alexa The Development of Biological Molecular Sensing Techniques to detect Micro particles: Focus on Clinical Medicine Benefits | Open Access Journals
ISSN: 1948-5948
Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology
Like us on:
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on
Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

The Development of Biological Molecular Sensing Techniques to detect Micro particles: Focus on Clinical Medicine Benefits

Alexander E Berezin*

Department of Internal Medicine, State Medical University 26, Mayakovsky av, Zaporozhye, Ukraine

*Corresponding Author:
Alexander E Berezin
Consultant of Cardiology Unit
Internal Medicine Department
State Medical University 26
Mayakovsky av, Zaporozhye, Ukraine
Tel: +380612894585
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: July 05, 2015; Accepted Date: July 22, 2015; Published Date:July 29, 2015

Citation: Berezin AE (2015) The Development of Biological Molecular Sensing Techniques to detect Micro particles: Focus on Clinical Medicine Benefits. J Microb Biochem Technol 7:4 236-237. doi:10.4172/1948-5948.1000214

Copyright: © 2015 Berezin AE. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Visit for more related articles at Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology

Abstract

Microparticles (MPs) are defined a heterogeneous population of vesicles (diameter 100-1000 nm) that are released by cellular vesiculation and fission of the membrane of cells and play a pivotal role in various diseases including cardiovascular diseases, cancer, sepsis, eclampsia, autoimmune and metabolic states. Currently there is no standardization regarding analytical methods of MP detection. Conventional methods have crucial limitations regarding complicated assay and suffers from relatively low sensitivity and accuracy because of resolution problems occurring for the majority of commercially available flow cytometers. Alternatively, recently recognized as a method for quantification and sizing of biological nanoparticles surface plasmon resonance-based imaging microscopy (SPRi microscopy) might be significantly useful to resolve the majority problems affected MPs recognition. Probably Raman micro-spectroscopy, micro nuclear magnetic resonance technique, small-angle X-ray scattering, and anomalous small-angle X-ray scattering might compete with SPRi microscopy and flow cytometery. Sort comment is discussed contemporary approaches regarding novel techniques of microparticle determination, measurements and assay.

Keywords

Microparticles; Analytical assay; Flow cytometry; Western blot analysis; Electron microscopy; Surface plasmon resonance-based imaging microscopy; Nuclear magnetic resonance techniques

Developments of technologies that attenuate recognize, determination, and measurements of microparticles (MPs) obtained from various cells appear to be indispensable tool to clinical medicine [1]. Recent investigations have been shown that MPs as derivate of cellular membrane are discussed powerful paracrine regulators of target cell functions affected growth of tissue, reparation, vasculogenesis, inflammation, apoptosis, infection, and malignancy [2-4]. There is large body of evidences regarding association between immune pattern of MPs originated from different cells (endothelial cells, mononuclear, dendritic cells, platelets) and nature evolution of various diseases including cardiovascular diseases, cancer, sepsis, eclampsia, autoimmune and metabolic states, etc. [5-8].

MPs are defined a heterogeneous population of vesicles (diameter 100-1000 nm) that are released by cellular vesiculation and fission of the membrane of cells [9]. This mechanism affects genome and may mediate by some triggers [10]. In is well known that MPs appear to be found into circulation in response to many situational changes (physiological conditions, stress) micro environmental stimulation, coagulation / thrombosis, endotoxinemia, endothelial shear stress, activated cells or those undergoing apoptosis, ischemic injury, hypoxia, and malignancy [11-13].

The current stand of knowledge regarding morphology, transcriptomics, and proteomics of circulating MPs is still not fully [14,15]. The difficulty of separating MPs realized from other types of cells limits or efforts to extend actual cognitions in features affected biogenesis, secretion, and subsequent biological role of MPs. Therefore, there are no standardized protocols regarding methods of isolation and analysis of MPs [16].

The conventional approach for measuring the MPs is based on commonly used flow cytometry and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), Western blot analysis and electron microscopy, although the definition of MPs using these techniques is still an area of great debate. Unfortunately, all methods have crucial limitations regarding complicated assay and suffers from relatively low sensitivity and accuracy because of resolution problems occurring for the majority of commercially available flow cytometers [17,18]. The next serious barrier created surmountable problems for NTA is sizing of small MPs (50 nm and less). However, the utilization of flow cytometers specifically designed for analysis of small-size MPs is probably to provide considerable methodological advantages and should be the preferable options [17]. In addition, problems with concentration limits of NTA measurements restrict the use of this method for clinical samples [18]. Western blot analysis and electron microscopy allow to optionally recognizing MPs depending on determination of different markers, represents a useful tool for examining particles. However, Western blot analysis and electron microscopy require subsequent technical efforts and are much expensive.

Alternatively, recently recognized as a method for quantification and sizing of biological nanoparticles surface plasmon resonance based imaging microscopy (SPRi microscopy) might be significantly useful to resolve the majority problems affected MPs recognition. SPRi is discussed a highly sensitive label-free biochemical surface sensor measurement technique that has only recently been applied to the field of cell-biology. This method is based on phenomenon known as surface plasmon resonance that associates with a high resolute diffraction generated at a thin metal surface [19]. The high contrast in SPR signal between cell edges and substratum facilitates identification of cell edges and segmentation of cell areas [20]. Importantly that several cells, cellular components (i.e., focal adhesions, nucleus, and cellular secretions), viruses, bacteria, micro- and nanoparticles have not just became visible, but they are able to be calculable [19,20].

As expected, a quantitative interpretation of SPRi imaging might improve resolution of MP determination and allow investigators unprecedented to overcome flow cytometry limitations regarding low detectable small-size MPs [21]. Moreover, simultaneous application of a high-sensitive fluorescent microscopy and SPRi microscopy should enhance the sensitivity and selectivity of a created biosensor platform [22,23]. This might have a high value for identification of small-size MPs originated from different cells that were recently determined as debris [24]. Probably small-size MPs derived from apoptotic cells play a pivotal role in tissue injure, inversely MPs secreted activated cells, i.e., mononuclear, endothelial cells, dendritic cells, may have a positive effect on tissue repair and homeostasis [25].

A highly sensitive fluorescent (HSF) microscopy also permits to detect individual sub-micro and nano-MPs. As compared with SPRi microscopy, this technique could provide higher detection sensitivity due to a large fluorescence excitation and a high effective quantum yield of fluorescence. Therefore, there are at least four methods that are not commercially available: Raman micro-spectroscopy, micro nuclear magnetic resonance technique, small-angle X-ray scattering, and anomalous small-angle X-ray scattering [26]. All these methods are currently being explored to assay MPs, while an incorporation of these techniques into routine analytical practice is probably addressed in the future.

In conclusion, a standardization of the methods of nano- and micro- particles determination is extremely required. Commonly used procedures, such as flow cytometry with NTA, Western blot analysis and electron microscopy, might not have universal utility for MP determination; especially for small-size MPs. Novel techniques regarding identification of MPs based on real-time and label-free optical biosensors and principles of SPR phenomena appear to be much attractive and could sufficiently overcome limitation of option methods of MP determination.

References

Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Post your comment

Share This Article

Relevant Topics

Recommended Conferences

Article Usage

  • Total views: 11540
  • [From(publication date):
    August-2015 - Nov 22, 2017]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views : 7807
  • PDF downloads : 3733
 

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri & Aquaculture Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Clinical Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]ine.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Food & Nutrition Journals

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics & Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Materials Science Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Nursing & Health Care Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

Ann Jose

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

 
© 2008- 2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords