alexa The History and Practice of Human Resource Management (HRM) in Ghana s Policies Perspective towards Improving Public Sector Administration for Good Governance
ISSN: 2332-0761
Journal of Political Sciences & Public Affairs
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The History and Practice of Human Resource Management (HRM) in Ghana s Policies Perspective towards Improving Public Sector Administration for Good Governance

Abdul-Kahar A1* and Sulaiman ESB1,2

1Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Faculty of Management, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia

2University of Education, Winneba, Central Region, Ghana

*Corresponding Author:
Abdul-Kahar A
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM)
Faculty of Management
81310 Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
Tel: +60 7-553 3333
Email: [email protected]

Received Date: June 01, 2017; Accepted Date: July 22, 2017; Published Date: July 27, 2017

Citation: Abdul-Kahar A, Sulaiman ESB (2017) The History and Practice of Human Resource Management (HRM) in Ghana’s Policies Perspective towards Improving Public Sector Administration for Good Governance. J Pol Sci Pub Aff 5: 275. doi: 10.4172/2332-0761.1000275

Copyright: © 2017 Abdul-Kahar A, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

This paper is based on qualitative analysis of public policies whereby its findings and discussions is derived from the available literatures on government policies and relevant theories surrounding HRM in the public sector of an economy in practice. The main aim and purpose of this review is to demonstrate the ideal practices of Human Resource Management from the Ghana’s view point of the subject matter for best approach. The major aim is to establish the history and policy practice of HRM in Ghana. Generally, the findings indicates that Ghana policies, systems, structures and programmes of HRM practice is still evolving in that, much needs to be done in order for the nation to benefit the full complement of HRM practice. In this case, it is recommended that both the public and political leaders must institute policies and systems and laws by way of streamlining existing policies and commissions in order to get the full complement of HRM practice within a country with a well-designed generic policy framework/model. With this, it will show respect and trust among one another since this is the only way a country can advance towards its Human Capital Development. Governments must establish good practices and procedures and abiding by those principles in the designed generic framework/model without government in power interferences or bias of HRM practices. Besides, it is recommended that during regime change, civil service and public sector workers who are deemed and found competent among the best and knowledgeable, must be allowed to continue their work without sacking them because of regime change and this will help to build good human relations. Above all, Handy, (1995) and Torrington statement on HRM must serve as a yard stick or wake-up call to African leaders and practitioners which states that employee society is on the wane, that new models are needed, new role models who will make life less frightening, even political society will have to make some changes so that the children of today will have something to sell to the world, so that the failures and suffering of today will not bring us too much suffering or at least less hardship to the populace. By and large, designing social policies by government are different from the adoption and practice of HRM systems and for that matter, Ghana’s current systems designed are largely based on social policies and are not proper practice of HRM systems and procedures.

Keywords

HRM history; HRM practice; Governance; Human resource management; Ghana

Introduction

For governments to derive the importance of human resource management and development, then the importance of Human Resource Management workforces must be motivated in all areas of need. That is social policies and systems must be improved as well as good application of the Henry Fayol’s 14 Principles of Management to improve efficiency and effectiveness at public sector work environment. Good governance practices has become a good component of advance countries development and in contrast to the developing world is ironic. Africa is a place where the functions and objectives of HRM is poorly managed by practice and still face with challenges of a unique framework/model to improve governance performance.

Human Resource Management has been the most exciting course programme that potential students always aspiring to pursue and even those who are already studying the course are very much proud to be studying such classic programme which looks more attractive. Universities, Polytechnics and Colleges all over are creating and running such programmes as training and also as taught subject. Notwithstanding, the departments within public sector organizations that used to be called Personnel Department has been silence now. People therefore have the perception that the Personnel Management is now the new terminology called Human Resource Management. This creates a big vacuum in many people who may want to understand what the Human Resource Management is. Therefore, the basic principles and concepts of Human Resource Management have to be understood by all who may want to study and excel in the field.

The basic principle is about the job market potentials for those masses pursuing the HRM course and those who still want to pursue HRM as career is alarming in this part of the world. Both public and private business may not understand competently as to what HRM is all about since the invention of this terminology, it came with unique objectives (i.e. staffing, performance, change management, and administration), which affects the entire environment for which it was created and not to talk of those adopting it. This means that HRM is a practice that goes with competence and professionalism in dealing with people and the organization policies for the achievement of goals. It is for these reasons that a way is paved for one to review to establish the best practice and identified with HRM in this part of the world, especially in the Ghanaian society with greater emphasis on how government established and designed national HRM policies to manage its workforce and the entire State businesses.

