alexa
Reach Us +44-1235-425476
The Contribution of Electrophysiology to Entomology | OMICS International
ISSN: 2161-0983
Entomology, Ornithology & Herpetology: Current Research

Like us on:

Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on
Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

The Contribution of Electrophysiology to Entomology

Paul-André Calatayud*

Research Institute for Development (IRD), French Institute, France

*Corresponding Author:
Paul-André Calatayud
Senior Research Scientist, Research Institute for Development (IRD)
French Institute, France
Tel: + (254) 720 957 877
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: February 20, 2014; Accepted date: February 23, 2014; Published date: February 26, 2014

Citation: Calatayud PA (2014) The Contribution of Electrophysiology to Entomology. Entomol Ornithol Herpetol 3:e108. doi:10.4172/2161-0983.1000e108

Copyright: © 2014 Calatayud PA. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Visit for more related articles at Entomology, Ornithology & Herpetology: Current Research

By definition, electrophysiology “is the study of the electrical properties of biological cells and tissues”. Thereby the flow of ions in biological tissues (living organisms, excised tissues / organs and cells) is assessed. This tool has been initially developed for human health (e.g., electrocardiography, electroencephalography…). In the mid 20th century, electrophysiology started to be used in entomology.

In 1960 an electronic method was designed to monitor electrically the biting and feeding behaviour of piercing-sucking phytophagous and hematophagous insects [1,2]. This technique was first used to record the probing, penetration, salivation, engorgement and withdrawal of mosquitoes in relation to their hosts [3]. It was thereafter extensively used to discern hemipteran stylet activity within plant tissues [4,5]. This technique now universally termed electrical penetration graph (EPG) is used to monitor routinely insects feeding in order to understand the mouthpart pathway and activity into host tissues. More than 200 papers have been published, mostly on aphid and leafhopper feeding [5,6]. EPG has also been largely used to understand the mode of virus transmission by hemipteran in plant tissues [6]. It can also be used to monitor chewing insects (e.g. caterpillar [7]), and more generally to monitor the organ insertion of insects into hosts such as ovipositor insertion of parasitic wasps into the host body (Backus E., personal communication).

The peripheral nervous system in insects has been extensively examined by electrophysiology. In 1957, the German biologist Schneider invented the electroantennogram (EAG) [8], which ables to “measure the average voltage output of the insect antennae to the brain by an odour”. Since then, this technique has been largely used for a comprehensive identification of the presence of receptors in insect antennae to given odours. Since [9], a blend of odours can now be screened by coupling EAG with GC (gas chromatography) and to identify the compound(s) from the blend that is/are detected by the insect. Although these techniques have been developed initially for pheromone detection, they are now largely used for semiochemicals (kairomones and allomones) detection in general. At the end of the last century, single cell recording (SCR) was developed to record the action potential in single olfactory receptor neurons [10]. By SCR, the specificity in each neuron can be revealed. Simultaneously, another tool has been also developed to record the action potential in single taste receptor neurons [10,11], allowing screening the detection of hydrosoluble compounds of single taste receptors in insects. More recently, Hiroi et al. [12] adapted this technique to enable the screening of hydrophobic substances. The patch clamp technique, which allows studying single or multiple ions channels in cells, was also applied in entomology [13]. The patch clamp technique was initially used to study the effect of insecticides on insect cell membranes and it is now used to study the neuronal function of the insect brain [14] and, in general, the mode of action of molecules in the cell physiology of insects.

The patch clamp technique allowed examining the physiology of the central nervous system in insects. Associated to that, the development of a new class of voltage-sensitive dyes [15] has offered “the possibility to optically image the functionality of neuronal circuits at both the single neuron and whole brain level”. The development of calciumsensitive dyes [16] has provided another universal and sensitive method to “study distinct information processing pathways in whole neural networks in particular when used in combination with two-photon laser scanning microscopy [17]”. In the last years, these developments have been increasingly used in entomology and tremendous insights into the insect’s olfactory system have been gained.

The current trend of entomology is to use routinely electrophysiology. This trend is likely to continue and combined with other studies like genomics/transcriptomics can give deeper physiological insights into the insect’s chemosensory system, which is the crucial system interacting with the environment.

Acknowledgements

Thanks are given to Fritz Schulthess for revising the manuscript and his English corrections.

References

Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Post your comment

Share This Article

Article Usage

  • Total views: 12115
  • [From(publication date):
    March-2014 - Nov 18, 2018]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views : 8305
  • PDF downloads : 3810
 

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2018-19
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri and Aquaculture Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

+1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Clinical Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Food & Nutrition Journals

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics & Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Materials Science Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Nursing & Health Care Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

Ann Jose

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

 
© 2008- 2018 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
Leave Your Message 24x7