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Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review
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The Impacts of Guerrilla Marketing on Consumers Buying Behavior: A Case of Beverage Industry of Karachi

Saira Iqbal* and Samreen Lohdi

Jinnah University for Women, Karachi, Pakistan

Corresponding Author:
Saira Iqbal
Jinnah University for Women, Karachi, Pakistan
Tel: (92-21) 36620857-59
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: November 07, 2015; Accepted date: November 24, 2015; Published date: December 05, 2015

Citation: Iqbal S, Lohdi S (2015) The Impacts of Guerrilla Marketing on Consumers’ Buying Behavior: A Case of Beverage Industry of Karachi. Arabian J Bus Manag Review 6:184.

Copyright: © 2015 Iqbal S, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

In today’s competitive business environment customers always looks forward for the things that they have never observed before and anything which helps to obtain their attention by surprise and leaves a long period impact on their mind. Most of the flourishing businesses recognized the importance of customer’s lifetime value because customer satisfaction is observed as a key differentiator. Beverage industries tried their best to please their customers’ to stay alive in the Market place. Guerrilla marketing is one of the raising marketing techniques which consist a chain of strategies that can be applied with a little budget in the company. Guerrilla marketing is measured as an essential strategy for the survival and victory of Beverage industries across the world. The core purpose of this research paper was to examine the impacts of guerrilla marketing on consumers’ buying behavior in beverage industries of Karachi Pakistan. Guerrilla marketing has been taken as an independent variable were consumer buying behavior as a dependent variable and its sub-variables are loyalty, frequency of buying the same product and demand of buying the same product again and again. This research was quantitative in nature. The sample size was 204 and questionnaires were distributed randomly to get the data on primary level. The responses of the respondents were obtained both electronically and manually. With the help of SPSS frequency tables and pie charts were used to check the result. On the basis of findings it has been concluded that guerrilla marketing has a positive significant impacts on consumers’ buying behavior in beverage industries. As large number of respondents knows that guerrilla marketing is very effective and creative strategy which has the power to influence the consumer behavior towards any product or services.

Keywords

Guerrilla marketing; Consumer buying behavior; Customer satisfaction

Introduction

In today’s competitive business environment where businesses struggle for customers. Most of the flourishing companies recognized the importance of customer’s lifetime value because customer satisfaction is observed as a key differentiator. Advertising is the essential medium of communication which is used as a transformative mean and commercial tool all around the globe. Guerrilla marketing is one type of communication which contains the power to gets the customer concentration quicker than any other kind of advertising. It is greatly involved in the advertising world and providing a message for consumers that is very interactive and this practice has been engaged by many companies such as Nike, beverage industry which refers to the industry that manufactures drinks like coca-cola which is using guerrilla marketing strategies and been consistently flourishing throughout the year. Guerrilla marketing is an essential marketing technique which consist a chain of strategies that can be applied with a little budget in the company.

The spirit of any business accomplishment lies in its marketing. It is the practice by the help of which a product or a service is supported and introduce to the possible customers. The purpose of marketing is to collect and satisfy target customers wants and needs. The present marketing concept creates customers the center phase of organization efforts.

Customer is the blood of any organization and if there is no customer no businesses can exist for that mostly companies spend their lot of time to satisfy their customers by providing a quality product and services. Beverage industries tried their best to please their customers’ to stay alive in the Market place with the help of Guerrilla marketing strategy. Customer satisfaction is very important because a satisfied consumer is probably to drive more business back to the company. It also trends to increases the frequency of buying the same product and also increase the product demand which is an admirable forecaster of customer demand.

Customer Loyalty is an fundamental part of any business. Businesses make strong relationships with their loyal customers, as they buy their goods and services again and again. It can also bring new customers over the time and the customers which have a good relationships with companies tend to talk about their good experiences and they will attach to a brand because they trust the brand and the firm.

Problem statement

In today’s competitive business environment customers always looks forward for the things that they have never observed before and anything which helps to obtain their attention by surprise and leaves a long period impact on their mind. Companies should making efforts to satisfy their customers and influence their behavior towards any product or a service. In Pakistan, the part of guerrilla marketing in beverage industries and its significance to gain customer satisfaction is still unknown which created a need for further research. With the purpose of filling this space in studies this research will be examined the impacts of guerrilla marketing on consumers’ buying behavior in beverage industry of Karachi Pakistan.