Background

The basis of this review paper is to take several factors and activities within an organization into perspective to enable one to conclude on the HRM practices that affect Ghana as a country. Such factors to consider are the nature of HRM, definition of HRM within the context of Ghana and public HRM policies establishment. The ideal purpose of this new term Human Resource Management is to make things within a country human capital and organizations to look better and attractive in terms of employees’ satisfaction as well as employers achieving their objectives.

This review is in line with the theory [1,2] that employee society is on the wane and that new models are needed, which is new role models who will make life less frightening and even political society will have to make some changes so that the children of today will have something better and achievable to sell to the world, so that the failures and suffering of today will not bring too much suffering again or at least less frightening to the State populace and businesses. This is to gather what already exists in Ghana government policies to ascertain the status quo as to whether they are disjointed polices, operational, and effective at all levels of government structures, if there is any to show.

Major purpose

The main purpose of this review paper is to demonstrate the ideal practices of Human Resource Management from Ghana and by way of its policies designed and establishments.

Aim

The main aim of this review is to establish the history of HRM in the Ghanaian context to determine its operational levels.

Objectives

The following are the main objectives of this review:

• To contrast Charles Handy’s theory of HRM to that of Ghanaian practices.

• To gather more literature and empirical data to develop a Ghanaian Human Resource Management model in principle.

• To prove that the adoption and practice of HRM in Ghana has been inappropriate and full of misconceptions, notations and inappropriate practice of HRM by the State and organizations.

• To create and develop proper directions for academics to understand in imparting such knowledge to trainees for perfection.

• To show how Ghanaian policies contradicts and at a disjointed state.

Research questions

The questions that this research tries to answer are as follows:

• Has HRM in Ghana solving the State failures or less frightening of life across board in terms of unemployment?

• Has Ghana got a generic HRM model?

• How does Human Resource Managers apply the known functions within work environment and also comply with the HRM Policies of the State.

• Is there any people management skills well taught, in good practice towards managing employee – employer relationship in the academic or professional field?

• Why are the Ghanaian policies so broad like the advanced countries and disjointed in nature?

Literature Review

Ghana government HRM development policies, programmes and structures in perspective

Ghana News Agency [3] reported on the headline “Human Resource management in Ghana lacks Strategic focus” and that Human Resource Management (HRM) in Ghana is yet to make progress from its current administrative phase to a strategic one. Mr Kojo Asare-Bediako, Executive Director, of Institute of the Human Resource Management Practitioners (IHRMP), Ghana, made the assertion. That also, both private and public organizations are currently contended with people management problems like dissatisfaction with pay, low morale and motivation, low level of productivity, poor work attitudes, poor time management culture and under performance just to name a few. More so, Chief Executives Officers are looking up to the human resource departments to come up with systems and strategies that will create enabling job satisfaction and also motivating work environment and to build a positive organizational culture within departments of the organization. Again, in modern organizations, the HR practitioner is expected to add value to the organization by designing business strategies to complement business growth. Mr. Asare-Bediako added that, in order to design human resource systems and strategies require by employers, needs the acquisition of professional HR knowledge, skills and a mindset supported by professional training. He appealed for rigorous professional training of people who have acquired academic qualifications in Human Resource Management to further acquire professional training skills to enable them to measure up to the many human resource management challenges facing organizations in Ghana. (source: https:// www.modernghana.com/print/322436/1/human-resource-manag).

The kind of management style used or practice in Ghana to a large extent emphasized on the lack of efficiency, which have always provided loopholes for people to ‘beat’ the system by flouting rules and causes shortfalls within system. Senya [4] noted that the practice of HRM in Ghana lacks effective management skills of people in general. First of all, it must be understood that the era of job for life is over because the current systems of governance has in itself cling to the practice of ‘job for life’, who are non-performers and some are without the requisite skills to meet the changing environment, do not want to give way for professionals and younger practitioners. Ghana is losing out on the potential improvement due to the lack of strategic HR planning.

(Source: http://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/NewsArchive/The-Ghana)

According to the Government’s White Paper, it states that, “no worker should be worst of than they are in the prevailing system”. And so, with this statement, workers had great expectations that significant salary increases would be accessible to everyone irrespective of merit but that was not the case therefore, the current strike actions in the public sector emerged [5].

