alexa Synthesis and Preliminary Antimicrobial Activity of New Schiff Bases of Pyrido [1,2-A] Pyrimidine Derivatives with Certain Amino Acids | Open Access Journals
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Medicinal chemistry
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Synthesis and Preliminary Antimicrobial Activity of New Schiff Bases of Pyrido [1,2-A] Pyrimidine Derivatives with Certain Amino Acids

Shakir M Alwan1*, Jaafar Abdul-Sahib Al-Kaabi2 and Rafid MM Hashim1
1Pharmaceutical chemistry department, College of Pharmacy, University of Baghdad, Bab Al-Moadham, P.O. Box 14026, Baghdad, Iraq
2College of pharmacy, University of Messan, Messan, Iraq
Corresponding Author : Shakir M Alwan
Pharmaceutical chemistry department
College of Pharmacy, University of Baghdad
Bab Al-Moadham, P.O. Box 14026, Baghdad, Iraq
Tel: +9647902518888
E-mail: [email protected]
Received July 08, 2014; Accepted August 20, 2014; Published August 22, 2014
Citation: Alwan SM, Al-Kaabi JAS, Hashim RMM (2014) Synthesis and Preliminary Antimicrobial Activity of New Schiff Bases of Pyrido [1,2-a] Pyrimidine Derivatives with Certain Amino Acids. Med chem 4:635-639. doi:10.4172/2161-0444.1000206
Copyright: © 2014 Alwan SM, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

Pyrido [1,2-a] pyrimidine ring structure is one of the most interesting heterocycles in drug design and its derivatives have various potential pharmacological activities. An interesting approach of synthesizing a new series of pyridopyrimidine derivatives containing Schiff bases of certain amino acids, as privileged moieties of expected high potential in the field of antibacterial and antitumor agents, were investigated that may provide a synergistic model. The new derivatives 1-6 were synthesized by reacting 3-formyl-2H-pyrido [1, 2-a] pyrimidine-2, 4 (3H)-dione 1b with glycine, alanine, glutamic acid, histidine, tryptophan or leucine in methanol under reflux using glacial acetic acid as catalyst. The chemical structures of the new compounds and their intermediates (1-6, 1a and 1b) were characterized, identified and confirmed by spectral analysis (IR, 1H-NMR) and elemental microanalysis (CHN) and the results were within the acceptable limits. Disc-diffusion method was used to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of the newly synthesized compounds of interest 1-6, using Pseudomonas aurginosa, Staphylococcus aurueus, Bacillus subtilus, Candida albicans and Escherichia coli. The synthesized compounds 1-6 showed variable antibacterial activities ranged between good to moderately active, when compared with standards (amoxicillin and ceftriaxone). Compounds 4-6 also showed antifungal activities. However, compounds 5 and 6 are the most potent and have promising results. Compound 6 showed a good activity against all bacterial strains and fungi tested, while compound 5 showed the highest activity against Pseudomonas auroginosa. This approach has afforded the synthesis of new pyrido-pyrimidine derivatives containing Schiff bases of certain amino acids of reasonable and promising antibacterial activities.

Keywords
Pyridopyrimidine; Schiff bases; Amino acids
Introduction
Pyrido [1, 2-a] pyrimidine ring structure is one of the most interesting heterocycles in drug design [1], and compounds containing this moiety have various pharmacological activities [2]. This structural pattern is present in the known psychotropic agents risperidone [3] paliperidone [4], human leukocyte elastase inhibitor (SSR69071) [5], antiallergic agent ramastine [6], and the antioxidants 2-arylpyrido [1, 2-a] pyrimidin-4-ones [7]. Pyrimidines exhibit potential antibacterial [8], antiviral, [9] antitumor [10], anti-HIV [11], antinociceptive [12] activities and are extensively used in neurology, particularly in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, such as, Parkinson’s disease [13], anti-anxiety disorders [14] and anti-depression cases [15].
Schiff bases have been shown to exhibit a wide range of biological activities including antimicrobial [16], anti-inflammatory and analgesic [17], anti-tubercular [18], antioxidant [19], antiviral and antifungal [20] and anticancer activities [21]. Schiff bases of 2-chloro- 3-formyl-4-oxo-4H-pyrido [1, 2-a] pyrimidine with cyclic hydrazides were synthesized and tested for their antihypertensive and MAOinhibitory activities [16]. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of Schiff bases of amino acids derived from the reaction of 2-hydroxy- 1-naphthaldehyde with glycine, alanine, phenylalanine, histidine and tryptophan were reasonably potent [17]. Three new Schiff bases of indole-3-carboxaldehyde with glycine, alanine and valine have indicated better activities against S. aureus, E. coli and B. polymyxa than C. albicans [18].