Research questions

This research attends to get answers to the following questions:

To what degree guerrilla marketing manipulate consumer behavior?

Why the effects of guerilla marketing are faster and stronger than any other medium?

Significance of the study

This study was carried to gather information in an efficient way to recognize the impact of guerrilla marketing on consumer buying behavior. Relatively, just a small number of researches have been done on the impacts of guerrilla marketing on consumers’ buying behavior mostly in Karachi, Pakistan. After finishing this research will provide an essential way to identify the stimuli and how the target market responds to it and also what they need. This generates a new approach for companies to be able to support and endorse their product to their particular target markets in a better way, both internationally and locally. Moreover, it will serve as a basis of suggestion for the related future researches.

Limitations of the study

Moreover this research can be done further perfectly and precisely with more sample size because of the shortage of time and loads of burden limited this study to Karachi only. Other cities of Pakistan will also be considered in near future for obtaining more complete results. In addition, the respondent of this research is the consumers of Beverage Industry only. Indeed, the results of this study are barely globalized to other industry sectors as well.

Objectives of the study

The aim this research is to obtain the opinions of different individuals in Karachi city about the impacts of guerrilla marketing on consumers’ buying behavior. Therefore, the objectives of this research are:

To get insight knowledge of the entire concept of Guerrilla Marketing.

To evaluate and understand the advantages of Guerrilla Marketing.

To analyze the different practices involved in Guerrilla Marketing.

Scope of the study

The Scope of the research is to highlight the study on beverage industry sector that helps to determine the Impact of Guerrilla Marketing on Consumer Buying Behavior and that will also help to know the Marketing of Beverage products in Karachi City.

Literature Review

The Guerrilla campaign has greatly effects on brand image, brand attitude and purchase intension. Guerrilla marketing campaign is more credible and more creative than the traditional marketing campaign and perceived more amazing, comical and interest creating. A credible campaign contains a positive effect on brand attitude, as well as brand image and a campaign which creates word-of mouth has a positive effect on purchase intension and brand loyalty. If the campaign perceived as both creative campaign and credible campaign, it will make a positive effect on brand image, brand attitude and as well as buying intension [1].

Ahmad Nawaz [2] examined that Guerrilla advertising has a great impact on consumer buying behavior and it is suitable for all companies and instead of assumption, judgment and experience it should based upon psychology. Guerrilla Advertising is a popular marketing technique which is used in product marketing and that makes the use of unusual of unconventional ways of providing the product to the marketplace. The another growing technique used in Guerrilla Advertising is Stealth Marketing that includes a number of techniques such as celebrity marketing. Usually Celebrity Marketing is used by the Market leaders.

Bwisa [3] conducted a research in Machakos Country Kenya in which he considering that there is a relationship exists between guerrilla marketing and business growth. For the success and growth of business shops most of the proprietors used word of mouth marketing. Word of mouth is one of the most effective Marketing techniques which play a vital role to easily deliver the message and grape the attention of customers towards any product of services. To develop and retain a strong relationship with customers Marketers used WOM strategy. Experiential Marketing develop a connection in such a way that the customer respond to a result on the support of both rational and emotional feedback. Mostly Opinion leaders used Experiential marketing strategy to enhance the business growth. Internet is also the most powerful tool which is used by lots of the companies to obtain the relevant information and ignorance of this tool may be the reason of organizations backward.

According to Muhammad Ehsan Malik [4] advertisement have a significant impact on the consumer buying behavior as compared to consumer perception. The consumer perception has a positive but having weak impact on consumer buying behavior. Advertisement is the most effective tool of Marketing which plays an imperative role in the present age as it outline the perceptions and attitude of individuals and as well as society which usually manipulates the customers buying behavior along with advertisement. Moreover creativity and quality Advertisement also play a significant role to enhance the consumer buying behavior by given awareness about a product or a services and strong marketing strategies can develop a positive consumer perception.

Mohsin Shakeel [5] analyzed that the celebrity endorsement has a significant positive influence on consumer perception and it gives a positive compensation to companies. Celebrity endorsement is a type of advertising that employ well-known characters using their fame to grasp a high degree of trust, respect, recognition and awareness among the people regarding any product or a service. According to Miller [6] in this modern era, everyone is well aware about the manipulation of Marketing Communication in their lives. Guerrilla marketing can also be judge as Marketing Communication (MC) that has an essential impact on every kind of market. Generally direct marketing, and advertising through newspapers, TV and radio are used to gain the attention of the customers.

