticks in cattle.
- Atif FA, Khan MS, Iqbal HJ, Roheen T (2012) Prevalence of tick borne diseases in Punjab (Pakistan) and haematological profile of Anaplasma Marginale Infection in Indigenous and Crossbred Cattle. Pakistan Journal of Science 64: 11-15.
- Balashov YS (1972) Bloodsucking ticks (Ixodoidea)-vectors of disease of man and animals. Miscellaneous Publication of Entomological Society of America 8: 161-376.
- Bohara TP, Shrestha SP (2016) A study on cattle tick and tick borne pathogens of Mid Western. Nepalese Veterinary Journal 33: 23-27.
- Bowman AS, Dillwith JW, Sauer JR (1996) Tick salivary prostaglandins presence, origin and significance. Parasitology Today 12: 388-396.
- Cupp EW, Cupp MS (1997) Black Fly Salivary Secretions: Importance in Vector Competence and Disease. Journal of Medical Entomology 34: 87-94.
- David S (2005) Ticks in the Merck Veterinary Manual. 9th edn. Merck and Co Inc., Whitehouse Station, New Jersey, USA, pp: 749-764.
- Deken RD, Horak V, Madder M, Stoltsz H (2014) Tick Control. Published by University of Pretoria, Faculty of Veterinary Science, p: 45.
- Doub BM, Kemp DH (1979) The influence of temperature, relative humidity and host factors on the attachment and survival of Boophilus Microplus larvae to skin slices. International Journal of Parasitology 9: 449-454.
- Eyo EJ, Ekeh FN, Ivoke N, Atama CI, Onah IE, et al. (2014) Survey of tick infestation of cattle at four selected grazing sites in the tropics. Global Veterinaria 12: 479-486.
- Fritsche TR (2003) Arthropods of medical importance: Manual of Clinical Microbiology. 8th edn. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
- Garcia LS (2007) Diagnostic Medical Parasitology. 5th edn. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
- Gomez KA, Gomez AA (1984) Statistical Procedures for Agriculture Research. John Wiley and Sons.
- Gray JS (1985) Ticks: their economic importance and methods of control. Outlook on Agriculture 14: 136-142.
- Hagras AE, Khalil GM (1988) Effect of temperature on Hyalomma dromedarii Koch. Journal of Medical Entomology 25: 354-359.
- Harrow ID, Gration KAF, Evans N (1991) Neurobiology of Arthropod Parasites. Parasitology 102: 559-569.
- Hassan SM (2003) Integrated tick management with special reference to Sudan conditions. Journal of Veterinary Science and Husbandry 42: 305-318.
- Hasson RH, Al-Zubaidi HH (2014) Cattle and buffaloes tick's infestation in Wasit province districts, Iraq. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 5: 31-40.
- Hasson RH (2012) Tick distribution and infestation among sheep and cattle in Baghdad’s south suburb. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 3: 77-90.
- Jones LD, Kaufman WR, Nuttall PA (1997) Modification of the skin feeding site by tick saliva mediates virus transmission. Experiment 48: 779-782.
- Jongejan F, Uilenberg G (2004) The global importance of ticks. Parasitology 129: 3-14.
- Kovats RS, Campbell LDH, Mcmicheal AJ, Woodward A, Cox JS (2001) Early effects of climate change do they include changes in vector-borne diseases? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 29: 1057-1068.
- Ministry of Agriculture (1986) Manual of veterinary parasitological laboratory techniques. HM Stationery Office, London.
- Muchenje V, Dzama K, Chimonyo M, Raats JG, Strydom PE (2008) Tick susceptibility and its effects on growth performance and carcass chrematistics of Nguni, Bonsmara and Angus steers raised on natural pasture. Animal 2: 298-304.
- Muhammad G, Naureen A, Firyal S, Saqib M (2008) Tick control strategies in dairy production medicine. Pakistan Veterinary Journal 28: 43-50.
- Rajput ZI, Hu S, Chen W, Arijo AG, Xiao C (2006) Importance of ticks and their chemical and immunological control in livestock. Journal of Zhejiang University Science 7: 912-921.
- Sonenshine ED (1991) Biology of Ticks. Oxford University Press, New York, USA, p: 445.
- Spickett AM, Deklerk D, Erishin CB, Scholtz MM (1989) Resistance of Nguni, Bonsmara and Hereford cattle to ticks in a bush veldt of South Africa. Journal of Veterinary Research 56: 245-250.
- Titus RG, Ribeiro JMC (1988) Salivary gland lysates from the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis enhance Leishmania Infectivity. Sci, pp: 1306-1308.
- Walker AR, Bouattour A, Camicas JL, Estrada-Pena A, Horak IG (2003) Ticks of Domesticated Animals in Africa a Guide to Identification of Species Bioscience Report. University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Citation: Dhital B, Shrestha S, Kaphle K, Pudasaini R (2018) Study on Distribution of Cattle Tick from Mid Hills to Plain of Nepal. J Vet Sci Technol 9: 567. DOI: 10.4172/2157-7579.1000567
Copyright: © 2018 Dhital B, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Share This Article
- Total views: 395
- [From(publication date): 0-0 - Aug 22, 2019]
- Breakdown by view type
- HTML page views: 357
- PDF downloads: 38