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ISSN: 2151-6219
Business and Economics Journal
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The Influence of Dimensions of Organisational Culture on the Management of Heritage Sites as Tourism Products in Zimbabwe

Mugunzva E*

The School of Business and Economics Atlantic International University Honolulu, Hawaii, USA

Corresponding Author:
Mugunzva E
The School of Business and Economics, Atlantic International University
Honolulu, Hawaii, USA
Tel: 18009930066
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date March 24, 2016; Accepted date June 03, 2016; Published date June 13, 2016

Citation: Mugunzva E (2016) The Influence of Dimensions of Organisational Culture on the Management of Heritage Sites as Tourism Products in Zimbabwe. Bus Eco J 7:215. doi:10.4172/2151-6219.1000215

Copyright: © 2016 Mugunzva E. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

This study focused on the influence of culture on the management of heritage sites in Zimbabwe. The research was motivated by the fact that there was ineffective alignment and integration of heritage and cultural resources into mainstream tourism. The value and impact of heritage tourism has not been fully realised, particularly the economic potential of heritage and cultural tourism products. Therefore, using a qualitative research methodology this study sought to explore the extent to which culture affects performance in NMMZ’s effort to transform heritage sites into vibrant tourism products. The objectives of the research were to examine Zimbabwe’s heritage, its meaning and relevance in tourism and to explore the potential of heritage sites in Zimbabwe as ‘world class’ tourist destinations. The other objectives were to examine the influence of ownership and profit orientation on services provided at heritage sites in Zimbabwe and to assess the influence of profit orientation on marketing of heritage sites as tourism products. The study also sought to review the management of heritage sites in other countries and draw lessons for Zimbabwe, to examine the gaps in the management of heritage sites in Zimbabwe and to propose strategies for packaging heritage sites in Zimbabwe as tourism products. This study showed that NMMZ is facing challenges in the marketing of heritage sites. There is also the issue of financial inadequacy as the SOE is failing to provide the required services at the sites. The research recommended that there is need to change the organisational culture, the NMMZ should embrace the diversity and corporate governance to improve the services. The paper also recommended the need to improve marketing strategies; the NMMZ should establish a marketing department. Private Public Partnerships and strategic alliances are crucial and these are the financing mechanisms that can be adopted to address problems of inadequate resources.

Keywords

Heritage resources culture; Zimbabwe; Tourism

List of Acronyms

AFRICOM: Africa Council of Museums; AIDS: Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome; BBC: British Broadcasting Corporation; BOT: Build, Operate and Transfer; CI: Cultural Imagination; CNN: Cable News Network; DFBOT: Design, Finance, Build, Operate And Transfer; DFO: Design, Finance and Operate; DT: Design and Transfer; GDP: Gross Domestic Product; GPOBA: Global Partnership for Output Based Aid; GZ: Great Zimbabwe; HIV: Human Immuno Virus; ICCROM: International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property; ICTs: Information Communication Technology; KHICC: Korea Heavy Industries and Construction Corporation; KT&G: Korea Tobacco and Ginseng Corporation; KT: Korea Telecom; MRDC: Masvingo Rural District Council; MRDPPCH: Ministry of Rural Development, Preservation and Promotion of Cultural Heritage; NGOs: Non Governmental Organizations; NMMZ: National Museums and Monuments of Zimbabwe; OB: Organisational Behaviour; POSCO: Pohang Iron and Steel Corporation; PPPs: Private Public Partnerships; PSIP: Public Sector Investment Programme; RBM: Results Based Management; RBZ: Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe; SA: South Africa; SADC: Southern Africa Development Corporation; SAPs: Structural Adjustment Programmes; SOEs: State Owned Enterprises; SWOT: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats; TQM: Total Quality Management; TTLs: Tribal Trust Lands; U.S: United States; UN: United Nations; UNDP: United Nations Development Programme; UNSCO: United Nations Education Scientific and Cultural Organisation; UNWTO: United Nations World Trade Organisation; WTO: World Trade Organisation; ZIM-ASSET: Zimbabwe Agenda for Socio-economic Transformation; ZIMSTATS: Zimbabwe Statistical Agency; ZITF: Zimbabwe International Trade Fare; ZNA: Zimbabwe National Army; ZTA: Zimbabwe Tourism Authority

The Problem and Its Context

Introduction

In Africa, and probably the world over, cultural and natural heritage resources have primarily been conserved and packaged as a tourist product for their tangible values, those values that could easily be captured on camera and described on the tourism market. Often, this is done without consideration for the intangible values attached to such resources by the native communities that have lived side by side with them and have preserved them for many centuries [1]. However, the performance of heritage sites as tourism products is dependent on effective management by the responsible state owned enterprises (SOEs). The National Museums and Monuments of Zimbabwe (NMMZ) is the SOE that is responsible for the management of heritage sites in Zimbabwe.

The NMMZ is Zimbabwe’s premier heritage organization established under an Act of Parliament; The National Museums and Monuments Act [Chapter 25:11]. NMMZ is a parastatal funded through grant by the central government and falling under the Ministry of Rural Development, Preservation and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. The NMMZ intends to fulfil its national and international roles by working in partnership with public, private and non-governmental sectors. These partnerships strengthen the organization and ensure more efficient and effective delivery of services.

The funding of the NMMZ is principally in the form of Recurrent and Capital Public Sector Investment Programme (PSIP). The organisation generates its own resources principally from the entrance fees to sites and Museums. Further resources are generated through the sale of publications, consultancy fees, filming, accommodation and auditorium hire and investments. Donors also fund special projects, which make contribute significantly towards the achievement of the national objectives. The donors include The Government of France, Ms Zimbabwe, The Belt Trust, New Zealand Aid and the Government of Germany, NMMZ is open to strategic alliances.

However, it seems as if Zimbabwe has limitations in terms of packaging heritage sites as tourism products and one could put the blame on the institution that is responsible for managing the sites. Additionally, effective performance has been a thorn in the flesh for many countries around the world and organisational culture seems to be derailing sound performance and customer satisfaction in the SOEs [2]. Burman and Evans believed that lack of effectiveness in the SOEs could be inherent in their organisational culture. This study aims to explore the extent to which organisational cultural factors like time orientation, profit orientation, and ownership orientation influences performance of NMMZ, whose theme is to “built heritage promoting cultural tourism in its diversity”.

