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Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review
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The Attractiveness of the Territory via the Place Marketing Case of the International Festival of Nomads: M'hamid El Ghizlane–Zagora-Morocco

Ikrame Selkani*

University of Granada, Spain

*Corresponding Author:
Ikrame Selkani
University of Granada, Spain
Tel: +34 958 24 30 00
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: November 01, 2016; Accepted date: November 28, 2016; Published date: December 05, 2016

Citation: Selkani I (2016) The Attractiveness of the Territory via the Place Marketing Case of the International Festival of Nomads: M'hamid El Ghizlane– Zagora-Morocco. Arabian J Bus Manag Review S3:007.

Copyright: © 2016 Selkani I. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

A new practice that involves the use of sales strategies applied to regions, cities, and countries. The place marketing then consists of the implementation of practices and marketing techniques for enhancing the attractiveness of the territory. Indeed, when the Place Marketing is allied with a resource that territory, a special benefit is introduced and committed future success of the region as a whole. "When the festival allows a small town to grow and exist beyond its Canton, the issue is social as well as economic and cultural development. To this end, what role has the Place Marketing in the evolution and development of cultural events? And what impact International Festival of Nomads plays in the attractiveness of the area?. What role has the place marketing in the evolution and development of cultural events? What impact plays the international festival of nomads in the region's attractivity?

Keywords

Place marketing; Cultural events; Attractivity of the territory; City; Zagora

Introduction

Each country chooses a specific area to make a difference and put it into practice. In other words, it plans to change the attitude, change behavior and go "liabilities and adoptive to undertake" [1].

The fact of characterizing a territory as "attractive" is a justification put forward by the economic agents in general and investors in particular, to update and develop their projects.

Indeed, this is a planning management in good and due form, a way to enter the gates, and make a decision to take action.

Furthermore, when we talk of attractiveness, as we understand the idea of travel. The latter is an innate ability in humans. Formerly travel was synonymous with discovering the scenic beauty, a sense of peace encountered in these locations and places. In other words, tourism was once a luxury product that married inaccessible recreation.

In a sense, each country is full of various types of events that are specially made with the objective of contributing to increasing the attractiveness of the country. This is not just to be together, if not to live together through cultural events, since each event in itself is a source of wealth and development that aims whole nation, and also participates in cultural exchange , development, tourism, and economic growth in the country in general and the territory itself in particular.

This action is implemented through the Place marketing is indeed a function of organizational creation, communication and delivering value manager consumer relationships to the organization's success as a whole.

In this article we will answer the following question: What role has the Place marketing in the evolution and development of cultural events? What impact plays the international festival of nomads in the region's attractiveness M'Hamid El Ghizlane Zagora? To answer these questions, we will develop two sections: firstly, we will appeal to the Place Marketing and its role on the attractiveness of the territory, and in a second step, we will develop a section of Place marketing and involvement the success of cultural events.

Place Marketing and its Role in the Attractiveness of Cities

City marketing is a field that mixes between a multiple disciplines. This interdisciplinary nature led to confusion between the academics and the practitioners. However, the concept has developed and left some cities wondering on how cities as a brand could be designed and managed [2].

The aim of these concepts is to increase the investment and tourism by development the community by reinforcing local identity and activating social forces [3].

The interest of the field, globally, is to improve the competitive image of deprived places can help to the development of an empirical framework which can make a significant step towards theory making [4].

City marketing is a complex field which gathers a multiple academic disciplines: geography, urban planning, economic development, tourism, etc. This mixture of all the discipline doesn’t let a clear understand of the concept [4].

The same confusion is there, when we talk about specific journals for publication: place marketing can be interchangeable to “place branding”, “urban marketing”, “city marketing”, “territorial marketing” and vice versa [5].

Even though, cities use branding as an instrument to define themselves and achieve attractive positions and positive perceptions of the mind of key audiences [3].

Often, city marketing is defined as a management process [6,7] which encompasses the attempts of the place differentiation for competitive advantage over other places. City branding has been defined as the “purpose symbolic embodiment of all information connected to a city in order to create association around it” [8].

One wide world reason is that cities in all over the planet engage themselves in marketing and branding efforts, in order to stay competitive and relevant on the global market [9].

Another definition of the place marketing concept can be used, which says: “the measures taken, by actors appointed to govern a place, to improve the competitive image of that place with explicit aim of attracting capital from elsewhere” [4].

The marketing of urban places are practiced since the 19th century [3]. There is a need to identify the real history of all those concepts, in order to know the chronology and the development of this field, throughout the years.

Place marketing: A growing concept

Generally territory or city uses place marketing in the interest of attracting new relationships: investors, tourists, new residents and also to be known. This concept had great importance during the last twenty years. However the origins of this concept are social and non-profit marketing [10,11]. The latter has been practiced for centuries for the development and promotion of cities and nations [3].

Since then, the Place marketing has experienced a great development because it was used in many places for many years. But despite its little development of academic research approach the subject, and lack of theory of this concept gives us the impression of dealing with a recent event.

For a long time, every city and every country has wanted to be different, to stand out from others in a purpose and a very specific goal: to be unique in its individuality and have distinctive features while continuing the various aspects of the territory or city as a whole: economic, political, social, and cultural.

Marketing site then has been such that this detail that territorial entrepreneurs seeking for a long time for this purpose, it could be defined as a management process that is characterized by the introduction of a differentiation advantage competitive that can make a difference with other territories or other cities [7].

However, the creation of the difference encourages collaboration of all stakeholders and to meet the needs and desires of the target audience [12].

Therefore, when we speak of place marketing, one should not exclude the different axes that make up each region namely: political, cultural, economic, social and the participation of all economic agents, who in a sense, have the power to make a difference and distinction to stand in their way.

Another definition of place marketing concept is added, that of [4] where they explain as: actions taken by the actors to govern, improve the image of competitiveness of the said territory, with the aim to attract different types of capital from everywhere.

Thus, the implementation of place marketing encourages potential changes to face competitive conditions, changes in matter of planning or even of governance and management approach, in order to practice the science of marketing as a whole. This means in other words that competitiveness and competition exists, and the role of the discipline of place marketing is to meet the latter discovering, creating difference and distinction to improve and develop. To this end, the marketing site is an administration form, an instrument and a management process [12].

The attractiveness of the territory

The attractiveness: the concept that leaves no one indifferent, much less the territories and cities. But to be attractive, we should be competitive. According to the report of the 2005 OECD, this concept is defined as "the ability to attract skilled labor and skills as a means to promote economic development in urban regeneration" [13]. It is true that the economic aspect is one of the main axes on which examines the development of a territory, that we often think of investment and financial capital and for having a positive brand image as well and inside and outside the territory.

Nevertheless, all the aspects that go in parallel with the economic aspect are necessary and even indispensable: we must build the territory with its history, its geography, its society, its fixed capital [14].

Moreover, we can make an attractive area by the fact more work on several points, the infrastructure: roads to airports through the railways and by sea, who held great importance for the future of each territory in itself, not to mention the promotion of the territory.

A meeting of all these factors, a difference should be created, an innovation is seen necessary for a successful future. Communication and promotion of the territory is not negligible in the sense [15].

Similarly, the lack of competitiveness of an area can cause a loss of population, divestment and relocation of companies. To do this, we should continually seek investment and domestic and foreign companies. But territorial attractiveness in itself does not stop at this level, however, other types of attractiveness are played at this level such as cultural attractiveness, commercial attractiveness, tourist attraction.

We offer a territory is all geographic, economic, social, political (...) that help facilitate the establishment of businesses [16].

In other words, it is not enough to just pass the features but it would participate in this contest, and access the endless competition.

Therefore, a single and irreversible thing in this competition is to keep its distinct local identity [17] may be an attractive territory, local identified is a fundamental condition for its promotion on the national and international scene a major lever of territorial marketing.

In other words, the identity of a territory could be achieved through a well-defined axis: tourism, history, culture, art, gastronomy or a mixture of two or more factors. The territory is not limited to just one identity.

So branding and identity of a territory is composed by a concept that is called: the multi-territorial identity, something that is, as of today, evident lived and experienced Case Marrakech city known for its grandiose tourism and it’s amazing culture.

Place Marketing and Cultural Events

Each territory is master of his destiny. The latter is available infallible wealth and endless resources. The difference then between a territory and another is the management. The latter should be strategic, insofar as the objectives established at the beginning can be made and implemented.

The place marketing, for this purpose, could be perceived as the strategic management which territories can appeal.

So in a sense, history, geography, culture are seen as key factors for the attractiveness of the territory, in another sense, the place marketing can be as a method that combines and connects these with the current status of the territory as an improved discovery and a promoter future for it.

Cultural events: New door open for more attractive

Several cities are interested in culture to create the difference. Production and cultural consumption has been neglected for almost several years. Very important cities such as Paris, New York and / or London who are known worldwide also are able to attract flows both in terms of capital, tourists.

So differentiation is perceived as a full strategy that takes care to consider a process called the "rebranding"[18]. As the name suggests, this is indeed a process where the brand study is redefined and re-keying for another type of results or a positive result. Those are processes that different and depend on the situation of the cities studied.

The cultural schedule [18] is a cultural type of schedule that falls in the majority of the time political ambitions and to redo this space, and redefining culturally. Such has been the experience of the East Londoner [18], which was almost forgotten and disadvantaged in relation to the West Londoner, and having used the rebranding and cultural planning, East London was upgraded and became an attractive area for tourists.

The space Bankside east Londoner is an experience and witnessed by the majority of tourists who have visited: At the end of 1990, The Modern Gallery and Shakespeare's Globe are open to the public, a new attraction in the neighborhood. Therefore tourists from abroad were this remarkable area. A very serious negotiation has had between institutions concerned with culture and localities have brought fruit.

This appeal was a success in itself, thanks to the cultural resource available to the East Londoner, who exploited to create an attraction created in this case of cultural type, to receive tourists to upgrade the aesthetic architecture and appreciation of the authenticity and also manage a new promotion of local image tool for residents, workers and the internal and external visitors (Newman, 2007) [18].