Packaging is an effective Marketing tool which plays an imperative role for portraying information about the product. Product packaging helps consumer by providing information as outside Packaging contains direction on how to use the product. It often the last impression the customer will have of the product before making the final decision. Packaging is the most powerful and valuable element which influence consumer buying behavior It is also confirm that the product quality and elements of packaging are the most significant factors while making a purchase decision. Marketers doing efforts to grasp the customer’s concentration and interest by making the packaging more suitable and eye-catching. This technique makes the people to become more demanding about the product [7].

According to Sonkusare [8] television is often the most convenient and flexible advertising media as it consider as the ruler of advertising media and as well as it also consider as the ruler of advertisement expenses. It has confirmed its command to manipulate individual behavior again and again. Television plays a great role to capture the attention and create preference of large audience so because of which most of the companies using television advertising to show their product and service. Television advertising has a significant impact on women customer’s buying behavior which means that it makes them aware about the information which they always gather before buying a product. There are many other factors which having a great impact on women buying behavior and those are word-of -mouth, social and personal factors.

Mehrdad Mahmooditavana [9] said that guerrilla marketing has a great effect on entrepreneurship development. Organizational entrepreneurship is very important factor for the success and growth of every organization. Establishing individual credibility and innovation are important tools for the economic progress of developing countries. Guerrilla marketing is a approach that facilitate the company to develop marketing entrepreneurship and get the maximum output in limited resources. Innovation, creation of job, technological level and technical knowledge are the most significant aspects of entrepreneurship development. To make the position for entrepreneurship development the advisors of apparel industry should concentrate on work flexibility and quickness and as well as employing strong consultants.

According to Muhammad Ehsan Malik [10] for the success and growth of any organization advertisement and brand image play a vital role. A strong brand image is a commanding asset because in this advance business era organization’s Brand image is as much important as the goods and service that the organization produced. An effective brand image always tells a story of the business which may help the customer to understand and analysis that what the company is all about. Brand image and advertisement has a strong positive relationship with consumer buying behavior as Brand image help to modify the buying behavior and the other element Advertisement is an effective source which helps to create awareness, convey the message and stay in the mind of customers.

Farouk [11] conducted a research in Egypt market in which he analyzed that Guerrilla marketing is a cost effective marketing technique which has a significant effects as compared to the traditional marketing. According to the research it is prove that guerrilla marketing is a unique and creative technique in marketing function which is usually used by companies to stimulate the customers towards the product. It is one of the best advertising strategy which can be used to enhance the functional values of the brand and create a competitive position in the present economic condition. While using Guerrilla Marketing its very necessary to consider the ethics of the business and the consumer culture.

According to Raju [12] advertising play a very efficient role in consumer decision making. Advertising is a type of communication which manipulate the viewers by providing a useful information about the product or a service which helps the customer to make a certain decision because mostly buyers act on the partial information in which they can faced unexpected risk. A buying decision can be measured as an optimization procedure which help the buyers to find the brand or a product that yield the maximum satisfaction.

Hafiz Muhammad Arshad [13] said that with the page of time the growth of mobile phones business in Pakistan are increasing day by day as the need for efficient advertising is also increased. Effective advertising helps to create the emotional responses which easily persuade their purchase behavior. The purchasing of mobile phones are raised time by time because advertisement is significantly influenced the consumer purchase behavior through the help of emotional and environmental response. As compared to environmental responses the emotional response has a significant impact because consumer want to buy those products that fully satisfy them and by which they are emotional attached.

Fazal Rehman [14] examined that the advertising is very necessary and effective strategy to attract the customer towards the product. The advertising have a positive and significant effects on the purchasing behavior as compared to the factors of rural areas which have a negative but important effects on the buying behavior of the consumer. It is the element of promotional mix to generate awareness and interest among the target audiences.

According to Achmad Yanu Alif Fianto [15] brand image has a great and positive impact on the purchasing behavior of the consumer as the brand trust has an arbitrating role from the relationship between brand image with purchasing behavior of the consumer. Brand trust is an essential component to developing the brand. Market competition offer functional attributes of the product itself but also linked with the brand that generate a special image for its customers and this have done specially in the service industry. To create the perception of quality it is very necessary that the gesture should be intrinsic or extrinsic which helps the brand to become more important and valuable.