In view of the stated pharmacological properties of the pyridopyrimidine derivatives and Schiff bases, a new series of pyridopyrimidine derivatives containing Schiff bases of certain amino acids as privileged moieties of expected high potential in the field of antibacterial and antitumor agents were investigated.
Materials and Methods
Chemicals
2H-pyrido [1,2-a] pyrimidine-2,4-(3H) dione, 1a was synthesized by reacting 2-amino pyridine and diethylmalonate in ethanol at 160- 200°C for 4hrs with continuous removal of ethanol by distillation [19] as illustrated in scheme 1. The corresponding aldehyde 1b, 3-formyl-2Hpyrido [1, 2-a] pyrimidine-2,4-(3H) dione, was synthesized by reacting compound 1a with Phosphoryl chloride and N, N-dimethylformamide [20], as shown in scheme 1. The Schiff bases 1-6 were synthesized by reacting 3-formyl-2H-pyrido [1,2-a] pyrimidine-2,4-(3H) dione 1b with either glycine, alanine, leucine, glutamic acid, histidine or tryptophan in methanol in the presence of a catalytic amount of glacial acetic acid (0.5 mL) under reflux [21], as outlined in scheme 1. The amino acids, 2-aminopyridine and diethylmalonate were purchased from Himedia, N,N-dimethylformamide and phosphoryl chloride were obtained from Fluka AG. Petroleum ether (40-60) was from BDH. All other chemicals and solvents were of analar grade.
Bacteria
The following pathogenic bacteria and fungi are used to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the newly synthesized compounds. Pseudomonas aurginosa (P. auroginosa, ATCC 27853), Staphylococcus aurueus (S. aurueus, ATCC 25923), Bacillus subtilus (B. subtilus, ATCC 6633), Candida albicans (C. albicans, isolated from a local hospital and was inoculated on a chocolate agar plate and grown at 37°C for 48 h) and Escherichia coli (E. coli, ATCC 29522) cultured on Mueller Hinton agar.
Chemical synthesis
a) Synthesis of 2H-pyrido [1, 2-a] pyrimidine-2, 4 (3H) dione, 1a
2-aminopyridine (0.106 M, 10 g) and diethyl malonate (0.106 M, 21.22 g) were suspended in ethanol (10 mL) and heated under reflux for 6 hrs in a flask fitted with a still head to extract ethanol continuously. The mixture was then cooled and the obtained precipitate was filtered and washed several times with ethanol and dried in an oven at 50°C. This product was crystallized from hot water to afford compound 1a [1]. Yield: 85%, white powder, m.p. 298°C (decomposed). IR spectra (ν, cm-1); 3095 (C-H of alkene), 2904 (assym. C-H of –CH2-), 2640- 2810 (broad enolic OH ), 1693 (C=O of COOH), 1653 (C=O of amide) and 1618 (C=N of imine).The 1H-NMR spectra (500 MHz, DMSO) δ: 3.2 (2H,s, C3-CH2), 6.5 (1H, t, C3-H) 7.1(1H,t, C9-H pyridine), 7.4 (1H, t, C7-H), 8.1(1H, t, C8-H), 8.9 (1H,t,C6-H), 11.9 (1H, s, C2-OH). Addition of D2O to this compound indicated the disappearance of this proton. The elemental microanalysis (CHN) was recorded for C8H6N2O2 (162.0); Calculated; C: 59.26; H: 3.73; N: 17.28; Found; C: 59.6; H: 3.87; N: 16.89.