Public Policies in Ghana in Relation to HR Management and Development

Public policy commission

This was established in around 2012, and the purpose and function are as follows in the policy statement:

-Advise Government on the criteria for appointment to public offices as well as persons to hold or act in Public Services.

-Promote efficiency, accountability and integrity in the Public Services.

-Prescribe appropriate systems and procedures for the management of personnel records within the Public Services.

-Identify, explore and promote the recruitment of suitable personnel into the Public Services acting in collaboration with educational authorities.

-Undertake planning of manpower requirements of the Public Services using data from the educational institutions and other sources.

-Improve recruitment policies and techniques by introducing modern methods of judging suitability of officers.

-Conduct examinations and interviews for appointment to posts and for promotions in the public Service or within public corporations to ensure uniformity of standards of selection and qualifications.

-Review the organization, structure and manpower requirements of agencies and bodies in the Public Services and advise Government on such manpower rationalization as may be necessary for maximum utilization of human resources in the Public Services.

-Oversee the human resources development activities of the Public Services organizations to ensure career planning and career development in the Public Services.

-Conduct in collaboration with training institutions, personnel research into human resources management in the Public Services in order to improve personnel practices and their utilization in the Public Services.

-Perform any other duties assigned to it under the Constitution or any other enactment.

Its objectives are as follows:

-Upgrade the capacity of the Public and Civil Service for transparent, accountable, efficient, timely, effective performance and service delivery

-Strengthen institutions to offer support to ensure social cohesion at all levels of society,

-Rationalize and define structures, roles and procedures for state and non-state actors,

-Deepen on-going institutionalization and internalization of policy formulation, planning, and M&E system at all levels.

Ghana shared growth and development agenda (GSGDA) vol. II (under NDPC)

This body was established in and around 2015 with a primary purpose and function is to represent the costing framework for the effective implementation of the policies and strategies outlined in the GSGDA II. The GSGDA II will inform the sector and district mediumterm development plans, which is prepared by the MDAs and MMDAs, and form the basis for the annual national budget. The GSGDA II also forms the basis for Donor Coordination within the framework of the Paris Declaration which requires all Donors to coordinate their support towards approved national agenda in the beneficiary countries. The following are its objectives established under the policy statement:

-Ensuring and sustaining macroeconomic stability;

-Enhanced competitiveness of Ghana’s private sector;

-Accelerated agricultural modernization and natural resource management;

-Oil and gas development;

-Infrastructure and human settlements development;

-Human development, employment and productivity; and

-Transparent and accountable governance.

NDPC role

It briefly reviews the costing framework for the financing of programmes and projects under the GSGDA, 2010-2013, identifies some of the constraints in the resource allocation and actual expenditures, and then proposes strategic focus of expenditure outlays under GSGDA II.

In fulfillment of this constitutional requirement, H.E The President prepares Coordinated Programme of Economic and Social Development Policies (CPESDP), 2014-2020 which outlines mediumterm vision for the development of the country and the broad policy measures to be implemented to achieve his medium-term development objectives and goals. To operationalize the broad policy proposals outlined in the CPESDP, and it is then based on this that the Ghana Shared Growth and Development Agenda (GSGDA) II, 2014-2017 is prepared [6].

Human resource management policy framework and manual for the Ghana public services (under PSC)

This Framework is effective as of April 30, 2015 and applies to the public services of Ghana as defined by Article 190 of the 1992 Constitution of the Republic of Ghana. Its main purpose and function is the framework created, which outline the principles that will guide the approach to human resource management, governance and the development of human resource management policy in the public service. It also sets out the principles that will effectively foster excellence in people management. The objects stated in the policy statement are as follows:

-provide a framework for equal treatment of all public servants by applying the same standards and principles in matters that concern public servants;

-plan for staffing, human resource development and organizational capacity building tailored to service delivery needs;

-develop a culture of customer care and of approaches to service delivery that are sensitive to the needs of the public, especially the poor and the vulnerable through training;

-implement monitoring and evaluation mechanisms and structures designed to measure performance and reward high performance while sanctioning persistent poor performance;

-form partnerships with the Private Sector and Civil Society Organization’s to ensure better service delivery.