This chapter presents the background to the problem, statement of the problem, research objectives, and research questions. Focus is also on significance of the study, delimitation of the study, theoretical and conceptual frameworks, research limitations, research methodology and definition of key terms.

Background to the problem

According to McKercher and Du Cross [3], the term heritage tourism is subject to much confusion and varied interpretation. Heritage tourism is often viewed as being synonymous with cultural tourism, historical tourism, arts tourism, nature tourism or attractionsrelated tourism. A review of the literature on heritage tourism suggests that a large proportion of the studies focus on tangible or built heritage, for example historic sites, public arts, monuments, museums, natural attractions, and archaeological sites [1,3,4]. In Zimbabwe, a SOE (NMMZ) is responsible for heritage tourism sites in Zimbabwe. SOEs are organisations, which are wholly owned by the government. They are the economic enablers which delivers the requisite economic and social infrastructure and services by that drives the country’s socio-economic development which ultimately results in the improved general welfare of all citizens [5]. The SOEs have a potential to contribute about 40% of the Zimbabwe’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) hence the importance in the maximisation of their performance [5].

In most developing countries, the government through SOEs plays an active role in the provision of goods and services. However, Rondinelli points out that, in many countries, there are doubts about the ability of SOEs to contribute to development. There is evidence that many public enterprises are not enhancing SC performance and they are loss-makers rather than revenue generators. For instance, In China, the government committed $11 billion to SOEs during the 1990s but output grew by less than 3% [6]. Schlettwein [7] highlighted that, in Namibia, SOEs contribute 0.7% to government revenue against an injection equal to 9% of total government expenditure. Findings by Woetzel [6] and Schlettwein [7] seem to show that despite the injection of financial resources in SOEs, the institutions were not efficient and effective as indicated by low output growth and low contributions to government revenue.

Burman and Evans believe that the lack of effectiveness in performance in the SOEs is rooted in the ‘culture’ in these government owned and controlled organisations. Islam and Michael [8] support this view and argue that SOEs have been regarded as organisations which belong to nobody, with no defined structures and responsibilities and which did not recognize the importance of effective performance.

Schein [9] defines organisational culture as a pattern of shared basic assumptions, values and beliefs that help individuals understand organisational functioning and thus provide them with norms for behaviours in the organisation. Ravasi and Schultz [10] also state that organizational culture is a set of shared mental assumptions that guide interpretation and action in organizations by defining appropriate behaviour for various situations.

This study focused on NMMZ, a SOE believed to be underperforming, with inadequacies in performance and a heavy dependence on the fiscus. Along similar lines, Nyoni [5] described the SOEs as the missing link in the country’s economic turnaround as they have become perennial loss makers. Many parastatals have continued to impose a significant burden on the fiscus, a position which has undermined the quick turnaround of the economy [11]. According to RBZ [11], organisational culture could be blamed for poor supply chain performance in SOEs. The Zimbabwe Independent reported that delays (time orientation) within the public procurement system are slowing down various public entity projects. Additionally, Mafumbe [12] pointed out that four SOEs made a combined loss of $40.9 million during the first six months to June 2010. This is substantial especially for a country with an annual GDP averaging $10 billion. It would appear that SOEs have and continue to put up a disappointing performance in terms of efficiency, and profitability to support and facilitate the expansion of economic growth.

In light of the preceding background, this study examined the influence of organisational cultural dimensions on the performance of heritage sites in Zimbabwe as tourism products. Zimbabwe has five world heritage sites, among the many heritage sites, which are important. The effective management of the sites could boost tourism revenue inflows.

Statement of the problem

The culture in most of the heritage sites was that they receive budgets from government for the conservation of the sites. This has become unsustainable as governments no longer have funds to look after these monuments and management is now forced to thick outside the box on ways to survive. Tourism has become the seemingly easy option for them but there is a lot to be done to make these sites attractive to tourists. There is need to transform them from the existing culture of dependency to a business orientation of innovation and marketability. It seems as if there is ineffective alignment and integration of heritage and cultural resources into mainstream tourism and a recurring challenge is that heritage and cultural tourism products are underrepresented in marketing as tourist destinations. The value and impact of heritage tourism has not been fully realised, particularly the economic potential of heritage and cultural tourism products. Therefore, using a qualitative research methodology this study sought to explore the extent to which culture affects performance in NMMZ’s effort to transform heritage sites into vibrant tourism products.

Research objectives

The main objective of the study was to explore the influence of dimensions of organisational culture like ownership and profit orientation on the performance of heritage sites as tourism products in Zimbabwe. The specific objectives were:

• To examine Zimbabwe’s heritage, its meaning and relevance in tourism;

• To explore the potential of heritage sites in Zimbabwe as ‘world class’ tourist destinations;

• To examine the influence of ownership and profit orientation on services provided at heritage sites in Zimbabwe;

• To assess the influence of profit orientation on marketing of heritage sites as tourism products;

• To review the management of heritage sites in other countries and draw lessons for Zimbabwe;

• To examine the gaps in the management of heritage sites in Zimbabwe; and

• To propose strategies for packaging heritage sites in Zimbabwe as tourism products.

Research questions

• What is Zimbabwe’s heritage, its meaning and relevance in tourism?

• What is the potential of heritage sites in Zimbabwe as ‘world class’ tourist destinations?

• To what extent does ownership orientation have an impact on services provided at heritage sites in Zimbabwe?

• What is the influence of profit orientation on marketing of heritage sites as tourism products?

• How are other countries managing to derive maximum benefits from their heritage sites?

• What challenges are faced in the management of heritage sites as tourism products in Zimbabwe?

• What are the possible strategies for packaging heritage sites in Zimbabwe as tourism products?