b) Synthesis of 3-formyl-2H-pyrido [1,2a] pyrimidine-2, 4-(3H) dione, 1b
Phosphoryl chloride (0.032 M, 3 mL) was added slowly with continuous stirring to the N, N-dimethylformamide (30 mL) incubated in an ice bath. Compound 1a (0.029 M, 4.85 g) was added and the mixture was heated on a water bath at 50°C for 20 min. The mixture was poured slowly into sodium hydroxide (5 N, 50 mL) with vigorous stirring and ice cubes were added as soon as the reaction became exothermic. The mixture was then acidified to pH 5.5-6.0 by dilute hydrochloric acid and stored in a refrigerator. A precipitate was collected, washed excessively with distilled water and dried in an oven at 50°C. This product was crystallized from N, N-dimethyl formamide to afford compound 1b. The chemical synthesis is represented in scheme (1). Yield: 50%, yellow powder, m.p. 277°C (decomposed). IR spectra (ν, cm-1); 3113 (C-H of alkene), 2773 (C-H of aldehyde), 2640 (broad enolic OH), 1732 (C=O of aldehyde), 1654-1680 (C=O broad of amides) and 1635 (C=N of imine). The 1H-NMR spectra (500 MHz, DMSO) δ: 4.1 (1H, s, C3-H) 6.5 (1H, t, C3-H) 7.1(1H, t, C9-H pyridine), 7.4 (1H, t, C7-H), 8.1(1H, t, C8-H), 8.9 (1H, t,C6-H),10.3 (1H, s, C3-H aldehyde), 11.9 (1H, s, C2-OH). Addition of D2O to compound 1b displayed no proton at this C2-OH. The elemental microanalysis (CHN) was recorded for C9H6N2O3 (190.2); Calculated; C: 56.85; H: 3.18; N: 14.73; Found; C: 56.91; H: 3.22; N: 14.96.
c) General procedure for the synthesis of Schiff bases of 3-formyl-2H-pyrido [1,2a] pyrimidine-2, 4-(3H) dione with certain amino acids, 1-6
Schiff bases of 3-formyl-2H-pyrido [1,2-a] pyrimidine-2,4-(3H) dione 1b with certain amino acids were synthesized according to the reported method [18] and as described below.
A mixture of compound 1b (5.2 mM) and the amino acid (5.2 mM) in dry methanol (20 mL) containing a catalytic amount of glacial acetic acid (0.5 mL) were reacted under reflux for 4hrs. The unreacted compound 1b and the amino acid were separated by dissolving in hot water. The product was crystallized from hot ethanol. The chemical syntheses of compounds 1-6 are illustrated on scheme 1.
d) Synthesis of the Schiff base of 3-formyl-2H-pyrido [1, 2-a] pyrimidine-2, 4-(3H) dione with glycine, 1
2-((2,4-dioxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidine-3-yl) methylene amino) acetic acid.
Compound 1b (5.2 mM, 1 g) in dry methanol (20 mL) was reacted with glycine (5.2 mM, 0.39 g) suspended in methanol (10 mL) containing glacial acetic acid (0.5 mL) and the mixture was refluxed for 4hrs. The mixture turned to an orange solution, which was cooled in a refrigerator and an orange precipitate was collected, washed thoroughly with hot water to remove unreacted materials (compound 1b and glycine). The orange product was triturated with petroleum ether (2 × 20 mL) and was dried in an oven at 50°C. Yield: 65%, pink powder, m.p. 220°C (dec.). IR spectra (ν, cm-1); 3097 (C=H, aromatic), 2970, 2920 (C-H), 3000-2800 (keto-enol OH), 1668 (C=O), 1631 (C=N). 1H-NMR (500 MHz, DMSO) δ: 3.5 (1H, s, enolic C2-OH), 4.45 (2H, s, -CH2-), 6.85 (1H, t, C9-H pyridine), 7.1 (1H,t, C8-H pyridine), 7.8 (1H,t, C7-H), 8.6 (1H,d, C6-H), 8.7 (1H, s, N=CH-), 10 (1H, s, COOH). The CHN analysis was recorded for C8H6N2O2 (247.2); Calculated; C: 59.26; H: 3.73; N: 17.28. Found; C: 59.60, H: 3.86; N: 16.49.
e) Synthesis of the Schiff base of 3-formyl-2H-pyrido [1, 2-a] pyrimidine-2,4-(3H) dione with alanine, 2
2-((2,4-dioxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidine-3-yl) methyleneamino) propanoic acid.