It also stated that, the status of Ghana as a lower middle income country, the emerging vocal and discerning civil society makes it development imperatives which is coupled with the rapid technological advancement worldwide, and therefore leave the Public Service of Ghana with no choice than to transform itself into an ethical, responsive and citizen-oriented Service that provides high quality and timely services to the Ghanaian public [7]. The most critical resource for economic transformation is the human resource, which must be managed well. In the current circumstances where about 70% of tax revenue goes into Public Servants emoluments, managing human resources effectively and strategically must be the cornerstone of the wider transformation of the Public Service (Figure 1).

political-sciences-public-affairs-resource

Figure 1: Ghana Human Resource Management: Model and Policy Statements.

The model provided above offers a foundational backdrop that is made up of the eight (8) key pillars of the HRM functions of the Ghana public services. It comprises all major components of a modern human resource life cycle and written in a manner that reflects the interrelationship and interdependency of each component, which further strengthens the model as a whole. Each pillar is a precursor to a specific policy statement and procedural guidance that forms a comprehensive summary of policies and procedures under it. In the Ghana Public Service, an effective and integrated HRM plan shall consider all aspects of managing people and shall be directly linked to business priorities and key environmental factors, including relevant trends and risks based on (Potentials, Opportunities, Constraints and Challenges) POCC analyses. The planning process shall be strategic, integrated and practical and will consider both short-term and longterm requirements as the policy noted. Organizational structures shall be developed and updated in a manner that is consistent with the MDAs' and MMDAs' mandates and priorities. The design ensures structural stability, optimal layering and appropriate span of control, taking into account current and future operational requirements (as stated in the policy document).

Human resource operational manual for metropolitan, municipal and district assemblies (under local government service)

This was established or created in 2013 and has the following as its purpose and function, “the general purpose of this Human Resource Operational Manual (HROM) is to communicate the basic personnel policies, practices and procedures to aid the managerial employees in the efficient and effective management of the business of the Local Government Service. The Manual covers Recruitment, Selection and Retention of employees, Training and Capacity Building, Promotion, Human Resource Planning, Posting and Transfers, Performance Management, Compensation, Diversity and Gender Main Streaming, Code of Ethics/Discipline, Leaving the Local Government Service, among others.” The aim of this manual is to provide clear and wellstructured treatment of Human Resource Management and Development in the LGS. It is also intended to serve as a quick reference to the staff of LGS particularly Human Resource Managers and Senior Managers who have been entrusted with the responsibility of managing staff. Nonetheless the primary sources of information in this manual are extracts from the protocols of the Service namely; Conditions of Service, Scheme of Service, Code of Conduct and other relevant legislations of the Service. The manual is not supposed to substitute the protocols of the Service; it’s to be used alongside these protocols and legislations of the Service. “The enactment of Legislative Instrument 1961 (LI 1961) and the Local Government Act, 2003 (Act 656) marked the commencement of the functioning of the decentralized Departments at the Metropolitan, Municipal and District level as Departments of the various Assemblies [8]. The LI 1961also transferred the staff of the decentralized Departments of the Metropolitan, Municipal and Districts from the Civil Service to the Local Government Service. This places the Local Government Service at the centre of Administrative Decentralization in the country with enormous responsibility of managing and developing the Human Resource of the Assemblies.”

ICT in education policy (under ministry of communication)

This was established or created in 2009, and the Government of Ghana is committed to the transformation of the agro-based economy of Ghana into an information rich and knowledge-based economy and society using the tools of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The following are its main objectives:

-Education Management – Ministry/Agencies and Educational Institutions,

-Capacity Building,

-Infrastructure, E-readiness and Equitable Access,

-Incorporating ICTs into the Curriculum,

-Content Development,

-Technical Support, Maintenance and Sustainability,

-Monitoring and Evaluation.

The government has acknowledged the need for ICT training and education in the schools, colleges and universities and the improvement of the education system as a whole. The deployment of ICT into Education will result in the creation of new possibilities for learners and teachers to engage in new ways of information acquisition and analysis. ICT will enhance access to education and improve the quality of education delivery on equitable basis.

