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Synthesis of Silver Nano Particles Using Herbal Extract and its Anti-Microbial Activity | OMICS International
ISSN: 2329-9002
Journal of Phylogenetics & Evolutionary Biology
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Synthesis of Silver Nano Particles Using Herbal Extract and its Anti-Microbial Activity

Bhoominathan Srinivasan*
Department of biotechnology, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchurappali, India
Corresponding Author : Bhoominathan Srinivasan
Department of biotechnology
Bharathidasan University
Tiruchurappali, India
Tel: 9633946831
E-mail: [email protected]
Received February 14, 2015; Accepted February 24, 2015; Published February 04, 2015
Citation: Srinivasan B (2015) Synthesis of Silver Nano Particles Using Herbal Extract and its Anti-Microbial Activity. J Phylogen Evolution Biol 3:146. doi:10.4172/2329-9002.1000146
Copyright: © 2015 Srinivasan B. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Microorganisms assume a critical part in lethal metal remediation through diminishment of metal particles. Studies showed that silver particles may be diminished additional cellularly utilizing Fusarium oxysporum to produce stable gold or silver nanoparticles in water. These particles can be joined in a few sorts of materials, for example, fabrics. These fabrics with silver nanoparticles are sterile and can be valuable in doctor’s facilities to anticipate or to minimize disease with pathogenic microscopic organisms, for example, Staphylococcus aureus. In this work, the extracellular creation of silver nanoparticles by F. oxysporum and its antimicrobial impact when joined in cotton fabrics against S. aureus were examined.

