Northeastern State University, College of Business and Technology, Department of Business Administration, 700 N. Grand Ave, Tahlequah, OK 74464, USA.
Accepted date: April 4, 2012; Published date: April 20, 2012
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The present research investigates the effects of personality traits, such as self-efficacy and locus of control, on job satisfaction. It also examines the mediating impact of goal commitment on relationships between personality and job satisfaction. The results indicate that both self-efficacy and locus of control are positively associated with goal commitment. In addition, locus of control is found positively related to job satisfaction. However, self-efficacy does not have the same positive relationship with job satisfaction. The study further confirms the mediating effect of goal commitment on relationships between personality traits and job satisfaction.
Self-efficacy; locus of control; goal commitment; job satisfaction.
Prior studies of employees’ attitudes such as job satisfaction mostly focus on the measures of attitudes about work environment (i.e. job itself, supervisors, promotion, payment, and coworkers). In recent years increasing attention has been given to the factors of individual characteristics on employees’ attitudes. These factors, called personality traits, are also suggested to affect job satisfaction . Empirical support for the personality traits with respect to job satisfaction is also provided by researchers [2, 3]. As House, Shane, and Herold  note in their review of personality traits literature, affective disposition is only one of many traits that can and should be studied. Chiu and Francesco  present a cognitive model that explores the effects of positive affectivity and negative affectivity on work motivation and the mediating effects of perceptions of pay and job satisfaction on this relationship.
Different from previous studies, this study chooses self-efficacy and locus of control as the independent variables, which shed light on personality traits in the hopes of finding the best measures that predict job satisfaction. Further, this study extends the research by correlating job satisfaction and personality traits with goal commitment. One’s personality has been linked to job satisfaction [5-7] and organizational commitment [8, 9]. This study investigates personality traits of self-efficacy and locus of control. Additionally, this study examines the impact of self-efficacy and locus of control on goal commitment and job satisfaction.
The organization of the study is as follows: the next section contains a literature review of the constructs of self-efficacy, locus of control, goal commitment, and job satisfaction. The relationships among the variables are discussed and a conceptual model is proposed based on the discussion. It is followed by the discussion of research methodology applied in this study and finally, results are presented and interpretations of the findings are discussed.
Both goal commitment and job satisfaction are two attitudes in this study. Research has found that both goal commitment and job satisfaction are related to a person’s disposition such as self-efficacy and locus of control [10-12]. The more involved the individuals, the more committed they are. Additionally, job satisfaction and goal commitment are interrelated. The greater efforts individuals commit into their goal, the greater positive impact on job performance, which leads to higher job satisfaction . Therefore, I expect that self-efficacy and locus of control will have positive relationship with job satisfaction and the relationships are mediated by goal commitment. The research model investigated in this study is shown in Figure 1. Each construct involved in the research model and hypotheses are discussed below.
2.1. Self-efficacy, goal commitment, and job satisfaction
Self-efficacy is an individual’s belief in his or her capacity to mobilize the cognitive, motivational, and behavioral resources needed to meet given situational demands . In this study, I use general self-efficacy which is conceptualized as a relatively stable generalized belief that an individual can marshal the resources needed to deal with the challenges that he or she experiences . Because general self-efficacy is typically viewed as reflecting one’s perceptions of one’s fundamental ability to cope with life’s exigencies, it represents a core self-evaluation, and is a trait-like belief in one’s competence .
Self-efficacy and goals are widely investigated as two of the more important constructs in psychology and management [10, 15]. Self-efficacy includes all factors that would lead one to believe that she or he will perform well on the task. Locke and Latham  note that self-efficacy can affect the attractiveness of goals. Individuals with high level self-efficacy have incentives for higher performance, and are more likely to increase their subjective estimates of the probability that they can achieve those levels of performance. It is found that self-efficacy influences an individual’s initial choice of activities and tasks and his or her coping efforts while engaged in these tasks .
Self-efficacy is also observed to be strongly related to performance . Bandura  argues that self-efficacy not only influences mood, but also predicts the future behavior. It is viewed as having generative capability: it influences thought patterns, emotional reactions, and the orchestration of performance through the adroit use of subskills, ingenuity, resourcefulness, and so forth. Other empirical researchers also support that self-efficacy is correlated with performance and behavior [12, 18]. Those who have high self-efficacy and believe that they can meet their goals are more likely to work harder toward setting goal, and achieve higher achievement, therefore, will have higher level of job satisfaction.