Education strategic plan 2003-2015, volume 1: Policy, targets and strategies (under ministry of education)

The purpose of this set up was for the Ministry of Education (MoE), which has overall responsibility for education sector policy, planning and monitoring. Education delivery and implementation is developed and directed towards institutions, Districts and Regions through various agencies of MoE. Of these, the Ghana Education Service (GES) is the agency that implements the Basic and Senior Secondary education components, including Technical and Vocational institutes. GES is therefore responsible for schools and, by virtue of the size of its sub-sectors, about four-fifths of the annual expenditure is based on education [9]. The rest of the education sector covers the other agencies. The National Council for Tertiary Education (NCTE) and the Non-Formal Education Division (NFED) has important sub-sectorial areas of responsibility regarding education delivery. The objectives were:

-improve the quality of teaching and learning,

-improve the quality of teaching and learning,

-improve access and participation,

-decentralize the education management system.

Conditions of service for staff of the local government service (under local government service)

This was established or created in around 2007 and the main purpose and function for these Conditions of Service shall apply to all Local Government Service Personnel, including Officers on secondment, transfer or attachment to the Service. The objectives are as follows:

-recruitment procedures for members of the Service,

-promotion procedures for members of the Service,

-disciplinary procedures for members of the Service,

-transfer and posting procedures for members of the Service,

-institutional co-operation between the Local Government Service and other branches of the public service.

The following are the organizations within the Local Government Service:

-Local Government Service Secretariat as established by Law;

-The Regional Co-coordinating Councils (RCCs);

-The Metropolitan, Municipal, and District Assemblies (MMDAs) and their sub-structures.

Ghana integrated financial management information system (GIFMIS) – under ministry of finance

Ghana Integrated Financial Management Information System (GIFMIS) was launched in May 2009 as a follow up to the Budget and Public Expenditure Management System (BPEMS) Project, which was implemented between 1999 and 2008. The project was designed as Component 4 of the e-Ghana Project with a pooled fund of US$ 60.26 Million from the World Bank (US$28.44m), DFID (US$ 15.05m), European Union ($12.27m) and DANIDA ($4.50m). The project is expected to end on June 30, 2014 [9]. GIFMIS is jointly being implemented by three public institutions, and the major areas of the reforms are:

• Financial Management and Controls (Controller and Accountant General’s Department),

• Budget Reforms using the Programme Based Budgeting (Ministry of Finance),

• Human Resource Management Information System (Public Services Commission).

Below is its Rationale:

-Lack of accurate and current information on budgetary allocations, commitments and actual revenue and expenditures.

-Delays in Payment Processing and Financial Reporting.

-Poor feedback mechanism for assessing budgetary performance.

-Lack of uniform Chart of Accounts (COA), which made the comparison of the performance of various budgets difficult.

The Controller and Accountant General's Department (CAGD) under the auspices of the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning (MoFEP) is responsible for the reforms. The objective of this is:

-Promote efficiency, transparency and accountability in public financial management through rationalization and modernization of budgeting and public expenditure management of the Government of Ghana (GoG) [10].

-Promote the timely dissemination of information for financial management.

-Rationalize the financial Administrative Decree and Regulations.

-Improve the efficiency and effectiveness of revenue collection.

-Maximize payment and commitment control.

HR component of GIFMIS should be activated to make the financial management project more holistic, more especially because of the increasing wage bill of the Government and the increasing desire for improved performance. It was thought necessary to add HRMIS to GIFMIS to ensure that Human Resource Management is linked to the payroll for effective planning and controls.

Rationale for the HRMIS

• To establish a comprehensive, common Human Resource database of all public service employees with the view to strengthen controls around:

• Entrance,

• Exit,

• Promotions, and

• Positions across the various service groups.

• To mitigate the problems associated with the current system through the use of a common technology platform for HRMIS of all the public services of Ghana.

• To address the problem of:

• Multiple stand-alone HRMIS in the public service, which do not facilitate composite data analysis of HR.

• Unreliability of HR information for planning, capacity utilization, deployment, promotion and efficient payroll management.

• To address the problem of generating a reliable employee report.

Single spine pay policy (SSPP) – Government white paper

The new pay policy is to be implemented in phases over a five-year period effective January 1, 2010. The function or purpose of this policy was a comprehensive 22-Level Ghana Universal Salary Structure (GUSS) which was introduced in 1999. It main purpose was intended for implementation in all institutions in the Public Services, to deal with salary inequities and distortions [11]. However, the objective of universality underpinning the GUSS could not be realized, particularly since sections of the Public Services were allowed to opt out without any sanctions being applied. Its failure could also be attributed to the fact that the Central Management Board and the Appellate Body that were to manage its implementation were not backed by any legal instrument and were also not adequately resourced.