Ghulam Shabbir Khan Niazi [16] analyzed that emotional response has a positive relationship with customer buying behavior and on the other hand there is no relationship among environmental response and consumer purchase behavior. As compared to environmental response mostly customers purchased products by emotional response. Customers usually purchase those product or service from which they are emotionally closed but in environmental response they doing unplanned shopping.

Methodology

In this part, the research paper discussed research model, research design, sample size, data collection procedures, statistical techniques and operational measures of variables used in the study.

Research model

After discussed the above literature review, we create the following research model for the study.

The above model Figure 1 shows that guerrilla marketing as an independent variable and Consumers’ buying behavior and its subvariables Loyalty, frequency of buying the same product and demand of buying the same product again and again are as dependent variables.

arabian-journal-business-management-review-Research-model

Figure 1: Research model.

Research design

The approach which was followed in this research was primary data collection through questionnaire. The sample size was 204. The answers were taken both electronically and manually. From which 20 were collected electronically while 184 were filled manually. The analysis was done on the basis of quantitative research approach. The SPSS software was being used to examine the Impacts of guerrilla marketing on consumers’ buying behavior.

Research source

The data of this study was based on primary data which is collected through questionnaires. Similarly secondary data is also been used to obtain a little help through different books and journals.

Data type

The data type used in this research was quantitative approach and all the questions in the questionnaire are closed ended. A five point Likert Scale starting from strongly agree to strongly disagree (1-5) was utilized for the study, as the major purpose of the study is to find t the impacts of guerrilla marketing on consumers’ buying behavior.

Sample size and sampling techniques

The sample size of the research paper was of 204. Questionnaire was used to collect responses from different respondents like Teachers, Students and officers. The answers were obtained both electronically and manually. From which 20 were collected electronically while 184 were filled manually. The questionnaire was consisted of 15 questions which are based on Likert scale and one option will be chosen by the respondent. Respondents were required to answer expeditiously and wisely as achievable.

Statistical techniques

For this study the Software SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science) has been used to analyzing the research data.

Variables

There are two variables Dependent and Independent variables. The independent variable of the study is Guerrilla Marketing and Dependent variable is Consumer Buying Behavior which is further divided into sub variables which are:

Loyalty

Frequency of buying

Demand of the same product

Data Analysis

Influence of gender

Table 1 shows the data of gender influence.

  Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Female 162 79.4 79.4 79.4
Male 42 20.6 20.6 100
Total 204 100 100  

Table 1: Influence of gender.

Interpretation: The Pie chart representation in Figure 2 shows that 204 respondents was answered the questionnaire. Out of 204 respondents 79% of these were females which are in a very large number and 21% of these were males which are in a very small number.

arabian-journal-business-management-review-gender-influence

Figure 2: Pie chart representation of gender influence.

Guerrilla marketing is very effective for the promotional purpose

Table 2 shows the data of guerrilla marketing-promotional purpose.

  Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly agree 40 19.6 19.6 19.6
Agree 116 56.9 56.9 76.5
Neutral 38 18.6 18.6 95.1
Disagree 10 4.9 4.9 100.0
Total 204 100.0 100.0  

Table 2: Guerrilla marketing-promotional purpose.

Interpretation: Out of 204 respondents 19% respondents are Strongly Agree, 57% respondents are Agree, 19% respondents are Neutral and only 5% respondents are disagree. The pie chart representation Figure 3 shows that Guerrilla marketing is an effective technique for promotional purpose because promotions helps to increasing customer awareness of a brand or a product, building brand loyalty and making sales. It may have a number reasons depending on the requirements of the organization. It covers a range of practices by which the businesses communicates with their potential customers and it makes ensure that the target audience can recognized and get the messages accurately.

arabian-journal-business-management-review-marketing-promotional

Figure 3: Pie chart representation of guerrilla marketing-promotional purpose.

Guerrilla marketing relies on word of mouth marketing

Table 3 shows the data of Guerrilla marketing-word of mouth marketing.

  Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly agree 42 20.6 20.6 20.6
Agree 86 42.2 42.2 62.7
Neutral 55 27.0 27.0 89.7
Disagree 19 9.3 9.3 99.0
Strongly disagree 2 1.0 1.0 100.0
Total 204 100.0 100.0  

Table 3: Guerrilla marketing-word of mouth marketing.