H1a: Self-efficacy is positively associated with goal commitment.
H1b: Self-efficacy is positively associated with job satisfaction.
2.2. Locus of control, goal commitment, and job satisfaction
Locus of control is the degree to which people believe that their actions influence what happens to them . It is a personality measure that indicates the extent to which people believe that they have control over what happens to them in life. Individuals with high internal locus of control (internals) believe that what happens to them, good or bad, is largely a result of their choices and actions. Individuals with high external locus of control (externals), on the other hand, believe that what happens to them is caused by external forces outside of their control. Locus of control is another personality trait that is expected to be related to goal commitment and job attitudes . Compared with self-efficacy, which emphasizes more on confidence with respect to actions or behaviors, locus of control, focuses more on confidence in being able to control outcomes.
Locus of control represents a belief in oneself relative to one’s environment . Individuals with high internal locus of control have a strong desire of control, and this motivation represents the ascription of a positive valence to the goal of feeling . Internals believe that the outcomes depend on their actions and believe that their words and actions typically will have great effect on their outcomes, therefore, will put more efforts in their job . Previous researchers also found the mediating effect between one’s disposition and organizational commitment . Lim and Teo  find that internals tend to have higher level of organizational commitment than externals. In general, internals are more likely to adopt proactive, problem-solving means to change the environment, and more likely to engage in goal-directed activities [22, 23]. Thus, it would be expected that internals would have higher goal commitment.
Previous studies also show that locus of control is strongly related to job satisfaction [20, 21, 24]. Internals are found to have a strong belief that outcomes such as rewards are under their control . “Cognitive consistency theory would predict that individuals who have perceived personal control to leave the situation and who choose to stay will tend to reevaluate the situation favorably to retain consistency between their attitudes and behavior” [23, p490]. The main reason why internals are more satisfied with their jobs is that they have the ability to control situations.
H2a: Locus of control is positively associated with goal commitment.
H2b: Locus of control is positively associated with job satisfaction.
2.3. Goal commitment and job satisfaction
Goal commitment is defined by Locke & Latham  as one’s determination to reach a goal. Within goal theory, goal commitment has been identified as a critical condition since a goal will not generate motivation to improve the performance if there is no commitment in it . Studies on goals normally treat goals as predictors of performance. The basic finding from the goal theory is that under certain condition, specific difficult goals can lead to higher levels of performance . Commitment is one of the most cited conditions or elements necessary to hold the relationship between the goal and performance . Steers  suggests that goal commitment may be predictable from the degree to which attainment of the goal is perceived to be instrumental in the acquisition of various other attractive outcomes. This is in line with Lock & Latham’s argument. Oklham’s  finding of the positive relationship between goal attainment and goal commitment also reinforces this position. Locke & Latham’s  definition of goal commitment is consistent with the current conceptualization of the construct within goal theory. It implies the intention of extending effort toward goal attainment, persistence in pursuing that goal over time, and an unwillingness to lower or give up that goal.
Goal commitment and job satisfaction have been found to be significantly related to each other. Job satisfaction is defined as “a collection of feelings that an individual holds toward his or her job” , or more specific, a pleasurable feeling that arises from one’s workplace . Most work in job satisfaction regards its relationship to job performance. Some find the relationship is strong , some find it is weak . Although both goal commitment and job satisfaction are attitudes, they are regarded as two separate constructs. An individual in a state of high goal commitment is more likely to invest personal resources to promote the goal, and less likely to search for job alternatives outside the organization . High commitment expresses willingness to contribute to the environment as part of a belief in common values and goals . Studies also find that an employee who feels committed to the organization’s goals may have an easier time managing conflicting demands , therefore, will have a better performance which finally leads to satisfaction.
There is ongoing debate about the direction of the relationship between goal commitment and job satisfaction. Some researchers argue that satisfaction is an antecedent of commitment [34, 35]. Some claim that commitment is the cause of satisfaction [32, 33]. Still a third position regards the relationship as a reciprocal one [36, 37]. However, according to literature review, goal commitment is found more strongly related to personalities. Both self-efficacy and locus of control are directly positively related to goal commitment [11, 16], and self-efficacy is indirectly related to job satisfaction . Therefore, I expected that personalities’ effects on job satisfaction are mediated by goal commitment.