Government accepts that the Fair Wages and Salaries Commission (FESC), as established, is the institution responsible for the implementation of Public Sector Pay Policy, facilitating the collective bargaining process, and providing monitoring and advisory role. The ultimate goal of the SSPP is to ensure equity, fairness and transparency in Public Service Salary Administration as well as enhance performance and productivity. The specific objectives of the Pay Policy are to:

• place all public sector employees on one vertical structure;

• ensure that jobs within the same job-value range are paid within the same pay range (i.e. "equal pay for work of equal worth");

• allow Government the ability to manage the wage bill more efficiently;

• ensure compliance and ease of monitoring the pay structures of self-accounting institutions;

• minimize industrial-relation tensions related to low pay and distortions across the Public Services; and

• Link pay to productivity.

The Single Spine Pay Policy (SSPP) has been put forward to restore equity and transparency in public service pay administration.

Over the years, pay reforms and reviews have been undertaken by past Governments with the goal of improving Public Service salaries and managing the recurring canker of disparities and inequities in the Pay Administration System. Attempts to redress these problems included reviews by Commissions and Committees such as the Mills- Odoi; Issifu Ali; Justice Azu-Crabbe and Gyampoh Commissions or Committees. Despite these attempts, distortions, inequities and low incomes continue to persist within the Public Services.

Labor Act 2003

This was established on 8th October, 2003. Its purpose and function is to create an ACT to amend and consolidate the laws relating to labour, employers, trade unions and industrial relations; to establish a National Labour Commission and to provide for matters related to these. Its objective is to make sure that this Act applies to all workers and to all employers except the Armed Forces, the Police Service, the Prison Service and the Security and Intelligence Agencies specified under the Security and Intelligence Agencies Act 1996 (Act 526) [12]. Public Employment Centres and Fee-Charging Employment Agencies are also covered in the act.

Workmen’s compensation Act 1987, (PNDCL 187)

Section 1 is the Application to employees employed by the Republic: This Act applies to employees employed by the Republic as well as private persons, except in the case of persons in the Armed Forces. This act also includes the following sections but not the least:

Section 2-Employer's liability for compensation,

Section 3-Compensation in fatal cases,

Section 4-Employer to pay medical expenses,

Section 5-Compensation for permanent total incapacity,

Section 6-Compensation for permanent partial incapacity,

Section 7-Compensation for temporary incapacity,

Section 8-Compensation for disfiguring injuries,

Section 9-Method of calculating earnings,

Section 10-Persons entitled to compensation,

Section 11-Distribution of compensation,

Section 12-Requirements as to notice of accident and application for compensation,

Section 13-Employer to report the death of an employee,

Section 14-Medical examination and treatment,

Etc.

Discussion/Findings

For an insight into Ghana government HRM practices, it is once reported by GNA that HRM is yet to make a progress or impact based on its current administrative practices to a strategic one. It was noted that both private and public organizations are faced with people management problems which has to do with the Henry Fayols principles of management for lack of organizational efficiencies and effectiveness. Employees are dissatisfied with their pay, have low morale and motivational levels for productivity, poor work attitudes, poor time management culture, and under performance, just to name a few. All these add up towards downward trajectory of an economy. In this case, it is commended that HRM practitioners’ needs to be trained in order to help add value to organizations by designing business strategies to support business growth. This means that human resource management systems needs to be designed with strategies that are required by the professional HRM knowledge, skills and mind-set supported by training. The kind of management style practiced in Ghana emphasis on the lack of efficiency which has given chance to both private and public sector workers to beat the system and thereby flouting rules and cause damage to the economic systems, structures and progress.

This in itself is a failure to the Ghanaian society especially considering Mr Kojo Asare-Bediako, Executive Director, of Institute of the Human Resource Management Practitioners (IHRMP), Ghana, made a clear submission that HRM in Ghana on the 21st century is not working due to the aforementioned variable obstacles [13]. Also, one would observe that the nature and manner the policies are written and presented are too contradictory and vague. It’s very hard to really understand which commission or organization or department is actually implementing the HRM policies and also whether they are being implemented at all, is a question that needs to be answered. From professional and theories point of view, it is clear that the policies presented here are purely disconnected to the professional practice and also in terms of its feasibility on the ground. The policies seem to be too much compacted and overly loaded, and have lost focus in real sense. Within the space of few years all these policies are been written and compiled, a case of this nature does not work in reality towards human capital development as indicated. One could add here that because of political scoring, governments have produced hip of notes about the development of human capital together with the donor partners but in fact, little impact or very less impact of achievement.

