The Effect of Trigonella Foenum Graceum L. (Fenugreek) on Metabolic Syndrome: An Accidental Finding
Received Date: Oct 07, 2017 / Accepted Date: Oct 16, 2017 / Published Date: Oct 25, 2017
Keywords: Glucose; Metabolic; Trigonella foenum graceum ; Hypoglycemic effect; Treatment
The combination of a few conditions such as obesity, glucose intolerance, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension are called metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is strongly associated with diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular events [1,2]. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is rapidly increasing these days.
Therefore, there is an urgent need for a drug or adjuvant therapy that could treat all conditions of metabolic disorders.
In an unpublished study, we investigated the effect of aqueous extract of Trigonella foenum graceum (Fenugreek)seeds on mild asthma. This was a triple blind trial including a placebo. The trial included participants aged 20 years to 70 years, who did not have any acute diseases. The daily dose of fenugreek was 10 g and the study lasted 4 weeks (Table 1).
|Before treatment||St. error||After treatment||St. error||P. value|
Table 1: The result before and after treatment with fenugreek syrup.
Based on the information in adverse events related to fenugreek reported in laboratory and animal studies, liver function tests, thyroid function test, lipid profiling, and biochemical test were performed before and after treatment; the participants were closely monitored. Although all test results were in normal range before treatment, significant decreases in cholesterol (179.2 to 173.7; P=0.05), triglyceride (139.3 to 120.5; P=0.003), and liver function test (SGOT: 26.3 to 21; P=0.02 and SGPT: 37.7 to 24.9; P=0.003) results were observed after treatment.
Despite the hypoglycemic effect of fenugreek mentioned in several studies , we did not observe any significant decrease in blood sugar level (95.2 to 95.3; P=0.9). This may because we used honey as the base for administration of the fenugreek extract. In addition, we used a low dose of fenugreek; nevertheless, studies have reported that 25 g of powdered seeds were enough to lower blood sugar levels .
Many studies have suggested the hepatoprotective role for fenugreek [4-7]. This could be due to the antioxidant activity of seeds, in addition to their anti-inflammatory and anti- fibrotic properties.
Studies have also reported the lipid-lowering role of fenugreek . Fenugreek seeds contain active ingredients such as flavonoids, fiber, amino acids, steroid sapogenin, and ext that show lipid-lowering properties.
Flavonoids have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. One of the active steroid sapogenin present in fenugreek is diosgenin; studies have determined its glycemia reduction [9-11] and hepatoprotective roles in animal models. In addition, a few studies have reported the endothelial function of diosgenin, suggesting the role of fenugreek in regulating cardiovascular effects [12,13].
Another active ingredient in fenugreek seed is 4-oh-Ile, a plant amino acid. In streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, consumption of 4- oh-Ile 8 weeks showed improvement in glycemic control and liver marker function .
Fenugreek seeds are rich in fiber (32% insoluble and13% soluble) . It has been reported that fenugreek fiber can inhibit hydrolyzing enzymes in the gastrointestinal system [16,17]. This resulted in a decrease in postprandial blood sugar and lipid profile. Together, the findings of these studies show the importance of an ancient remedy in treating today’s most concerning syndrome. Further human studies and large randomized control trials are recommended to determine the effectiveness of fenugreek.
- Hanky AJ, Karter AJ, Williams K (2005) Predication of type 2 diabetes mellitus with alternative definition of the metabolic syndrome: the insulin resistance atherosclerosis study. Circulation 112: 3713-3721.
- Gami AS, Witt BJ, Howard DE (2007) Metabolic syndrome and risk of incident cardiovascular events and death: systemic review and meta- analysis of longitudinal studies. J Am Coll Cardiol 49: 403-414.
- Vijayakumar MV, Bhat MK (2008) Hypoglycemic effect of a novel dialyzed fenugreek seeds extract is sustainable and is medicated, in part, by the activation of hepatic enzymes. Phyto ther Res 22: 500-550.