H3: Goal commitment is positively associated with job satisfaction.
This research design was a field study using survey methodology. The sample consisted of 224 students in a university in the southwest United States. A total of 219 usable responses were obtained. The response rate is 98%. The survey questionnaires were passed before the class began. Minimal extra credit was offered in some classes to encourage participation. The students were explained that all the results will be examined in the aggregate, and no respondent’s name or other information will be published. Participation is completely voluntary. Data were collected on site after the class, respondents were promised anonymity, and asked to return the questionnaires directly to the researcher. The sample distribution was as follows: 62% of participants were male, 38% were female. 61.3% were senior, 19.8% were junior, 11.7% were sophomore, 5.9% were freshman and 1.4% were graduate students. 79.7% were below 25 years of age, 14.9% were between 25 and 30, and 5.4% were above 30 year of age. 37.8% had working experience range from 1-3 years, 38.2% had experience for 3-12 years, 17.8% totally had no working experience, and 6.2% had experience less than one year or longer than 12 years.
All measures used in the survey were collected with a five-point Likert type scale ranging from 1-strongly disagrees to 5-strongly agree. Content validity is examined based on the logic and theory to make sure that the domains of content were reflected. Measurement items were adapted from established measures. A literature review provided a pool of items for measuring self-efficacy, locus of control, goal commitment, and job satisfaction. A pilot study was employed to improve content validity and clarity.
Self-efficacy was measured with items adapted from Chen et al. . This new instrument is developed based on Sherer and Adams’s  17-item measure that have been used or cited by more than 200 published studies . The new instrument is demonstrated internally consistent and stable. Compared with the old one, the new scale is one-dimensional, consistently yielded appreciably higher content validity and somewhat higher predictive validity compared with the old scale. In addition, the new scale is shorter than the old one, which makes it more appealing measure for use in this study. Participants were told that self-efficacy relates to one’s estimate of one’s overall ability to perform successfully in a wide variety of achievement situations, or to how confident one is that she or he can perform effectively across different tasks and situations (e.g. “Compare to other people, I can do most tasks very well.” “I believe I can succeed at most any endeavor to which set my mind.”). Cronbach’s alpha for self-efficacy scale was 0.84.
Locus of control
Locus of control was measured with items adapted from Spector . Spector used a large sample that consists of 1165 subjects to test the instrument and the results suggest that the scale is a viable scale with internal consistency and solid validation. The scale assesses the generalized expectancy that rewords, reinforcements or outcomes in life are controlled by one’s own actions (internality) or by other forces (externality). Participants were asked to respond to statements such as “Getting the job you want is mostly a matter of luck”, “People who perform their jobs well generally get rewarded for it.” Cronbach’s alpha for locus of control was 0.77.
Goal commitment was measured with items adapted from Klein et al. . Goal commitment was typically left unmeasured or measured with a single item. This new scale pulls together previously used single item measures of goal commitment and the results suggest that this scale is a psychometrically sound, construct relevant, robust, and widely generalizable measure of one’s determination to reach a goal. Participants were asked to response statements about the overall goal in their work such as “It’s hard to take this goal seriously,” “It wouldn’t take much to make me abandon this goal.” Cronbach’s alpha for goal commitment was 0.72.
Job satisfaction was measured with five items taken from Brayfield-Rothe  model of overall job satisfaction. These five items were “I fell fairly well satisfied with my present job,” “Most days I am enthusiastic about my work,” “Each day of work seems like it will never end” (reverse scored), “I find real enjoyment in my work,” and “I consider my job rather unpleasant’ (reverse scored). Cronbach’s alpha for this scale was 0.85.
3.3. Statistical analysis
I used SEM approach to validate the research model. According to Anderson and Gerbing , this approach has ability to test casual relationships between constructs with multiple measurement items and a two-step approach is highly encouraged for applying SEM. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to examine the reliability and validity of the measurement model, and the structural model was analyzed to test the associations hypothesized in the research model.
I first conducted an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to clean the factor loading. As a conservative heuristic, items with factor loading below 0.40 were eliminated. This rule is used when the sample size is over 200 . In addition, Kaiser’s  eigenvalue-one criterion was used to identify the number of factors.