Significance of the study

In Zimbabwe, there seems to be little research on organizational culture and its influence on supply chain performance in SOEs, especially the NMMZ. This study aimed to examine the influence ownership and profit orientation on the management of heritage sites as tourism products by the NMMZ. It seems as if the influence of organisational culture on supply chain performance in the NMMZ has never been explored. Accordingly, this research sought to contribute to the body of knowledge by analysing whether organisational culture influences the performance of supply chain in SOEs in Zimbabwe. More so, while studies relating to organisational culture has being going on for about sixty years, supply chain management is relatively new as a discipline and studies that relate to both organisational culture and supply chain management are limited to the impact of organisational on supply chain integration. Some dimensions of organisational culture seem to resonate with some metrics of supply chain performance. However, there seems to be a gap in the theory that attempts to explain any influence of one construct over the other. Hence, this study attempted to explore the influence of dimensions of organisational culture on supply chain performance in NMMZ. In doing so, it is envisaged that there would be contribution to the theory as well as practice.

Delimitation of the study

This study focused on the influence of dimensions of organisational culture like profit orientation, time orientation and ownership orientation on the performance of NMMZ. The researcher collected information from the management and employees, and clients (visitors to heritage sites) of NMMZ. The researcher used purposive sampling to select participants believed to be good prospects for required data.

Theoretical and conceptual frameworks

Theoretical frameworks: A theoretical framework is a researcher’s plan or map. When one wants to travel to a destination he or she is not familiar with, there is a need to seek as much knowledge is possible about the area and bets travel option. There is the use of ‘previous travellers’ experiences and documented accounts of their journeys. Through interacting with seasoned and previous travellers, one also obtains the tips on how to survive in the unfamiliar territory. Just like a traveller, a researcher would be on a journey to discover new knowledge. However, the area of study would have been subjected to research before and the gurus would have documented their findings in the form of theories. A new researcher must examine these theories so that he or she gains adequate knowledge about the subject area. Consideration of the relevant theories helps one to address simple research questions and indentify the knowledge gap that needs exploration [13].

A theory is a statement expressing the relationship between two or more variables and that statement is held to be universally true. In addition, a theory aims to explain phenomena thereby enhancing people’s understanding of issues under observation [14].

Cultural theory: A theory that seems to offer the most precise explanation of the role and dynamics of culture in organisations is the cultural theory. In the context of organisations, the variants of culture theory are corporate culture and organizational culture theories. It is important to note that corporate and organisational cultures theories are basically ‘off-shoots’ of the cultural theory which hails from the discipline of anthropology. The point of departure in arguing for a theory of culture, organizational culture or corporate culture is to realize that the organisational culture is developed from the forces around the organisational environment. Every organisation considers the internal and external environmental issues associated with its cultural processes. However, employees are the immediate source of outside influence on organisational culture. This is because of their various influences based on family, community, nation, church or an educational system that moulds their behaviour and attitudes. Upon joining the organisation, they bring in these influences, which will then be difficult to separate from the organisational culture [15].

According to Quy [15], when individuals join organisations they do not leave behind their norms and values but rather carry them as personal baggage to the new organisations. It does not matter what level the employees are at in the organisation, their work ethics will always be a function of family or societal values that they grew up in. Unfortunately, these values may not always be in consonance with those of the organisation. Sometimes they actually clash which results in the organisation not getting as much value of service from the worker as would have been the situation if both the individual and corporate goals were in synchrony [16]. Meglino et al, pointed out that cultural theory presumes that positive outcomes result when peoples' values are congruent with those of others in the organisation. Above all, the significance of the corporate culture theory lies in that it ‘compels’ people to assess the extent to which the norms and values in an organisation are reinforcing each other to achieve organisational goals. More importantly, with reference to SOEs there are varieties either of cultures to consider which have potential to impact positively or negatively on the performance of SOEs. Some of the many cultural layers worthy of consideration are individual culture, family culture, professional culture, church culture, generation culture and others. Depending on how compatible each of these sub-cultures are compatible with organizational culture; these may make or unmake an organization [8].

The ‘7 S’ Framework: Peters and Waterman [17] recognise the commitment and excellence of staff as a key element to the success or failure of an organization. They summarized the main characteristics of excellent organisations as follows:

• Bias for Action: Do it, Fix it, Try it;

• Closeness to the Customer: Listen intently and regularly to customer needs and provide quality, service and reliability in response;

• Autonomy and Entrepreneurship: Innovation and risk taking as an expected way of doing things, than conformity and conservatism.;

• Productivity through People: Employees are seen as the source of quality and productivity;

• Hands on – Value Driven: The basic philosophy of the organization is well defined and articulated;

• Stick to the Knitting: Stay close to what the organisation can do well;

• Simple Form, Lean Staff: Structural arrangements and systems are simple with small directorial staff; and

• Simultaneous loose-tight Properties: Centralised control of values, but operational decentralization and autonomy.

The depiction of excellence was birthed by Pascale and Athos in their book ‘The Art of Japanese Management’ and later coined by Peters and Waterman as the Excellence View, culminated in the 7-S model. The 7-S model is shown in Figure 1. The model identified seven distinctive but interlocking elements present in all organizations to which attention needed to be paid if organizational performance was contemplated. Of the elements identified, four elements – skills, style, staff and shared values i.e. culture, applied directly to the human side of the enterprise, while the rest, structure, superodinate goals and strategy were dependant on human expertise for their creation, sustenance and maintenance. The hypothesis is that it is necessary to concentrate on getting the human conditions right as a prerequisite for effective strategy, direction and operations. The authors identified shared values or culture as the key component to an organisation’s success.

business-and-economics-journal-Waterman

Figure 1: The7-S Model. Source: Peters and Waterman [17].

Peters and Waterman [17] further observed that excellent companies are among the most financially sound and the value set integrate the notions of economic health. They also noted that companies whose goals were purely financial performed dismally benchmarked against those companies that had broader sets of values. They quoted Andrew Pettigrew’s, a renowned British professor of strategy, intimations on the process of shaping culture as the prime management role. Thy argued that “The leader not only creates the rational and tangible aspects of organizations, such as structure and technology, but also is the creator of symbols, ideologies, language, beliefs, rituals and myths” [17]. Finally, they advocated for Schein’s thinking on the components of culture and Trompenaars’ layers of culture. However, an organization can only achieve profitability and the resultant return on shareholders’ investment by implementing an appropriate culture from an array of cultures which are not exhaustive:

• Value Based Culture;

• Competitive Culture;

• Competitive Culture;

• Productive Culture; and

• Learning Culture;

Conner examines linkages between culture, strategy and performance then considers the present state of certain aspects of organizational change theory. He further states that culture is not just a theoretical issue. If a company wants to maximize its ability to attain its strategic objectives, it must understand if the prevailing culture supports and drives the actions necessary to achieve its strategic goals. Culture may be about ‘soft’ subjects like emotion, organizational history and collective beliefs, which inevitably shape behaviour in the real world. Inevitably, behaviours are open to interpretation and misinterpretation. Culture therefore brings about an understanding of how behaviour is created, embedded, developed, manipulated, managed and changed. Schein [9] warned that if organizations do not become conscious of the cultures in which they are embedded, “those cultures will manage them”.