Compound 1b (5.2 mM, 1g) in dry methanol (20 mL) was reacted with alanine (5.2 mM, 0.463 g) suspended in methanol (10 mL) and the procedure was continued as previously described. Yield: 47%, orange powder, m.p. 152°C. IR spectra (ν, cm-1); 3096 (C-H), 2970, 2920 (C-H), 3000-2800 (OH), 1674 (C=O), 1618 (C=N). 1H-NMR (500 MHz, DMSO) δ: 1.5 (3H, d, CH3), 3.5(1H, m, =N-CH-), 4.4 (1H, s, C2-OH), 6.9 (1H,t, C9-H),7.7(1H,d, C8-H), 8.1(1H,t, C7-H), 8.5(1H, d, C6-H), 8.7(1H, s, -CH-N=), 11.2(1H, s, COOH). The CHN analysis was recorded for C9H6N2O3 (261.2); Calculated; C: 56.86; H: 3.18; N: 14.73. Found: C: 56.91; H: 3.22; N: 14.96.
f) Synthesis of the Schiff base of 3-formyl-2H-pyrido [1, 2-a] pyrimidine-2,4-(3H) dione with leucine, 3
2-((2,4-dioxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidine-3-yl) methyleneamino)-3-methyl butanoic acid.
Compound 1b (5.2 mM, 1 g) in dry methanol (20 mL) was reacted with leucine (5.2 mM, 0.608 g) suspended in methanol and was treated as previously described. Yield: 77%, orange powder, m.p. 136-138°C. IR spectra (ν, cm-1); 3080, 3040 (C-H), 2955 (C-H), 3000-2800 (OH), 1676 (C=O), 1618 (C=N). 1H-NMR (500 MHz, DMSO) δ: 0.9 (3H, d, CH3), 3.5(1H, d, =N-CH-), 3.6 (1H, s, C2-OH), 3.8(6H, m, CH3-CCH 3), 7.1 (1H, t, C9-H), 7.7 (1H, d, C8-H), 8.1 (1H, t, C7-H), 8.2(1H, d, C6-H), 8.4(1H, s, N=CH-),11.2 (1H, s, COOH). The CHN analysis was recorded for C15H17N3O4 (303.3); Calculated; C: 59.40; H: 5.65; N: 13.85. Found; C: 58.65; H: 5.95; N: 14.24.
g) Synthesis of the Schiff base of 3-formyl-2H-pyrido [1, 2-a] pyrimidine-2, 4-(3H) dione with glutamic acid, 4
2-((2,4-dioxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidine-3-yl) methyleneamino)-3-methyl succinic acid.
Compound 1b (5.2 mM, 1 g) in dry methanol (20 mL) was reacted with glutamic acid (5.2 mM, 0.765 g), as previously described. Yellow product was collected and washed with hot ethanol (3×10 mL) and was dried in an oven at 50°C to afford compound 4. Yield: 41%, yellowish brown, m.p. 212 °C (dec.). IR spectra (ν, cm-1); 3078, 3030 (C-H) 3000- 2800 (OH), 2935, 2840 (C-H) 1693 (C=O), 1639 (C=O), 1614 (C=N). 1H-NMR (500 MHz, DMSO) δ: 2.3 (2H, m, -CH2-), 2.6 (2H, t, -CH2-), 3.6 (1H, s,C2-OH), 4.6(2H,s, =N-CH-), 6.9(1H, t, C9-H),7.1(1H,d, C8- H),7.7(1H, t, C7-H),8.5(1H, d, C6-H), 8.6(1H, s, N=CH-), 11.2 (1H, s, COOH), 12.4 (1H, s, COOH). The CHN analysis was recorded for C14H13N3O6 (319.3); Calculated; C: 52.67; H: 4.10; N: 13.16. Found; C: 54.77; H: 3.23; N: 12.91.
h) Synthesis of the Schiff base of 3-formyl-2H-pyrido [1, 2-a] pyrimidine-2,4-(3H) dione with histidine, 5
2-((2,4-dioxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidine-3-yl) methyleneamino)-3-(1H-imidazol-5-yl) propanoic acid.
Compound 1b (5.2 mM, 1g) in dry methanol (20 mL) containing glacial acetic acid (0.5 mL) was reacted with histidine (5.2 mM, 0.806 g), as previously described. The Schiff base was collected as a yellow precipitate from the methanolic solution. The precipitate was washed with hot water to remove the unreacted materials. Yield: 68%, yellow powder, m.p. 226°C (dec.). IR spectra (ν, cm-1); 3395 (N-H), 3140, 3112 (C-H), 3000-2800 (OH), 2950 (C-H), 1695 (C=O), 1633 (C=N). 1H-NMR (500 MHz, DMSO) δ: 2.3 (2H, m, -CH – assym. C of histidine), 2.6 (2H, t, -CH2-), 3.3 (1H, d, C3-H), 3.6 (1H, s,C2-OH), 4.6 (1H,s, -CH-N=), 6.9(1H, t, C9-H),7.1(1H,d, C8-H),7.7(1H, t, C7- H), 7.3 (1H,s, -CH- imidazole ring), 8.5(1H, d, C6-H), 12.4 (1H, s, COOH), 13.2(1H, s, NH imidazole). The CHN analysis was recorded for C15H13N5O4 (327.3); Calculated; C: 55.05; H: 4.00; N: 21.40. Found; C: 56.47; H: 4.15; N: 21.63.