Then, to examine construct reliability, convergent validity and discriminant validity, I conducted a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) since CFA provides more rigorous interpretation of reliability, validity and unidimensionality than does EFA . I used coefficient alpha for the questions of each construct to assess the internal consistency reliability of the instrument. The Cronbach’s alpha values were tested for each construct . Convergent validity assesses the degree to which multiple attempts to measure the same concept are in agreement. It is valued by examining the factor loading within each construct. So, if the factor loadings are significant (p < 0.01), the convergent validity is confirmed. Discriminant validity evaluates the degree to which the measures of different concepts are distinct. It can be examined by comparing the squared correlations between constructs and variance extracted for a construct . If the square correlations for each construct are less than the variance, extracted by their indicators measuring that construct, it indicates that the measure has adequate discriminant validity.
I also used LISREL 8.72 to construct the measurement and structural equation models. Following the recommendations by Mulaik et al. , the following fit indices were included in this study: chi-squared statistic, goodness of fit index (GFI), adjusted goodness of fit index (AGFI), comparative fit index (CFI), parsimony normed fit index (PNFI), normed fit index (NFI), non-normed fit index (NNFI), and root-mean-square error of approximation index (RMSEA). Except RMSEA and AGFI, which require greater than 0.8 and blow 0.08 separately, all the other indices value should by equal to or greater than 0.9 to accept the model.
4.1. Assessing reliability and validity
First, I used exploratory factor analysis to determine which items should contribute to self-efficacy and locus of control. These results (see Table 1.1 & Table 1.2) demonstrate that the questions comprising the test are internally consistent. I used Crohbach’s alpha to test the reliability. All the scales have alphas greater than the suggested cutoff of 0.7  with the lowest reliability being 0.72 for goal commitment.
|SE2 When facing difficult tasks, I am certain that I will accomplish them.||0.761||Self-efficacy|
|SE3 In general, I think that I can obtain outcomes that are important to me.||0.708|
|SE4 I believe I can succeed at most any endeavor to which I set my mind.||0.710|
|SE5 I will be able to successfully overcome many challenges.||0.780|
|SE6 I am confident that I can perform effectively on many different tasks.||0.753|
|SE 7 Compared to other people, I can do most tasks very well.||0.705|
|LOC6 Making money is primarily a matter of good fortune.||0.682||Locus of control|
|LOC8 In order to get a really good job you need to have family members or
friends in high places.
|LOC9 Promotions are usually a matter of good fortune.||0.792|
|LOC11 It takes a lot of luck to be an outstanding employee on most jobs.||0.669|
|LOC14 The main difference between people who make a lot of money and
people who make a little money is luck.
|% of variance explained (total = 55.4%)||31.172||24.228|
Table 1.1: Rotated Factor Structure, Descriptive Statistics, and Cronbach's Alpha Scores: Self-efficacy, Locus of control.
|GC5 I am strongly committed to pursuing this goal.||0.812||Goal Commitment|
|GC7 I think this is a good goal to shoot for.||0.813|
|GC8 I am willing to put forth a great deal of effort beyond what I’d normally do to achieve this goal.||0.769|
|JS1 I feel fairly well satisfied with my present job.||0.810||Job Satisfaction|
|JS2 Most days I’m enthusiastic about my work.||0.857|
|JS3 Each day of work seems like it will never end.||0.668|
|JS4 I find real enjoyment in my work.||0.827|
|JS5 I consider my job rather unpleasant.||0.751|
|% of variance explained (total = 63.829%)||39.123||24.707|
Table 1.2: Items measuring goal commitment and job satisfaction.
I then examined the inter-item correlation to assess the convergent and discriminant validity . Test for discriminant validity were conducted at the intern-level, and the results show that item loadings on their relevant factor are generally higher than their loadings on the other different factors. The correlations for a particular item and any other item within the factor are higher than the correlations of that item and all items outside the factor. In addition the Cronbach’s alpha values indicated in the diagonal elements in Table 2 are higher than the off-diagonal correlation coefficients. The 95% confidence interval of the inter-factor correlation between two latent variables was further applied to assess the discriminant validity. Although some of the correlation coefficients are high, their confidence intervals don’t include the absolute value of 1.0, which supports the discriminant validity of these constructs as well . These evidences indicate that high levels of discriminant and convergent validity exist among the constructs.
|M||SD||Self- efficacy||Locus of control||Goal commitment||Job satisfaction|
|Locus of control||3.76||0.641||0.296**||0.766|
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2 tailed).