Conceptual framework: Organisational culture seems to influence performance of an organisation and the extent of customer satisfaction [8,15,18]. Dimensions of organisational culture include profit and ownership orientation, flexibility, quality, cost, and decision-making. Delivery can be measured in terms of lead and cycle time. Flexibility can be measured in ability to respond to different needs of clients. Quality may be assessed in terms of functionality, conformance, and reliability. Finally, decision-making can be measured in terms of the time taken to make decisions and influence of decisions on supply chain performance. This study explored the relationship between dimensions of organisational culture and supply chain performance metrics of NMMZ. Organisational cultural variables are the independent variables while supply chain performance metrics and client satisfaction are the dependent variables. There are also intervening variables like marketing, site maintenance, procurement, logistics management, and coordination and collaboration with stakeholders. In addition, organisational culture can influence service delivery, flexibility of process, and may lead to reduction costs [8]. Figure 2 illustrates the conceptual framework.

Research methodology

Research philosophy: Research philosophy refers to the structure of an enquiry undertaken to ensure that the evidence collected enables the researcher to answer study questions or test hypotheses as unambiguously as possible. According to Saunders et al, [19], research methodology is based on three main approaches, which are positivism, interpretive approach, and critical social science. Positivism is an epistemological position that advocates the application of the methods of natural sciences to the study of social reality. Interpretivism shares the view that the subject matter of business and social sciences are fundamentally different form the natural sciences, requiring a different logic of research procedure reflecting the distinctiveness of humans as against natural order [19]. The researcher sought to understand the influence of organizational culture variables on the performance of heritage sites as tourism products in Zimbabwe and generate new knowledge. This is in line with the positivist philosophy that the search for knowledge is continuous [13]. In addition, people have subjective views on organizational cultural variables and their perceptions of customer satisfaction may differ and this is in line with interpretive (qualitative) approach. Therefore, this study was guided by both the positivist and interpretive thinking, through there is bias towards qualitative research.

Research design: This study was a case of NMMZ and how it is attempting to package heritage sites as tourism products. A case study allowed for a detailed investigation to be conducted. A case study is an empirical enquiry that investigates a contemporary phenomenon within its real-life context [20]. Rawnsley [21] define a case study as a comprehensive research strategy that ties together several data gathering measures. It may concentrate on individuals, group or a community and at the same time employing other data collection methods such as participant observation, secondary data or in-depth interviews. A case study also aims to understand social phenomena within a single or small number of naturally occurring settings. The purpose may be to provide description through a detailed example or to generate or test particular theories. In general, case studies are the preferred strategy when ‘how’ or ‘why’ questions are being posed, when the investigator has little control over the events, and when focus is on a contemporary phenomenon within some real experience [20].

Target population: Population is the exhaustive list of all the elements or items or objects under study or investigation. Sekaran [22] defined a population as a group of people, or things of interest that the researcher intends to investigate. The population for this study was made up of management, employees and clients in the NMMZ and academics.

Sampling design: A sampling design is a definite plan for obtaining a representation from a given population [23]. It is a procedure used by the researcher to select items for the sample and it shows the number of items to be included in the sample. However, the researcher can choose a sample design from a wider range of techniques. Kothari [24] stated that the researcher needs to select and prepare a sample design that is reliable and appropriate for the study. In order to select the appropriate sampling design for the study, the researcher needs to understand the different sampling strategies available. There are a number of sampling methods but they are categorised into two groups; probability sampling and non-probability sampling [24]. In probability sampling, the elements in the population have some known chance or probability of being selected as sample subjects. The sampling techniques under probability sampling include simple random sampling, stratified random sampling and cluster sampling. Probability sampling designs are used when the representativeness of the sample is of importance in the interest of a wider generalisability and when time or other factors rather than generalisability become critical, non-probability sampling is generally preferred [25]. In addition, there is selection of units to reflect particular features of the group within the population. As a matter of fact, the sample may not be mathematically proportional because chances of selection for each element will be unknown. The researcher uses the characteristics of the population as a basis for selection [25] and shall use a combination of sampling strategies. Judgmental sampling was used to select participants and heritage sites. The researcher visited National Heroes Acre, Ngomakurira Mountains, Domboshawa Caves, Great Zimbabwe and Naletale Ruins. Tourists who visit heritage site were also interviewed. Table 1 shows the sample size.

Data analysis and presentation procedure: Analysis of data is vital in any research because it helps one to make conclusions. Data analysis was conducted through use of content analysis. According to Ritchie and Lewis [25], content analysis condenses data into categories or themes.

business-and-economics-journal-frame-work

Figure 2:Conceptual frame work.

Category of Participants Sample Size
Employees at Five Heritage Sites 5
NMMZ Officials at Head and Regional Offices (Harare, Masvingo, Gweru and Bulawayo) 8
Tourists at Four World Heritage Sites 25
Total 38

Table 1: Sample Size.

Definition of key terms

Heritage tourism: It is a broad field of specialty travel, based on nostalgia for the past and the desire to experience diverse cultural landscapes and forms. It includes travel to festivals and other cultural events, visit to sites and monuments, travel to study nature, folklore or art or pilgrimages. The word ‘heritage’ in its broader meaning is generally associated with the word ‘inheritance’, that is, something transferred from one generation to another. Owing to its role as a carrier of historical values from the past, heritage is viewed as part of the cultural tradition of a society. The concept of ‘tourism’, on the other hand, is really a form of modern consciousness. In this study, both heritage and cultural tourism are used in combination and/or interchangeably.