i) Synthesis of the Schiff base of 3-formyl-2H-pyrido [1, 2-a] pyrimidine-2,4-(3H) dione with tryptophan, 6
2-((2,4-dioxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidine-3-yl) methyleneamino)-2-(1H-indol-3-yl) acetic acid.
A similar procedure was conducted to produce compound 6, by using the followings compound 1b (5.2 mM, 1 g) in dry methanol (20 mL) containing glacial acetic acid (0.5 mL) and tryptophan (5.2 mM, 1.061 g). The Schiff base was collected as a yellow precipitate from the methanolic solution and was washed with hot water to remove unreacted materials. The precipitate was triturated with petroleum ether (2×20 mL) and dried in an oven at 50°C. Yield: 72%, yellow powder, m.p. 205°C (dec.). IR spectra (ν, cm-1); 3404 (N-H, indole), 3191, 3136 (C-H), 3000-2800 (OH), 2950, 2835 (C-H), 1724 (C=O), 1658, 1641 (C=N), 1626 (N-H). 1H-NMR (500 MHz, DMSO) δ: 2.3 (1H, m, -CH- assym. C of tryptophan), 2.6 (2H, t, -CH2-), 3.3 (1H, s, C3-H), 7.1, 7.4, 8.1 and 8.9 (1H, d, C9-H to C6-H pyridine), 7.1-7.6 (1H, s, CH aromatic), 10.8 (1H, s, NH indole), 12.4 (1H, s, COOH). The CHN analysis was recorded for C20H16N4O4 (376.4); Calculated; C: 63.82; H: 4.28; N: 14.89. Found; C: 65.90; H: 4.26; N: 14.66.
Results
Spectroscopic characterization of the synthesized compounds
IR spectra: The IR spectra of the intermediates and the new derivatives showed the appearance of bands at 3020-3095 cm-1 for the enolic OH absorbance in all compounds. The bands at 1720 cm-1 and 1693 cm-1 are good indication for the carbonyl of the cyclic amides at (C4-N5) and (N1-C2) respectively. The characteristic bands (1618-1635 cm-1) of imines in compounds 1-6 represent the Schiff bases formed with amino acids. The presence of NH absorption band at 3210- 3050 cm-1 in compounds 1-6 indicated that there is a tautomerism between the imine group and the pyrimidine ring. The IR spectrum of compound 1a showed an absorption band at 1720 cm-1 and 1693 cm-1 for the carbonyl of the cyclic amides at (C4-N5) and (N1-C2) respectively. A band at 1618 cm-1 for C=N- stretching of imine group. An absorption band was shown at 3020-3095 cm-1 for broad enolic OH group. This characteristic band is clear evidence of the keto-enol tautomerism between the carbonyl and OH groups at C2 and C3 of the pyrimidine ring. C-H stretching of the corresponding aldehyde 1b appeared at 1392 cm-1, while the carbonyl of 1b appeared at 1732 cm-1.
1H-NMR spectra: The 1H-NMR spectral data of compounds 1a and 1b displayed characteristic protons of the pyridine nucleus of pyridopyrimidine (C6-C9) and the protons of the two methylene groups at 6.85. 1-6 displayed the characteristic peaks at C6-C9 of the pyridine ring appeared at 8.6, 7.8, 7.1 and 6.85 respectively. The imine protons present in compounds 1-6 was observed and appeared as singlet at δ 8.4-8.7. Proton of OH of the keto-enol form for all compounds appeared at range of δ 3.5-4.4. Addition of D2O to compounds 1a and 1b showed disappearance of protons in the 1H-NMR spectra. This is a further confirmation of the existence of keto-enol form. Protons of COOH for compounds 1-3 and 5-6 appeared weak at 11.2, while the proton of the second carboxyl of glutamic acid in compound 4 also appeared weak at 12.4.