The nature of African policies especially, Ghana is always done in a rash to win political points, which does not conform to the implementation procedures of any serious policy establishment. Senya [4] also doubted that the practice of HRM in Ghana lacks effective management skills of people in general, first and foremost, it must be understood that the era of job for life is over because the current systems of governance has in itself cling to the practice of ‘job for life’ (i.e. the older generation), who are non-performers and some are without the requisite skills to meet the changing environment, they do not want to give way for professionals and young talented professionals or graduates. And thereby the unemployment situation in Ghana is very high. The kind of human resource management practiced in Ghana is a system whereby they operate first in first out and this makes the human capital development in the country to suffer at most because if an elderly in a responsible position does not retire or resign or die naturally then no new recruitment. Besides, the system is not competitive for knowledge and skills imbibe in the young talented ones but rather another old person in command will occupy immediate position vacant. Hence, too many talents are wasted in Ghana among the youth, since they don’t even get the chance to exhibit their talent at permanent or full time work for the benefit of the nation [14].

Another common point that one would depict is the fact that, there is a big gap in the common knowledge of HRM in Ghana because the institutions established to design courses to teach professionally and training of students has adopted teaching practices and methods and systems that are too foreign and does not match the traditions and cultures of the nation. Hence, wrong skills and knowledge are acquired and it becomes difficult to implement in the Ghanaian society. Example of this is, government interference in recruitment processes for party faithful has destroyed the profession of HRM practice of recruitment process from its origin. Political polarization and the divide and rule tactics has injured the progress and development of Ghana for a long time. It causes a lot of instability during any regime change and therefore, people managing the helm of affairs of state institutions are not well qualified and are also unskillful to cope with these turbulent modern systems of governance world over [15]. Hence, Charles Handy’s theory is not yet achieved in Ghana and in Africa, it can be ascertained. A big contraction in the government of Ghana policy of Fair Wages and Salaries Commission is a very poor structure in that after FWSC negotiating with employees or unions or employers and then what next? Besides, if it is acting as government HRM advisory service but it does not have any financial portfolio and so, what is it negotiating at, if it does not control any employment budget? Many of these commissions in Ghana are problematic and up to a point they are found redundant. Now, taking the following titles or names into consideration as been reviewed under the literature, it is obvious that the contradictions of policy statements, purposes or functions and objectives are difficult to understand, especially during regime change. For example:

• Public Policy Commission (PPC),

• Ghana Shared Growth and Development Agenda (GSGDA),

• National Development Planning Committee (NDPC),

• Human Resource Management Policy Framework and Manual for the Ghana Public Service,

• Human Resource Operational Manual for Metropolitan, Municipal, and District Assemblies,

• ICT in Education Policy (under Ministry of Communication),

• Education Strategic Plan 2003 – 2015, Vol. 1 (under Ministry of Education),

• Local Government Service (LGS),

• Ghana Integrated Financial Management Information System (GIFMIS),

• Single Spine Pay Policy (SSPP) – Managed by Fair Wages and Salaries Commission???

• Labor Act 2003,

• Workmen’s Compensation Act 1987 (PNDCL 187).

The above listed titles or names of government policies or commissions or committees baffles a lot as such exist but yet economic crisis and downward trajectory of the countries human capital development [16]. What clearly happens in Ghana and Africa circumstance is life must go on and that is why people continue to exist with the root of wrong structures, polices, systems and unexplained processes in governance by governments.

Conclusion

Clearly there are no best policies in Human Resource Management (HRM) that can harness Ghana’s development from now into the future. Hazy and fuzzy systems built in just a short period in order to support human growth is not enough and also, most of these policies are supported by donor partners and if they don’t give support then no implementation and no action. It is not an easy task to want to rash to equate a developing nation to the advance countries as it is a big challenge and awkward position faced by African governments.