Monuments: architectural works, works of monumental sculpture and painting, elements or structures of an archaeological nature, inscriptions, cave dwellings and combinations of features, which are of outstanding universal value from the point of view of history, art or science;

National heritage site: A national heritage site has a value that has been registered by a governmental agency as being of national importance to the cultural heritage or history of that country. Usually such sites are listed in a heritage register that is open to the public, and many are actively advertised by national visitor bureaus as tourist attractions.

Organisational culture: Schein defines organizational culture as a pattern of shared basic assumptions, values and beliefs that help individuals understand organizational functioning and thus provide them with norms for behaviours in the organization. Zhang [18] view organizational culture as the collective behaviour of humans that are part of an organization, it is also formed by the organization values, visions, norms, working language, systems, and symbols, it includes beliefs and habits. It is also the pattern of such collective behaviours and assumptions that are taught to new organizational members as a way of perceiving, and even thinking and feeling. Organizational culture affects the way people and groups interact with each other, with clients, and with stakeholders. Ravasi and Schultz [26] also state that organizational culture is a set of shared mental assumptions that guide interpretation and action in organizations by defining appropriate behaviour for various situations.

Sites: works of man or the combined works of nature and man, and areas including archaeological sites that are of outstanding universal value from the historical, aesthetic, ethnological or anthropological point of view.

State owned enterprises: State Owned Enterprises are organisations which are wholly owned by the government. SOEs were established to deliver the requisite economic and social infrastructure and services [27].

World heritage sites: A world heritage site is an area of great value to human kind.

Chapter summary

This chapter presented the problem and its setting. Focus was on the background to the problem, statement of the problem, research objectives, and research questions. Focus was also on significance of the study, delimitation of the study, theoretical and conceptual frameworks, research limitations, research methodology and definition of key terms. The next chapter presents a review of literature on the concept of organisational culture and importance of cultural change in the SOEs.

The Concept of Organizational Culture

Introduction

This chapter reviews literature on the concept of organisational culture and its influence on performance of organisations. The chapter also reviews empirical literature on the importance of cultural change in SOEs, with examples being drawn from Asian and African countries.

The Definition and Discussion on organisational culture

Schein defines organisational culture as a pattern of shared basic assumptions, values and beliefs that help individuals understand organisational functioning and thus provide them with norms for behaviours in the organisation. A number of definitions have been drawn to describe culture. Meek stated that the various theories fall into one of two groups. In one, culture is seen as something an organization possesses, ‘human relations theorists regard culture as something which an organization has and which can be manipulated to serve the ends of management’. In the other, culture is embedded in the organisation’s history and structural relationships, ‘culture is something an organization is’.

Zhang [18] view organisational culture as the collective behaviour of humans that are part of an organisation, it is also formed by the organisation values, visions, norms, working language, systems, and symbols, it includes beliefs and habits. Organisational culture is also the pattern of such collective behaviours and assumptions that are taught to new organisational members as a way of perceiving, and even thinking and feeling. Organisational culture affects the way people and groups interact with each other, with clients, and with stakeholders. Ravasi and Schultz [10] also state that organisational culture is a set of shared mental assumptions that guide interpretation and action in organisations by defining appropriate behaviour for various situations. Along similar lines, Handy stated that the success and downfalls of business organisations were mainly based on how they manage the four types of cultures namely, power, role task and the person. Handy discussed how organisations need to select, develop and reward their people, structure and design their work, resolve political conflicts, lay down guidelines for their managers and to plan for the future.

Cartwright and Cooper [28] have suggested that culture is to a company what personality is to a person, which should be an indication of how difficult it is to change. However, Cartwright and Cooper seem to disregard the fact that personalities are not static but versatile and adaptable. Hofstede [29] perspective asserts the deeply held values of organization members are the very centre of the organisation’s culture. Like Cartwright and Cooper, this presupposes that values will be difficult to change and even that, for some organization members, these values will be so deeply held they will not be possible to change at all, ever. Contrary to Hofstede’s [29] perspective, Anthony [30] states that cultures change and that a persistent culture must demonstrate adaptive capabilities to significant changes in the environment. He asserts that cultures are both binding and integrative as far as their inhabitants are concerned and open and adaptive to their surroundings.

Anthony [30] asserts that his theoretical analysis of organizational culture concept was developed and grew out of the company’s history establishing a pattern of ‘the way we do things around here’, which required a necessary conformity on the part of the new recruits. Distinctive organizational cultures grow and are established by similarities of required outlook and behavior over time. That is why Smircich (1985) observes that organizations do not possess culture, they are cultures - the cultural characteristics and the organization are embedded in each other rather than existing as parallel and separate entities. The way we do things around here’ involve multifaceted sets of understandings bound in organizational language, myths and rituals that are understood by the organization members. Outsiders, when exposed to these myths and rituals become aware that the words and meanings are not easily understood. ‘Stories’, about the founder or founders, are used to explain to new and existing members how and why things are done the way that they are. ‘Myths’ start from a position of untruth but serve the same purpose as stories. The unconscious aspect of culture offers another approach to understanding the concept of organizational culture. Schein [9] proposes as a pattern of shared basic assumptions invented, discovered or developed by a given group as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration. The assumptions could have worked well enough to be considered valid and therefore to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think and feel in relation to those problems. Schein [9] added that these basic assumptions, beliefs, values and meanings are shared unconsciously in a laissez faire fashion that makes them difficult to discern, even for those that hold them.

Quy [15] discussed how culture plays a role in organisational and management theory from the perspective of cognitive linguistics since employees of different national cultures pose a challenge for the way organisational leadership is carried out. Islam and Michael [8] stressed the point that management of today not only has to take into account different external preconditions such as different markets, company or stakeholder cultures to lead an organisation. However, management also needs to consider different cultures of language as a major challenge [31].

A healthy and robust organisational culture may provide various benefits, including having a competitive edge derived from innovation and customer service, consistent, efficient employee performance, team cohesiveness, high employee morale, and strong company alignment towards goal achievement [32]. In addition, culture tends to vary between organisations in developed and developing countries. One cultural aspect that varies is the extent to which informal processes influences organisations. Organisations in African countries, for instance are mainly influenced by informal organisational systems. There are strong extended family and kinship ties and these seem to greatly influence decisions in organisations. It is not surprising to find an organisation made up of related individuals in Zimbabwe and some work related issues can be discussed during family gathering and important decisions can be made there [33]. The situation seems to be different from European countries where there are no strong extended family ties and kinship identities. Here, formal organisational systems largely influence the way in which institutions operate [31].