Elemental microanalysis (CHN): The elemental microanalyses of the starting materials compounds 1a and 1b and the target compounds 1-6 confirmed their chemical structures and were within the acceptable range.
Tautomerism phenomenon of the synthesized compounds: For compounds 1a and 1b, depending on solution, two possible conformations can be described and these are the keto-enol forms, as shown on schemes 1. The chemical structures of 1a is assigned as 4H-pyrido [1, 2-a] pyrimidine-2-hydroxy-4-one or 4H-pyrido [1,2- a] pyrimidine-4-hydroxy-2-one and these were confirmed by spectral analysis. Compounds 1-6 may also undergo further tautomerism leading to few new situations, as shown on schemes 1 and 2. These forms showed the appearance of the imine group and at the same time hydroxyl group and the presence of –NH due to tautomerism with the pyridopyrimidine nucleus. These groupings appeared on the IR spectra of compounds 1-6, which have supported this phenomenon.
Discussion
The IR spectra of the new derivatives helped to confirm their chemical structures and their tautomeric forms by showing the ketoenol forms. It was reported that such tautomeric forms were observed in the synthesis of compounds 1a and 1b [22]. This situation was also previously observed for synthesis of pyridopyrimidine derivatives [23-26]. For compounds 1-6, there are even further tautomeric forms that are formed between C2-C4 and at C3 and the imine formed with the amino acids (scheme 2). This tautomerism is governed by the bonds illustrated to include major changes on the molecules and cannot be ruled out. The main differences between these tautomeric forms lie in the intramolecular hydrogen bonding and the relative orientation of the carbonyl groups. Attractive intermolecular interactions occur in this part of the molecule and are responsible for the value of the dihedral angles. These factors have direct impact on the bioactivity of these compounds. This explanation may comply with the observation of the activities of related pyridopyrimidine derivatives [25,26]. The presence of an asymmetric center in the amino acid moiety (scheme 2) adds another factor, which is the existence of isomers and this will definitely affect the bioactivity. The 1H-NMR spectra of the compounds under study 1-6 revealed that their characteristic peaks experienced noticeable changes. The C9 proton experienced deshielding due to the only inductive effect of the (=N-C=O) and were recorded downfield as singlet at δ 6.85-7.1. The C7 proton is experiencing less deshielding effect by virtue of its position and nature of bonding. The C6 proton is deshielded due to the inductive effect of (-N-C=O) functionality. In all compounds, a very small difference in the chemical shifts of C6-C9 protons was observed, which is probably due to the small inductive electron withdrawing or donating effects of pyridine or pyrimidine moieties. Similarly, a very small difference in the chemical shifts of the imine protons present in compounds 1-6 was observed and appeared as singlet at δ 8.4-8.7.
Effect of the amino acid moieties
The newly synthesized compounds 1-6 showed reasonable activities against P. auroginosa, B. subtilus, E. coli, S. aurueus and C. albicans. Compounds 1-4 contain two main privileged chemical moieties, Schiff bases with amino acids and pyridopyrimidine, while compounds 5 and 6 contain extra privileged chemical groups and these are the imidazole and indole, respectively. This may be the reason behind the improved antibacterial activities especially against P. auroginosa, C. albicans and E. coli when compared with the standards used. Similar observation was reported with various types of Schiff bases of such amino acids [17,18,27].
Antimicrobial evaluation
Generally, all the Schiff bases 1-6 showed good to moderate antibacterial activity against the test microbes (Table 1). Compounds 4-6 showed also antifungal activity. Compound 5 showed reasonable activity against p. aurogenosa and C. albican, while it showed a good activity against E. coli and no activity against G (-) bacteria. Compound 4 showed a moderate activity against E. coli and a good activity against Candida. Compounds 2 and 3 had good activity against Candida and a moderate activity against E. coli. Compound 1 has a moderate to good activity against all strains, except B.subtilus. However, the Schiff bases of the aromatic amino acids, compounds 5-6 showed better antimicrobial activities compared with those of aliphatic amino acids.
Conclusion
An interesting approach of using two privileged moieties (Schiff bases of amino acids and pyridopyrimidine ring) is successfully accomplished to produce new pyridopyrimidine derivatives. This approach has afforded new derivatives of reasonable and promising antibacterial activities.
Acknowledgement
The authors are very grateful to University of Baghdad and College of Pharmacy for supporting this research work.
References

 

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