The government of Ghana must reconsider some of these commissions and engage proper professionals with the help of professional from the advanced international community to add their expert in accordance to the developing nation practices instead just dubbing policies from books or other sources with are not related whatsoever to the realities. Policies on paper in Ghana are too many but they are actually not policies in proper form of operation. Also, the professional body which is IHRMP in Ghana scope of operation or training is limited, in that, it works within and around governments and one wonder whether that body is condoning to what the government or public sector want or they are actually training and advising clients as a matter of professionalism, which is the hard system of HRM. It seems they are more into the traditional personnel management system of work rather than to be considered as a trusted body to move the nation’s human capital to the highest level. Divide and rule tactics is not Human Resource Management practice and so for that matter government must draw clear distinctions between political affiliation and the real practice of being a government to govern and employ good Human Resource Strategies for the better (Figure 2).

political-sciences-public-affairs-generic

Figure 2: Ghana’s Public Sector Generic HRM Conceptual Model.

This conceptual model must be separated from ministerial control. As it stands now, everything about the public sector HRM policy, strategies, structures, procedures and programmes of operation are truncated in practice and in a very confused state. There has been a misconception, misapplication and misdirection to the HRM terms and systems of HRM practice in Ghana. HRM is a professional set-up to comply with laws and policies established by the state but ironically, it appears that the HRM policy that the government of Ghana is establishing is considered as a legal frame by itself, which should not be the case. For example, LGS talks about protocol services, which is questionable. Protocol policies then what will HRM achieve? HRM is a practice where both innovation and discretion sometimes are needed and play together but the government policies are based on stringent laws and Acts, by which HRM should rather be operational application.

Meanwhile, Africans lack this practice because their systems of practice is winner takes all and divide and rule tactics, which kills the economy to a downward trajectory. Also, systems in the public sector governance must attract and be more competitive in terms of remuneration and benefits in order to attract good caliber and qualified talented people to serve the nation for development. Again, African countries lack these manners since pay systems are always in disarray and turbulent in nature at all times especially, in Ghana, the public sector wage bills is always reported higher than any other government project or programme that government is to pursue and these are the very clear challenges confronting developing nations not able to manage their own affairs as it was first proposed by Ghana first President, Dr. Kwame Nkrumah as he stated that black man is capable of managing his own affairs becomes day dreaming for Africans. Africans are not been able to manage their resources both human and non-human (Figure 3).

political-sciences-public-affairs-integrated

Figure 3: Generic Academic Integrated HRM Course Model.

In Ghana, we need to teach Integrated Human Resource Management (HRM), where national practices can be contrasted with the international or advance countries practice of HRM. Teaching mainly using foreign materials or knowledge is misapplication of the HRM practice. But using foreign materials or international HRM books should be done in contrast to the internal environment. This is because countries PEST (political, economic, social and technological) analysis of systems varies from developed country to the developing nation. Too many foreign materials will not take African’s far because you study what you cannot implement due to our culture and traditional norms of a State. Yes the world is described as global village but only true in terms of technological advancement from countries of origin. But in terms of HRM practices, it has to be done according to the behaviors, attitudes, characters and above all, social ethics of the society, which cannot just be replaced easily by foreign way of achieving human capital development.

Recommendation

From the reviews presented above, it is clear that for any country to achieve good governance in terms of HRM then it must put into practice and law of the theory of Handy [2] which states that employee society is on the wane, that new models are needed, new role models who will make life less frightening, even political society will have to make some changes so that the children of today will have something to sell to the world, so that the failures and suffering of today will not bring too much suffering or less frightening to the populace.

There is the need for African governments to stop interfering in the recruitment processes towards getting the right people for the job at the right time and in the right place for them to deliver good governance for the advancement of national development. Since the end results of HRM is to achieve good governance of the state. More so, it can be recommended that government needs to pay heed to not only sacking and appointing party members or supporters only from another party out of government but also must allow the already existing good caliber of qualified personnel to be retained in the civil service to exhibit their talents and experiences for nation building.

It can be recommended that Ghana’s practice of HRM is within the last 15 years which cannot be compared to the history of HRM in the developed world. And as such, with the current policies implies, Ghana is still battling with the traditional human resource management which has to do with managing staff objectives only. This is realistic because the economic policies and practices that are affected by politicization of the distribution of resources not vigorous in anyway achieving employment targets which is a huge burden and short charge on lack of proper HRM systems and policies in practice by compliance. It is also advisable that only professionally qualified and experienced HRM practitioners and staff work and heads the HRM Public Sector Offices to manage the human capital of the State without any government interference.

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