It is worth noting that the culture of an organisation may not be separated form from the social environment. This is because of the fact that the culture of an organisation is borrowed from and bound up with larger cultural processes associated with the organisation’s macro environment. Every organisation expresses aspects of the national, regional, industrial, occupational, and professional cultures in and through which it operates. Each organisation is formed, in part, through cultural processes established by a variety of environmental actors [32]. However, according to Quy [15], the most immediate source of outside influence on the organisational culture is found within the organisation, its employees. Before joining an organisation, employees have already been influenced by multiple cultural institutions such as family, community, nation, state, church, educational systems, and other work organisations, and these associations shape their attitudes, behaviour, and identity. Employees bring these influences with them when they join an organisation. Because of this, it is difficult to separate an organisational culture from the larger cultural processes defining and shaping the behaviour of individuals in an organisation.

Additionally, when individuals join organisations they do not leave behind their norms and values but rather carry them as personal baggage to the new organisations. It does not matter what level the employees are at in the organisation, their work ethics will always be a function of family or societal values that they grew up experiencing. Unfortunately, these values may not always be in consonance with those of their organisation. Sometimes they actually clash which results in the organisation not getting as much value of service from the worker as would have been the situation if both the individual and corporate goals were in synchrony [15]. Hofstede [31] pointed out that that national culture has a major impact on the attitudes and values related to employees or workers. Cultural dimensions like time orientation differ in developing and developed countries. In developing countries like Zimbabwe for example, employees believe in the ‘8am to 5pm’ or 8 hour working day, and a 40 hour working week. The situation tends to be different when comparing to a country like China, where people believe in working for the good of the country. This could be the main reason why Zimbabwean employees complain of being treated unfairly by their Chinese employers. The problem here could be that of cultural differences as regards the issue of time [33].

In addition, organisational culture seems to influence performance of an organisation and the extent of customer satisfaction [31]. Cultural dimensions like time orientation, profit orientation, and ownership orientation influence delivery, flexibility, quality, cost, and decisionmaking. Delivery can be measured in terms of lead and cycle time. Flexibility can be measured in ability to respond to different needs of clients. Quality may be assessed in terms of functionality, conformance, and reliability. Finally, decision-making can be measured in terms of the time taken to make decisions and their influence on organisational performance [15]. The tendency in developing countries seems to be that of being slow and rigid, with emphasis on the welfare of employees. While on the other hand, in Developed countries emphasis seem to be now on efficiency and organisations seem to have rejuvenated the scientific management prescriptions.

Moreover, in developing countries, the State plays an important role in service provision and most big organisations are SOEs. In developed countries, SOEs are an endangered species as governments have rolled back their frontiers. The point here is that the ‘ownership’ culture differs between SOEs (that are predominant in developing countries) and private organisations (predominant in developed countries). SOEs are believed to be inefficient and Burman and Evans argued that the ineffectiveness in SOEs is rooted in the ‘culture’ in these organisations. Islam and Michael [8] support this view and argue that SOEs have been characterized as a ‘no-owner company’ culture, shaped by frequently rotated leadership, conflicting objectives, lack of individual accountability, lack of emphasis on service delivery, and weak organisational values and norms. The lack of profitorientation culture prevents SOEs from identifying ways to improve efficiency. Because low revenues can be compensated by government subsidies, efforts to enhance performance fall to second place and poor accountability systems prevent the development of an ownership structure that triggers efficient behaviour from senior management [34]. The situation is different from developed countries where large corporations are profit oriented.

Organisational cultural dimensions

There are a number of organisational cultural dimensions. Hofstede [31] in trying to illuminate the meaning of the term organizational culture wrote of the ‘collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one human group from another’. Hofstede’s examination of work used a large sample size of 116,000 employees who worked for a multinational corporation and discovered four areas of work-related value differences:-

.• Power distance – the extent to which inequality between hierarchy at work, between bosses and subordinates, is seen to be an irreducible fact of life which is accepted or not.

• Uncertainty avoidance – This dimension looks at the degree to which people are comfortable with ambiguous situations, the degree of tolerance for rule breaking and the extent to which members feel threatened by behaviours which embrace (or reject) formal rules.

• Individualism versus collectivism – This is about the degree to which people think in terms of “I” versus “We” and which entity is to predominate in the organization; individual or group?

• Masculinity versus Femininity – This dimension asserts that cultures that are high on masculinity rate achievement and success more than they do caring for others and the quality of life i.e., which goal is more important at work; pay and assertiveness or friendliness and good relations with the boss?

Hofstede [31] also added a fifth dimension, Confucian dynamism, which assesses the extent to which different cultures have a long or short-term orientation. Hofstede’s [31] comments himself that you cannot value values. Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner [35] produced seven dimensions of culture. These are depicted in the Figure 3.

The seven dimensions of culture are explained in detail. The succeeding paragraphs shows the elaboration.

• Universalism versus particularism: The Universalist approach is roughly: ‘What is good and right can be defined and always applies. In particularist cultures far greater attention is given to the obligations of relationships and unique circumstances. For example, instead of assuming that the one good way must always be followed, the particularist reasoning is that friendship has special obligations and hence may come first. Less attention is given to the abstract societal codes. It therefore attempts to answer the question, how may what is good and right be determined? Is this best done through identifying abstract rules or is there always a set of absolutes that will apply?

business-and-economics-journal-Hampden-Turner

Figure 3: Dimensions of Culture. Source: Trompenaars and Hampden- Turner [35].

• Individualism versus communitarianism: Focuses on “Me” or “Them”: The individualist society will oftentimes use a democratic approach to get all people to sing from the same hymn book. The only drawback is that people renege to their original behaviour. The collectivist society prefers the buyin approach where consensus is reached after deliberation. They will not risk to be seen to be voting against the majority decision.

• Neutral versus emotional: This relates to the show of emotion in terms of peoples’ relationships with each other in the organization. How are emotions expressed in work relationships?