Nano materials; Nano particles; Microorganisms; Fusarium oxysporum
Microorganisms play an important role in toxic metal remediation through reduction of metal ions. Studies demonstrated that silver ions may be reduced extra cellularly using Fusarium oxysporum to generate stable gold or silver nanoparticles in water. These particles can be incorporated in several kinds of materials such as cloths. These cloths with silver nanoparticles are sterile and can be useful in hospitals to prevent or to minimize infection with pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus. In this work, the extracellular production of silver nanoparticles by F. oxysporum and its antimicrobial effect when incorporated in cotton fabrics against S. aureus were studied. In addition, all effluent was bioremediated using treatment with C. violaceum. The results showed that cotton fabrics incorporated with silver nanoparticles displayed a significant antibacterial activity against S. aureus. The effluent derived from the process was treated with C. violaceum and exhibited an efficient reduction in the silver nanoparticles concentration. In conclusion, it was demonstrated the application of biological synthesis to silver nanoparticles production and its incorporation in cloths, providing them sterile properties. Moreover, to avoid any damage to the environment the effluent containing silver nanoparticles can be treated with cyanogenic bacterial strains [1].
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Materials and Methods
Parthenium leaf extract
Principle: The use of environmentally benign materials like plant extract for synthesis of silver nanoparticles offers numerous benefits of ecofriendly and compatibility for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles, reducing silver ions present in the aqueous solution of silver nitrate complex by the extract of Parthenium hysterophorus leaves, can provide a new platform to this noxious plant making it a value added weed for nanotechnology based industries in future.
Methodology: Extract has been prepared by bringing fresh leaves of Parthenium hysterophorus. Leaves weighing 25 g were thoroughly washed thrice in distilled water for 15 min, cut into fine pieces and were boiled in a 500 ml Erlenmeyer flask with 100 ml distilled water up to 5 min and were filtered. Add 50 ml leaf extract into the aqueous solution of 1 mM Silver nitrate. An average size of the particles synthesized was 50 nm with size range 30 to 80 nm with irregular shape. Due to our interest to get much smaller particles, above solution was centrifuged at a rate of 1200 rpm up to 15 min and investigated that particles present in the supernatant were nearly homogenous with average size of 7 nm.
The reduction of pure Ag ions was monitored by measuring the UV-Vis spectrum of the reaction medium at different time intervals after diluting a small aliquot of 100 micro litres of the sample with 1 ml deionized water. UV-vis spectral analysis has been done by using a Perkin- Elmerlamda-25 spectrophotometer.
The reaction mixture was kept for 7 days at room temperature for stabilization and subsequently it was centrifuged at 8000 rpm for 5 minutes and redispersed in distilled water. This procedure was repeated three times and the remnant pellets were dried and powdered for SEM analysis. A thin film of the sample was prepared by dissolving a portion of the powdered particles in sterile distilled water on a small glass cover slip (3 × 3 mm), and set on a copper stab for electron microscopy. Analysis was done using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) at IICT, Hyderabad.
Antibacterial activity of silver nano particles – by disc method
For the anti-microbial activity, different bacteria like E. coli, Pseudomonas, Salmonella, Staphylococcus and fungi like Aspergillus and Pencillum were obtained from IMTECH, Chandigrah, INDIA. These cultures were sub-cultured in the nutrient broth for further use
Antimicrobial activity of silver nano particles synthesised using Parthenium extract was measured by Kirby Bauer method against bacteria like E. coli, Pseudomonas, Salmonella, Staphylococcus and fungi like Aspergillus and Pencillum. Nutrient Agar plates with specific cultures were incubated for 24 hrs.
The filter paper discs which were coated with silver nano particles 50 mg/lt were placed on to the surface of agar plates. The zone of inhibition after 24 hrs of incubation at 37ºC was recorded. The disc without nano particle was used as negative control.
Incorporating silver nanoparticles on cotton fabric
The cotton cloth was immersed in the nanoparticle solution synthesized using Parthenium extract. This was centrifuged (3500 rpm) for 15 minutes. Later it was dried and used to test for antimicrobial activity by Kirby Bauer method.
Results and Discussions
Synthesis of silver nanoparticle using Parthenium leaf extract
The color change in the colloidal solution of nanoparticles reduced by Parthenium plant leaf extract with time (in the inset) is shown in Figure 1.
UV-Vis spectrograph of the colloidal solution of silver nanoparticles has been recorded as a function of time. Absorption spectra of silver nanoparticles formed in the reaction media at 10 min has absorbance peak at 474 nm, broadening of peak indicated that the particles are poly dispersed Figure 2.
SEM analysis of silver nano particles
SEM Micrograph (Figure 3) of the silver nanoparticles synthesized using Parthenium leaf extract having irregular shapes of 30 to 80 nm with average size 50 nm.
Reduction of silver ions present in the aqueous solution of silver complex during the reaction with the ingredients present in the plant leaf extract observed by the UV-Vis spectroscopy revealed that silver nanoparticles in the solution may be correlated with the UV-Vis spectra. As the Parthenium leaf extract was mixed in the aqueous solution of the silver ion complex, it started to change color from water color to yellowish brown (Figure 4), color was changed due to excitation of surface plasmon vibrations, which indicated formation of silver nanoparticle. UV-Vis spectroscopy is well known to investigate shape and size controlled of nanoparticles. UV-Vis spectrograph of the colloidal solution of silver nanoparticles has been recorded as a function of time by using a quartz cuvette with water as reference, repeated experiments were carried out with varying the amount of silver ion complex (1 mM) and leaf extract it was observed that precursors in the ratio of 1:1 gave best results of our interest. It is interesting to note that most of the particles in the SEM pictures are not in physical contact but are separated by a fairly uniform inter particle distance.
Not only the physicists and chemists, but also the biologists are highly interested in synthesizing nanoparticles of different shapes and sizes by employing bio-based synthesis of nanometals using plant leaf extracts and microorganisms (fungi and bacteria). The reduction of silver ions (Ag+) present in the aqueous solution of silver complex in the plant extract demonstrated that the change in colour was due to the formation of silver nanoparticles in the solutions which are correlated with the UV-Vis spectra [3].
The eco-friendly green chemistry approach for the use of these weeds for synthesis of silver nanoparticles will increase their economic viability and sustainable management. However, applications of these weeds have the added advantage that these unwanted plants can be used by nanotechnology processing industries as well in bactericidal, wound healing and other medical and electronic applications [4].
Antimicrobial properties of nanoparticles
Antimicrobial activity of silver nano particle from Parthenium extract was measured by Kirby Bauer method against bacteria like E. coli, Pseudomonas, Salmonella, Staphylococcus and fungi like Aspergillus and Pencillum. Nutrient Agar plates with specific cultures were incubated 24 hrs. The filter paper discs which were coated with silver nano particles 50 mg/lit were placed on to the surface of agar plates. The zone of inhibition after 24 hrs incubation at 37°c was recorded. The disc without nano particle was used as negative control.
Our result indicated that silver nano particles synthesized from herbal extract were more efficient against bacteria compared to fungi (Figures 4-9). The Nano particles show the antibacterial activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Comparing the zone of inhibitions, it can be concluded that the silver nano particles have greatest antibacterial against Salmonella and least against E. coli. However there is not much of a difference in antifungal activity between the two fungal species (Table 1).
Antimicrobial properties of nanoparticles incorporated in cloth
The antibacterial activity of cotton fabrics with and without silver nanoparticles was evaluated. Since the nano particles in the previous experiment did not show good response against fungal sp, the cotton cloth was analyzed only against bacterial cultures. In the cloth without silver nanoparticles (control) a significant bacterial growth was observed.
The cotton fabrics with silver nano particles synthesised using Parthenium extract exhibited antibacterial activity as shown in Figures 10a-d). Comparing the zone of inhibitions it can be concluded that the silver nano particles have greatest antibacterial against Salmonella and least against Staphlococcus and Pseudomonas (Table 2).
The cotton fabrics incorporated with these silver nanoparticles exhibited maximum antibacterial activity against Salmonella Sp. This study demonstrated the possibility of using silver nanoparticles by incorporating them in fabrics, thereby providing them sterile properties.


Tables and Figures at a glance

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Table 1   Table 2


Figures at a glance

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Figure 1   Figure 2   Figure 3   Figure 4   Figure 5


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Figure 6   Figure 7   Figure 8   Figure 9   Figure 10
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