- Hegazy MG, Emam MA (2012) Ethanolic extract of trigonella foenum graceum attenuates cisplatin- induced nephro and hepatotoxicities in rats. Cell Mol Biol 61: 81-87.
- Arafa MH, Mohammad NS, Atteiah H (2014) Fenugreek seed powder mitigates cadmium- induced testicular damages and hepatotoxicity in male rats. Exp Toxical patho 66: 293-230.
- Sushma N (2010) Devasenat: Aqueous extract of trigonella foenum graceum (fenugreek) prevents cypermethrin- induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Hum Exp Toxical 29: 311-319.
- Hamden K, Jaouadi B, Carreau S, Bejar S, Elfeki A, et al. (2010) Inhibitory effect of fenugreek galactomannan on digestive enzymes related to diabetes, hyperlipidemia and liver kidney dysfunctions. Bio Technol Bioprocess Eng 5: 407-413.
- Kaviarasan S, Sundarapandiyanv R, Anuradha CV (2008) Protective action of fenugreek ( trigonella foenum graceum) seed polyphenols against alcohol- induced protein and lipid damage in rat liver. Cell Biol Toxicol 24: 391-400.
- Kalailingam P, Kannaian B, Tamilmani E, Kaliaperumol R (2014) Efficacy of natural diosgenin on cardiovascular risk, insulin secration, and Beta cells in Streptozotocin(STZ) – induced diabetic rats. Phytomedicine 21: 1154-1161.
- Tharaheswari M, Jayachandra RN, Kumar R, Varshney KC, Kannan M, et al. (2014) Trigonelline and diosgenin attenuater stress oxidative stress mediated damage in pancreas and enhance adipose tissue PPAR gamma activity in type 2 diabetic rats. Mal Cell Bio Chem 396: 161-174.
- Sangeetha MK, Shrishri MN, Atmaja K, Sali VK, Vasanthi HR, et al. (2013) PPAR’s and diogenin a chemicobiological in NIDDM. Chem Biol Interact 206: 403-410.
- Liu K, Zhao W, Gao X, Huang F, Kou J, et al. (2012) Diosgenin ameliorates palmitate- induced endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance via blocking KKbeta and IRS-1 pathways. Atherosclerosis 223: 350-408.
- Pari L, Monisha P, Jalaludeen AM (2012) Beneficial role of diosgenin on oxidative stress in aorta of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Eur J Pharmacol 691: 143-150.
- Haeri MR, Izaddoost M, Ardekani MRS, Nobar MR, White KN, et al. (2009) The effect of fenugreek 4- hydroxi ILe on liver function biomarkers and glucose in diabetic and fructose- fed rats. Phytother Res 23: 61-64.
- Roberts KT (2011) The potential of fenugreek (trigonella foenum graceum) as a functional food and nutraceutical and its effects on glycemia and lipidemia. J Med Food 14: 1485-1490.
- Hannan JMA, Ali L, Rokeya B, Khaleque J, Akhter M, et al. (2007) Soluble dietary fibre fraction of trigonella foenum graceum(fenugreek) seed improves glucose homeostasis in animal models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes by denhancing insulin action. Br J Nutr 97: 514-521.
- Romulu P, Giridharan NV, Udayasekhararao P (2011) Hypolipidemic effect of soluble dietary fiber (galactomannan) isolated from fenugreek seeds in WNIN (GR- ob) obese rats. J Med Plants Res 5: 4804-4013.
Citation: Oveidzadeh L, Emtiazy M, Habibi M, Jafari Z, Kamalinejad M (2017) The Effect of Trigonella Foenum Graceum L. (Fenugreek) on Metabolic Syndrome: An Accidental Finding. J Metabolic Synd 6: 233. Doi: 10.4172/2167-0943.1000233
Copyright: © 2017 Oveidzadeh L, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the creative commons attribution license, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Share This Article
- Total views: 272
- [From(publication date): 0-2017 - Feb 25, 2018]
- Breakdown by view type
- HTML page views: 251
- PDF downloads: 21