• Specific versus diffuse relationships: This relates to the degree of superficial or deep involvement in work relationships. It explores how far people are comfortable in sharing intimate levels of their own personality with their work mates?

• Achievement versus ascription: This concerns how power and status are legitimated within the organization. An individual is judged on recent accomplishments, who you are and what you do.

• Inner-directed versus outer-directed: This denotes that all cultures take some notice and are influenced by the micro and macro environment. Failure to do so would lead to innerdirected cultures into a headlong rush to disaster, while outerdirected cultures would try to please everyone and dissipate their energies by over-compliance.

• Sequential time versus synchronic time: Different cultures have different views and perceptions about time. In certain cultures, like the American, time is perceived as passing in a straight line, a sequence of disparate events. Other cultures view time as undepreciable and eternal, for instance the phrase coined about Africa “There is no hurry in Africa”. This makes considerable differences to planning, strategy formulation and implementation.

Hofstede and Trompenaars deal in common understandings, with each dispelling the idea that there is only one globally accepted way to manage a business and the extent of the sharedness between organization members. Each country is unique and has its own preferred set of patterns and practices. Indeed, the enabling environments that are synonymous with developed countries do not exist in third world countries like Zimbabwe.

Another cultural dimension is time orientation. Time is an important resource, which when wasted, is never recovered. The notion that ‘time is money’ is often cited as part of the organisational culture in the world of business and in the offices of commercial companies. People’s perceptions and understanding of what time is, how it should be prioritised, and how it should be spent differs widely. These differences in people’s perception of time and temporal processes are attributed largely to their underlying value systems. Temporal orientation of people, seen in a cultural context, has been found to be best defined as a continuum of perceptions ranging from monochronic to polychromic. According to Zhang [18], people from the monochronic, low context extreme of these continuums are characterised by regularity of behaviour according to clock time, execution of work units according to a strict sequence and one at a time, and a tendency to be very structured in their approach. On the other extreme, polychronic, high context people’s behaviour is prioritised and influenced by their relationships, work is executed because of doing different units at the same time and they prefer flexibility above rigid structure [15].

Hofstede discusses about long and short time orientation. Longterm time orientation is focused on the future. An organisation with long time orientation is willing to delay immediate gratification in order to guarantee the future or the sustainability of the institution. Therefore, long-term time orientation is about sustainability and longterm success. In contrast, short-time orientation is about the immediate gratification than long-term fulfilment. There is emphasis on fulfilment of social obligations rather than sustainability. One can argue that SOEs tend to be short-term orientated, that is why some of them are always making losses because they focus on the immediate results. Some SOEs were established specifically to meet social obligations and profit is secondary.

Flexibility and delivery are other cultural dimensions. Flexibility and delivery are about responding to the needs of customers. Proponents of the marketing concept argued that creating a satisfied customer, through being responsive to their needs and delivering required products and services, should be the primary objective of any business [36]. Consistent with the marketing concept, customers have traditionally been considered to be the primary focus of a market orientated culture. A broader perspective on the market orientation culture (flexible culture) includes exogenous factors that influence customer needs, such as competitors and even government regulation. Market orientation is an aspect of organisational culture that is believed to have far-reaching effects on the firm and it puts the customer at the centre of the firm’s thinking about strategy and operations. In addition, marketing orientation places customer satisfaction at the centre of all organisational planning and decision-making. A truly marketingoriented organisation is the one that places the customer and their needs at the centre of everything the company does. Not only marketers and the marketing function must accept this central importance of customers and hence the need to develop plans and activities to satisfy them, but every department, even every individual, in the marketing oriented organisation must be attuned to the importance of satisfying customer needs.

Adebisi pointed out that an organisation needs to have a marketorientated culture, which is not a set of processes and activities, but is a fundamental part of the organisation’s culture. Each employee must understand and accept that the whole purpose of the organisation is to create superior value for customers. Effective management is required if an institution is to become market oriented. It is argued that senior managers shape the direction of the organisation and must be willing to take risks in order to satisfy the needs of customers [36]. Besides an emphasis on a learning orientation and a willingness to accept risk, senior managers need to adopt a style of leadership that further promotes the concept of a learning orientation. Grant argued that a complex environment calls for a complex style of leadership and a transformational or facilitative leader, that is, leaders who communicate effectively, share information, and generally keep the workforce up to date with important information.

There are four stages for ensuring that an organisation’s culture is market oriented. Each of the four stages involved in this process allows the business to evaluate the needs of its customers both in the present and in the future. According to Chin [31], the following stages highlight the various methods of market research and the many ways to distribute the information to customers:

i. Stage One: Initiation: The initiation phase includes the identification of the problem that the business faces. For example, this may include competition from outside companies, major losses in revenue or structural inefficiencies. After the upper management of the business determines what the problem is, the business will then prepare a plan to institute the necessary changes. This plan will generally include the values and goals of the company and methods to achieve the goals;

ii. Stage Two: Reconstitution: The reconstitution phase of the market-orientation process is the presentation of the plan defined and developed in the first stage of this process. This requires presenting and explaining the plan and its new values to the entire company, usually at the same time. After this presentation, the organisation needs to follow up and ensure that everyone within the organisation is on board and ready to implement the new plan. Sometimes, when employees cannot accept the new values and plan, the business will need to replace these employees with newer employees who will work toward the shared goal;

iii. Stage Three: Institutionalization: The institutionalization phase puts into practice everything developed in stage one and presented in stage two. Institutionalization involves aligning various areas of the business to implement the plan effectively. This step commonly involves orienting training, creating an employee-rewards system, and realigning the structure of power within the organisation to foster the new values and, ultimately, meet the customers’ needs within the market. Institutionalization essentially represents the transformation phase of market orientation; and

iv. Stage Four: Maintenance: The final stage, maintenance, involves maintaining the changes that a company previously implemented. Because market orientation involves altering company culture, at least to some extent, it is necessary to make sure that the new culture remains in effect to continue meeting the needs of the market and the customers. This includes everything from new hiring practices, to making sure prospective employees can work within the confines of the new company culture, to keeping the new values front and centre for older employees.

Market orientation is a strategy employed by a business to better position itself to meet customers’ needs. Satisfaction of customers is important in achieving sustainable competitive advantage.

