Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Prospect Vernandskogo Moscow, Russia
Received: April 21, 2015 Accepted: August 14, 2015 Published: August 24, 2015
Citation: Tsertseil J (2015) The Clusters and Special Economic Zone: The Improvement in the Development of the Region. J Glob Econ 3:153. doi:10.4172/2375-4389.1000153
Copyright: © 2015 Tsertseil J. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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The main principles in the creation of objects over the territory region of special economic zone were; cluster approach for ensuring optimum production communications, to provide a sustainable development of territories at their intensive use, to provide the balanced accounting of ecological, economic, social factors due to the constructing the facilities of infrastructure.
Special economic zone (SEZ); Cluster; Region
The special economic zone is an object of infrastructure of the clusters and combination of clusters. Special economic zone means a key role in the development of the regions. “The literature contrasts over two potential types of agglomerating forces: localization and urbanization” . “A strong cluster environment improves the level of employment in a regional industry” . Researchers told that “a special economic zone is an area in which a comparatively free management system and other conditions are in place to ensure rapid economic transformation and development” . At the same time according to the other researchers “cluster activities can survive even in harsh environments with weak formal institutions and limited infrastructure” . Researchers shows us the effect of synergy as “the SEZs are closely linked to domestic enterprises and industrial clusters through supply chains or values chains. This connection not only helps achieve economies of scale and business efficiency, but also stimulates synergistic learning and enhances industrial competitiveness” . However, the SEZ create benefits. But one should know about the “key criteria to consider when establish SEZ includes the following: location advantage, macroeconomic of the country, industrial investment support, investment cost, skill labour, government policies and others” [6-8].
On the territory of the special economic zone (SEZ) in the region (The Republic of Tatarstan) we can allocate the following principles in the creation of object:
• Cluster approach for ensuring optimum production communications;
• To provide a sustainable development of territories at their intensive use;
• To provide the balanced account of ecological, economic, social factors by constructing the facilities of infrastructure.
The residents use different type of resources like: area of a site, electric energy, thermal energy, gas supplied, and water supplied, water assignment, workplaces, railway freight traffic as shown in Tables 1 and 2.
|Sl.No||The name of an indicator||The sum of used resources|
|1||Area of a site (hectares)||700|
|2||The amount of electric energy (kilowatts/hour)||483|
|3||Thermal energy, kilo joule/hour||345|
|4||Gas supply, thousands cubic meters/year||512370|
|5||Water supplied, cubic meters/day||23497|
|6||Water assignment, cubic meters /day||11 960|
|7||Workplaces, pieces||14 000|
|8||Railway freight traffic, thousand tonnes||159 551|
Table 1: The operational performance characterized activity of residents in 2014 .
|Sl. No||Indicators of accruing result||2011||2012||2013||2014|
|1||The number of residents||24||33||42||42|
|2||The number of residents with participation of foreign investors||12||18||20||21|
|3||The number of workplaces on the territory of SEZ||2781||2586||4168||5000|
|4||The volume of investment carried out by residents (million rubles)||13 799||9 518||20354||29369|
|5||Capital expenditure(million rubles)||25916,4||34483,5||52802,1||79234,2|
|6||[The volume of proceeds from sales of goods, works, services] ?[a value added tax and excises](million rubles)||40132||60618,3||95647||166877|
|7||The volume of the federal budget, the budgets of the subject of Russian Federation, local budgets directed to the creation of the objects of infrastructure of SEZ(million rubles)||15325,02||18510,44||21703,23||23693,75|
|8||The volume of taxes of all levels of the budgetary system paid by residents of SEZ(million rubles)||4111,42||5483,84||7886,3||10812,4|
Table 2: The assessment of economic efficiency of residents on the territory of SEZ Alabuga during the period of 2011-2014 .
The following large clusters are located on the territory of SEZ Alabuga:
• Petrochemical cluster;
• Machine building cluster and production of automobile accessories;
• Cluster of construction material;
• Cluster of food processing.
The growth and the value of enterprises depend on the final purpose on the cluster and special economic zone communications in the region. “Nignekamskneftechim” is the largest enterprise of the chemical cluster on the territory of the region. Its technical and economic indicators, dynamics of dividend payments for common stocks are shown in the Tables 3 and 4.
|The name of indicator||Units of measurement||2008||2009||2010||2011||2012||2013|
|Included export sales||Million rubles||37102.4||30976.6||46903.9||58859.1||60994||59418.6|
|Quantity of the working||person||18892||17343||17086||17199||17513||17681|
Table 3: The technical and economic indicators of the enterprise Nignekamskneftechim during the period of 2008-2013 .
|Asa percentage to the par value of stock||2008||2009||2010||2011||2012|
|The dividend payments||30.98||7||117.6||236||278|
Table 4: The dynamics of dividend payments for common stocks of the enterprise Nignekamskneftechim during the period of 2008-2012 .
The share of petrochemical cluster on the territory of SEZ Alabuga is about 36%, machine building cluster and production of automobile accessories is about 32%, cluster of construction material is about 14%, cluster of food processing is about 9%, as we can see from the Figure 1.
According to figures and tables the special economic zone on the territory region is playing important role in the region’s development:
• On the territory of a SEZ there is an intercluster interaction;
• Creation of new workplaces;
• Increase market value of enterprises and cost of equity;
• Increase in the volume of taxes at all levels of the budgetary system paid by residents of SEZ;
• Effective use of the federal and local investment;
• Easy management due to single administration;
• Involvement of foreign investors;
• Capitilazation restoration in the former Soviet Union;
• Land development.