Interpretation: Out of 204 respondents 21% respondents are Strongly Agree, 42% respondents are Agree, 27% respondents are Neutral, 9% respondents are disagree and only 1% respondents are Strongly Disagree. This pie chart representation in Figure 4 shows that Guerrilla Marketing relies heavily on Word of Mouth Marketing because most of the respondents knows that word of mouth marketing is the most influential type of marketing. Now a day’s many companies utilize word of mouth marketing strategy to make their customer base as people constantly talked about their wants, emotions, practices and also talked about product, services and brands.

arabian-journal-business-management-review-marketing-word

Figure 4: Pie chart representation of guerrilla marketing-word of mouth marketing.

Social media influence the usability of guerrilla marketing

Table 4 shows the data of guerrilla marketing- social media influence.

  Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly agree 54 26.5 26.5 26.5
Agree 86 42.2 42.2 68.6
Neutral 46 22.5 22.5 91.2
Disagree 17 8.3 8.3 99.5
Strongly disagree 1 .5 .5 100.0
Total 204 100.0 100.0  

Table 4: Guerrilla marketing-social media influence.

Interpretation: Out of 204 respondents 26% respondents are Strongly Agree, 42% respondents are Agree, 23% respondents are Neutral, 8% respondents are disagree and only 1% respondents are Strongly Disagree. The pie chart representation in Figure 5 shows that social media has become a major part of businesses today. It helps to find out new customers and making efforts to helps target audience more efficiently. As social media influence the usability of Guerrilla marketing because it is very useful for creating significant relationships with the customers and help the companies to increase their brand awareness.

arabian-journal-business-management-review-marketing-social

Figure 5: Pie chart representation of guerrilla marketing-social media influence.

Trust has a positive influence on customer loyalty

Table 5 shows the data of positive significant influence on customer loyalty.

  Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly agree 83 40.7 40.7 40.7
Agree 95 46.6 46.6 87.3
Neutral 20 9.8 9.8 97.1
Disagree 3 1.5 1.5 98.5
Strongly disagree 3 1.5 1.5 100.0
Total 204 100.0 100.0  

Table 5: Positive significant influence on customer loyalty.

Interpretation: Out of 204 respondents 41% respondents are Strongly Agree, 47% respondents are Agree, 10% respondents are Neutral, 1% respondents are disagree and only 1% are Strongly Disagree. The pie chart representation in Figure 6 shows that trust has a positive significant influence on customer loyalty. customer trust play an important role in the success of businesses. Most of the companies are failed to concentrate on fulfilling the promises that they offered to the customers and because of which customer do not buy the product or services from the company they do not trust. It is true that building trust takes time and needs a lot of hard work. So it is very necessary for the companies to fulfill their promises and making efforts to gain the customer trust.

arabian-journal-business-management-review-positive-significant

Figure 6: Pie chart representation of positive significant influence on customer loyalty.

Customer loyalty leads frequency of buying the same product

Table 6 shows the data of customer loyalty leads frequency of buying the same product.

  Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly agree 49 24.0 24.0 24.0
Agree 102 50.0 50.0 74.0
Neutral 43 21.1 21.1 95.1
Disagree 10 4.9 4.9 100.0
Total 204 100.0 100.0  

Table 6: Customer loyalty leads frequency of buying the same product.

Interpretation: Out of 204 respondents 24% respondents are Strongly Agree, 50% respondents are Agree, 5% respondents are Neutral and 21% respondents are disagree. This pie chart representation in Figure 7 shows that customer loyalty leads the frequency of buying the same product again and again. Customer Loyalty is an fundamental part of any business. Businesses make strong relationships with their loyal customers and it also help to bring a new customers over the time and the customers which have a good relationships with companies tend to talk about their good experiences and they will attach to a band because they trust the brand.

arabian-journal-business-management-review-loyalty-leads

Figure 7: Pie chart representation of customer loyalty leads frequency of buying the same product.

Customer satisfaction as a major determinant of loyalty

Table 7 shows the data of customer satisfaction as a major determinant of loyalty.

  Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly agree 69 33.8 33.8 33.8
Agree 94 46.1 46.1 79.9
Neutral 37 18.1 18.1 98.0
Disagree 4 2.0 2.0 100.0
Total 204 100.0 100.0  

Table 7: Customer satisfaction as a major determinant of loyalty.