N=219; Cronbach’s alphas are on the diagonal.
Table 2: Intercorrelations of latent variables.
The correlations for each factor are high and are significant at p < 0.01 indicating good convergence. The results are reported in Table 2. The significance of this correlation also partially supports the hypotheses in this study since the correlation is significant between self-efficacy and goal commitment, locus of control and goal commitment, locus of control and job satisfaction, and goal commitment and job satisfaction.
Based on above analyses, I employed confirmatory factor analysis to assess the unidimensionality of each latent variable. I checked the unidimensionality of a concept by comparing models in structural equation modeling. According to Anderson and Gerbing , I first estimated the separate measurement model for each factor, and then, constructed the measurement model for all the factors. During each step, I also used goodness-of-fit test to assess whether the model fits the data. I ran the measurement models representing self-efficacy, locus of control separately. All goodness-of-fit indices indicated an acceptable fit. I then ran the measurement model combine all the factors, which can also evaluate the convergent and discriminant validity. As Olorunniwo et al.  suggest that if the t-value of each item is greater than 2, it means that the loadings of these items on their respective factors are significant. The results showed in Table 3.1 and 3.2 suggest that all indicators provide good measures of their respective constructs. The results of goodness-of-fit indices for exogenous constructs are: RMSEA =0.066, NFI = 0.94, CFI = 0.97, GFI = 0.94, PNFI = 0.73, and AGFI = 0.90. The results of goodness-of-fit indices for endogenous constructs are: RMSEA =0.096, NFI = 0.93, CFI = 0.95, GFI = 0.94, PNFI = 0.63, and AGFI = 0.89.
|Construct and Indicators||Loading||t-value a|
|SE2 When facing difficult tasks, I am certain that I will accomplish them.||0.67||8.35*|
|SE3 In general, I think that I can obtain outcomes that are important to me.||0.72||8.79*|
|SE4 I believe I can succeed at most any endeavor to which I set my mind.||0.68||8.46*|
|SE5 I will be able to successfully overcome many challenges.||0.73||_b|
|SE6 I am confident that I can perform effectively on many different tasks.||0.70||8.64*|
|SE 7 Compared to other people, I can do most tasks very well.||0.65||8.11*|
|Locus of Control|
|LOC6 Making money is primarily a matter of good fortune.||0.70||8.82*|
|LOC8 In order to get a really good job you need to have family members or friends in high places.||0.54||7.1*|
|LOC9 Promotions are usually a matter of good fortune.||0.75||_b|
|LOC11 It takes a lot of luck to be an outstanding employee on most jobs.||0.59||7.66*|
|LOC14 The main difference between people who make a lot of money and people who make a little money is luck.||0.59||7.62*|
a t values are from unstandardized solution.
b t values are unavailable because the loadings are fixed for scaling purposes.
GFI for this structural equation modeling: χ2=83.34, df=43, p-value=.0000, GFI=0.94, AGFI=0.90,
RMSEA=0.066, NFI=0.94, CFI=0.97, PNFI=0.73.
Table 3.1: Overall Confirmatory Analysis Model for Self-efficacy and Locus of Control.
|Goal Commitment||Loading||t-value a|
|GC5 I am strongly committed to pursuing this goal.||0.76||_b|
|GC7 I think this is a good goal to shoot for.||0.67||7.78*|
|GC8 I am willing to put forth a great deal of effort beyond what I’d normally do to achieve this goal.||0.64||7.55*|
|JS1 I feel fairly well satisfied with my present job.||0.77||12.57*|
|JS2 Most days I’m enthusiastic about my work.||0.85||_b|
|JS3 Each day of work seems like it will never end.||0.55||8.37*|
|JS4 I find real enjoyment in my work.||0.81||13.3*|
|JS5 I consider my job rather unpleasant.||0.63||10.14*|
a t values are from unstandardized solution.
b t values are unavailable because the loadings are fixed for scaling purposes.
GFI for this structural equation modeling: χ2=57.34, df=19, p-value=.00001, GFI=0.84, AGFI=0.89, RMSEA=0.096, NFI=0.93, CFI=0.95, PNFI=0.63.
Table 3.2: Overall Confirmatory Analysis Model for Goal Commitment and Job Satisfaction.