Also in Europe, but this time in Belgium, in Brussels, more precisely, a socio-artistic project was born under the name of "Zinneke Parade." A new way of living together and a way to build a society collectively otherwise.

This project was created in 2000, aiming to work with all people and representatives of all the districts. The main purpose of this project is to teach people the importance of culture, and make them aware of this vision. The "Zinneke parade" is indeed a popular festival celebrated in the open public space in the center of Brussels, where it is essential that this population remains at the center of this event. The latter puts the device to the center different neighborhoods as they gathered in this place for exchange and collective sharing.

It's a parade that is organized every two years in Brussels and whose objective is to bring all kinds of organizations (arts, youth, disabled, poetry) around this event. During the parade, we see costume parades, buildings, cars, costumes, songs and to show and teach the diversity of the culture in which lives the city of Brussels in particular.

The International Nomads Festival–M'Hamid El Ghizlane Zagora, Morocco: A cultural encounter another angle

The International Festival of Nomads is a festival that is organized outdoors. It is a citizen and arts festival that takes place annually in M'Hamid El Ghizlane, which is 90 km from Zagora.

This festival is indeed a true encounter between the visitors who come from around the world to share and live multiple experiences and incredible emotions.

Despite the dry climate and high temperature that can arrive until around 42 degrees and the wind blowing hard and causes tornadoes of sand, the festival is organized every year with the same enthusiasm and the same energy.

M'Hamid El Ghizlane is one of the first gates of the desert, which means "the plain of gazelles", this place is the primary location of the organization and conduct of the festival.

Given the importance that Mr. Noureddine Bougrab procured culture of nomads, he decided to create the association World Nomads, which is indeed the institution had the great desire to give life to this space lost in the desert and remember the one life of the nomads.

Nouredine Bougrab, the founder of the association has always felt a great passion and commitment vis-à-vis this grand universe. Its purpose then was to preserve the environment of the Nomads, and assert their ancestral cultures while leaving a door open to the modernity of the meeting.

The geographical location in south-eastern Morocco, and its distance from major centers of activity were the strengths that the founder has considered to give a national and international reputation in this place full of richness and history.

Therefore the first edition was launched April 7, 2004. The festival then was very simple but full of magic for local people. A meeting extraordinary, unique in its kind that motivated national and international partners to join the project and provide material support, financial or human each edition.

The program of the International Festival of Nomads, there are workshops: Music, Dance and Theatre Workshops on the environment, Bivouac, Excursions, conferences and round tables, Film Screening, Creating a space for meeting and reunion between nomads, camel racing (ELLAZ),Nomadic Hockey, Art exhibitions and group tables, feminine craft shows "the nomadic Culture of Memory" award Ceremony., launched the 2011 Poster Competition of the International Festival of nomads, other activities will be added to the agenda, national artists Reception: Said Charradi and music "tarabe" Hassany, etc. Reception of international artists: the Naghma Group (Morocco /Switzerland), Environment & Ecology: An awareness program on water protection and particularly for drinking water, for the society and the Ecolette and Terr'eau Associations (France).

We should not forget that if the international festival of nomads was a success throughout these years, thanks to the many goals the Worlds Nomads association wanted to achieve and that the creation of this cultural event. The festival itself is a meeting place for sharing and contribution that convey a positive image of Zagora in general and M´Hamid El Ghizlane in particular.

Conclusion

The International Nomads Festival in itself is an innovative idea that has allowed me Hamid El Ghizlane to stand out and create a cultural event and showcasing an innovative and unprecedented value.

M'Hamid El Ghizlane welcomes his fans to let them discover the mysteries of the Sahara through the seventh edition of the International Festival of Nomads.

The International Nomads Festival is an event that takes place in March every year since 2004. It is above all a cultural event, full of the history of the nomads. AM'hamid El Ghizlane, where this event takes place, designed as a discovery, learning, sharing, exchange and reunion.

At the origin of this event, the Association of World Nomads who made the festival a civic event, artistic and cultural universal. Besides its objective to highlight the natural, cultural and human in this region, this authentic festival reflects the "nomad spirit" while contributing to the economic, social and tourism of the Draa region. More than a simple event, the M'hamid el Ghizlane festival is an invitation to discover, share, exchange and learning. Program: Music and Dance. Workshops Bivouac environment. Excursions. Conferences and round tables. Film Screening. Theater. Night tales. Creating a space for meeting and reunion between nomads. Race Camels (ELLAZ). Nomad hockey. Art exhibitions and group tables. Female craft exhibitions "the Nomadic Culture of Memory."

Basically this moussem allowed the city of Zagora to develop its tourism, socio-economic activities, cultural activities, and to be more attractive and convey a very positive brand image. The place marketing strategy that was considered by the city of Zagora during this moussem all these years was intended to convey the moroccan traditions, to know the city and especially to convey messages of peace and tolerance for all visitors and spectators from around the world, something that really worked and that made the festival known internationally and who knows a great success since its inception.

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