Interpretation: Out of 204 respondent 34% respondents are strongly agree, 46% respondents are agree, 18% respondents are neutral and only 2% respondents are disagree. The pie chart representation in Figure 8 shows that customer satisfaction is very important because a satisfied consumer is probably to drive more business back to the company. Mostly companies spend their lot of time to satisfy their customers by providing a quality product and services. Customer satisfaction is considered as a major determinant of loyalty as loyal customers buy the goods and services again and again.

arabian-journal-business-management-review-customer-satisfaction

Figure 8: Pie chart representation of customer satisfaction as a major determinant of loyalty.

Influence of guerrilla marketing on consumer buying behavior

Table 8 shows the data of guerrilla marketing on consumer buying behavior.

  Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly agree 76 37.3 37.3 37.3
Agree 97 47.5 47.5 84.8
Neutral 28 13.7 13.7 98.5
Disagree 3 1.5 1.5 100.0
Total 204 100.0 100.0  

Table 8: Guerrilla marketing on consumer buying behavior.

Interpretation: Out of 204 respondents 37% respondents are strongly agree, 47% respondents are agree, 14% respondents are neutral and only 1% respondents are disagree. The pie chart representation in Figure 9 shows guerrilla marketing on consumer buying behavior. The representation of this statement is essential for the study of the research. According to the result the pie chart shows that majority of respondent knows that guerrilla marketing has a significant impact on consumers’ buying behavior as most of the respondents knows that guerrilla marketing is a very effective and creative strategy which has the ability to influence the consumers ‘behavior towards any product or services. It is measured as an essential strategy for the survival and success of businesses. On the other hand social media and word of mouth marketing are very significant and has influence on the usability of guerrilla marketing. Moreover the chart also entails that consumer buying behavior can be improved with the rich customer loyalty and innovative advertisements and by making positive consumer behavior through strong marketing techniques such as guerrilla marketing which play a vital role to influence customers towards any product or a service in a very unique way. Customer always want something different and something creative and this need is fulfilled by guerrilla marketing once the customer is satisfied it shows loyalty and buying the same product frequently, in short its demand for the product will be increased.

arabian-journal-business-management-review-guerrilla-marketing

Figure 9: Pie chart representation of guerrilla marketing on consumer buying behavior.

Conclusion

The mission of marketing today is not to disrupt and convince but to connect, satisfy and motivate the customers. Beverage industry needs to make people attentive of how they recognized and meet their necessities. The main purpose of this research paper was to examine the impacts of guerrilla marketing on consumers’ buying behavior. guerrilla marketing has been taken as an independent variable were consumer buying behavior as a dependent variable and its subvariables are loyalty, frequency of buying the same product and demand of buying the same product again and again. The quantitative research approach was carried. With the help of SPSS frequencies and pie charts were used to analyzed the result of the questionnaire. On the basis of findings and it is also valid with the help of above literature review we can conclude that guerrilla marketing has an significant impacts on consumers’ buying behavior as large number of respondents knows that guerrilla marketing is a very effective and creative strategy which has the ability to influence the consumer buying behavior towards any product or services. Moreover, the study also entails that consumer buying behavior can be improved with the rich customer loyalty and innovative advertisements and by making positive consumer behavior through the help of a strong marketing techniques such as guerrilla marketing. Customer always wants something different and something creative and this need is fulfilled by guerrilla marketing. Once the customer is satisfied they shows loyalty and buying the same product frequently, in short its demand for the product will be increased. On the other side the result also shows that now a day’s social media and word of mouth marketing is very significant and has influence on the usability of guerrilla marketing. The result also revealed that trust has a great influence on customer loyalty as it is the fundamental part of any business. Businesses make strong relationships with their loyal customers as they help to increase the frequency of buying the same product. Secondly customer satisfaction is also an important aspect which is considered as a major determinant of customer loyalty which help to increases the customer demand for the similar product again and again.

Recommendations

Due to the positive impact and increasingly growing Market need, we would like to put ahead the following recommendations:

Guerrilla marketing should be modified as a conventional marketing strategy.

Beverage industry should generate local campaigns planned to meet the culture.

Campaigns which are unconventional within guerrilla marketing should use to build more consciousness.

Marketers should expand the understanding of guerrilla marketing.

This research is performed in beverage industry sector of Karachi and can be done more accurately but the shortage of time limited to Karachi only. Therefore for generalization of these findings, it is very essential for the future researcher to do this research by using other sectors like food industry and other FMCG companies as well as make sure to keep the other cities of the Pakistan because of in near future they will be more considerable to obtain comprehensive result.

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