I further assessed the chi-square difference between the constrained model and unconstrained model. As each pair of factors was restricted to zero in the constrained model, the change in chi-square can test the significance of the model since it represents the effect of moving the pair of factors. In my study, the significant chi-square difference (all χ2 differences are significant at p-value of 0.01) also confirmed the discriminant validity.
4.2. Testing the structural model
Standardized paths and various model-fit indices are shown in Figure 2. The overall model fit statistics indicate that the sample data fit the hypothesized model well. The observed normed χ 2 (the ratio between χ 2 and the degree of freedom) was 1.86 (χ 2 =271.40, df = 146), which is smaller than three recommended by Bagozzi and Yi . Other fit indices also show good fit for the structural model. The goodness-of-fit index is 0.89, which exceed the recommended cutoff level of 0.8 . The comparative fit index is 0.95 and normed fit index is 0.90, which also exceed the recommended cutoff level of 0.9 . Additionally, the root mean square error of approximation is 0.048, which is below the cutoff level of 0.08 recommended by Browne and Cudeck  and Mulaik et al. . Different from χ2 that is sensitive to the sample size (χ 2 value usually is significant when sample size exceeds 200), RMSEA is not dependent on sample size. This value verified the good fit. In summary, the hypothesized research model exhibited a fairly good fit with the data collected.
Hypotheses 1a and 1b suggest that self-efficacy is positively associated with goal commitment and job satisfaction. The test results support H1a (γ = 0.63, p < 0.01) and H1b is not supported (γ =0.15, p > 0.01), which means that self-efficacy is positively correlated with goal commitment, and it is not significant at level of 0.01 although the result suggests a positive correlation between self-efficacy and job satisfaction. Hypotheses 2a and 2b state that locus of control is positively related to goal commitment and job satisfaction. Both hypotheses are supported as estimated, which indicates that locus of control is an overall drive of goal commitment (γ = 0.45, p < 0.01) and job satisfaction (γ = 0.33, p < 0.01). Hypothesis 3 is also supported. The results show that goal commitment is positively related to job satisfaction (γ = 0.41, p < 0.01), which means that the more individuals committed into their overall job goal, the more they will satisfy with their job. All the standardized paths and various model-fit indices are shown in Figure 2.
The present research confirms the relationship between goal commitment and job satisfaction. Obviously, employees committed to organization’s overall goal tend to be satisfied. The finding of goal commitment and job satisfaction is consistent with prior work that goal commitment is a predictor of job satisfaction [30, 32, 33]. It would seem that employees that are high on goal commitment are more likely to be satisfied.
Further, there is a relationship between self-efficacy and goal commitment. The finding that self-efficacy is positively related to goal commitment is in line with previous studies [15, 16]. That is, the more individuals believe that they will perform well on the task, the more efforts they will put in the goal and to accomplish that goal.
The finding that goal commitment and locus of control are related is consistent with prior research that shows internals tend to have higher goal commitment . Leone & Burns  find that internals are more confident about their actions and believe the more efforts they put the greater outcomes they will achieve. This study confirms that internals are more committed to goals than externals.
With regard to job satisfaction, this study supports that one’s personality is related to job satisfaction. This study is consistent with prior work that shows self-efficacy, conscientiousness, and extraversion to be correlated with self-assessments of job satisfaction . However, this study extends previous work in the investigation of the relationships of personality, goal commitment, and job satisfaction.
Overall, the results indicate that self-efficacy and locus of control are positively related to goal commitment. Goal commitment is positively associated with job satisfaction. In addition, locus of control is found positively related to job satisfaction while self-efficacy does not have such relationship with job satisfaction. The results confirm the mediating effect of goal commitment. Limitations of this study include common method variance as all the data collected came from one source. The selection of the sample is from one university which may raise the generalizability problem of the findings. Further, since students are not identified as employees, it will be better if we could use the employees in organizations as the sample for future research in same area. Also, the study of other personality traits such as stability, neuroticism, and conscientiousness that might be related to job satisfaction and goal commitment would be warranted in order to discover if other traits have similar relationship. The future study could also address issues such as the causality of the relationship between job attitudes and personality traits, the possible moderators of the relationships, etc. Overall, personality variables should not be overlooked among employees. Given that certain personality traits are related to the individuals’ feeling about their job and commitment, companies can use personality tests in selection of individuals. Certainly, this information is very helpful for companies to narrow down or recruit new employees.
The author has no competing interests in this area of research.