Furthermore, ownership structure influences the extent to which management is committed towards realising profits. SOEs, by virtue of being owned by government, have been characterised by the ‘no ownership’ culture, thereby limiting drive towards profits [33]. According to Omoyefa, loss making in the SOEs provided the need for privatisation, which was a marked feature of the structural adjustment programmes (SAPs). Privatisation of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) has become a key component of the structural reform process and globalization strategy in many economies. Several developing and transition economies have embarked on extensive privatization programmes in the last one and a half decades or so, as a means of fostering economic growth, attaining macroeconomic stability, and reducing public sector borrowing requirements arising from corruption, subsidies and subventions to unprofitable SOEs [37]. By the end of 1996, all but five countries in Africa had divested some public enterprises within the framework of macroeconomic reform and liberalization [18].

The inability of public enterprises to contribute to development arose not only from their inefficiencies due to their monopoly or protected status but also because of lax governance and oversight [37]. The checks-and-balances that come with private ownership are essential. The pressures that shareholders and external directors can exert on managers help to improve efficiency. More so, capital markets can exert pressure on companies to allocate scarce resources economically and to operate within ‘hard budget’ constraints, and that managers who are responsible to shareholders and outside directors can exert on workers to improve productivity, are all usually missing from public enterprises. Where SOEs were too strongly controlled by the State, they often became inflexible bureaucracies.

Human behaviour as an important aspect of organisational culture

According to Dessler, human beings, being the most important resources in organisations are unique, complex, rare and finicky and they tend to differ in their aptitudes, perceptions, emotions and attitudes. This, being rooted in some theories, has made the study of organisational behaviour pertinent. Management henceforth has to invest much time in trying to breakdown and understand these individual complexities so that individual and group dynamisms would inform them in carrying out their planning, organising, leading and controlling functions. The researcher concurs with the contention that most problems in organisations are associated with management of human behaviour and that managers at all levels need to invest time and effort in understanding organisational behaviour. However, an acknowledgement of other non-human related sources of organisational problems shall be exposed as the discussion shall unfold. Most organisational problems are rooted in how the individuals interact, relate, react, communicate and corporate within and outside the organisation.

Consequently, when looking at behaviours Bundy and Hukins [38] said terms such as ‘paternalistic’, ‘collaborative’, ‘hierarchical’, ‘conservative’, and ‘entrepreneurial’ are often used. These may accurately describe a group characteristic, but the underlying questions could be on what people actually do in a ’consensus’ culture or a ‘hierarchical’ culture, what behaviours would be observed in a ‘consensus’ culture, and how would they differ from the behaviours observed in a ‘command-and-control’ culture. Presumably, in a consensus culture, people meet frequently, share opinions with one another, have a tendency for broad inclusion and seek to gain agreement across stakeholders. In a command-and-control culture, these behaviours likely are replaced with tightly controlled decision making and top-down communication, where discussion is focused on delivering directives and following up on execution.

The influence of humans on organisational behaviour: Human behaviour is the root of organisational culture and has got implications for human performance, morale, productivity, creativity, turnover, absenteeism among others. Individual’s thoughts and beliefs can be transferred and do influence others leading to the development of organisational behaviour and a corporate culture. According to Bates and Dean, the humans shape the behaviour of organisations and organisational behaviour (OB) seeks to understand the complexity within the organisations, identifying problems, determining the best way to solve them and establishing whether changes would bring in positive differences. Bundy and Hukins [38] presented examples of behaviours as in Table 2.

Lean and mean Paternalistic Consensus building Competitive
Cutthroat Entrepreneurial Collaborative Sales driven
Conservative Quality driven Empowered Family friendly
Risk-taking Fun Innovative Cost driven
Sense of urgency Hierarchical Process driven  
Source:  Bundy and Hukins (2008).

Table 2: Examples of Behaviours.

Bundy and Hukins [38] agitated that these behaviour patterns describe how people operate at work. Thinking of it this way, an organisation’s culture can be seen in the aggregation of those individual behaviours that make up how work gets done. Put another way, if different business results are required, and then the behavioural patterns that make up the current culture must change. According to Armstrong and Stephens, OB shows the linkages among human behaviour in organisational settings, the individual-organisation interface, the organisation, and the environment surrounding the organisation. Each individual brings to an organisation a unique set of personal characteristics, experiences from other organisations, and personal background. Therefore, organisational behaviour must look at the unique perspective that each individual brings to the work setting. For example, suppose that an organisation hires a consultant to investigate employee turnover. As a starting point, the consultant might analyze the types of people the firm usually hires. Are they from a competitive labour market? What special talents do they possess? How much is offered for their services by other potential employers?. The goal of this analysis would be to learn as much as possible about the nature of the company’s workforce from the standpoint of the individual, their expectations, their personal goals, and so forth. However, individuals do not work in isolation, they come in contact with other people and with the organisation in a variety of ways. Points of contact include managers, co-workers, the formal policies and procedures of the organisation, and various changes implemented by the organisation. Over time, the individual changes as a function of both personal experiences and maturity and of work experiences with the organisation.

The organisation, in turn, is affected by the presence and eventual absence of the individual. Clearly, then, the study of organisational behaviour must consider the ways in which the individual and the organisation interact. Thus, the consultant who examines turnover at an organisation might choose to look at the orientation procedures for newcomers to the organisation. In addition, many organizations, said to possess a high level of cultural integration, have a strong dominant culture that cuts across the entire business units and regions in an organization. However, this is not the case in some organizations, there is not one single culture, but a collection of subcultures. Subcultures may share certain characteristics, norms, values and beliefs or be totally different. These subcultures, which can differ in a number of ways, can either function co-operatively or be in conflict with each other.

An organisation, of course, exists before a particular person joins it and continues to exist long after he or she has left. Therefore, the organisation itself represents a crucial perspective from which to view organisational behaviour. For instance, the consultant who studies turnover would also need to study the structure and culture of an organisation. An understanding of factors such as the performance evaluation and reward systems, the decision-making and communication patterns, and the design of the firm itself can provide additional insight into why some people decide to stay while others elect to leave. Clearly, the field of organisational behaviour can be both exciting and complex. Myriad variables and concepts influence the interactions described, and together these factors can greatly complicate a manager’s ability to understand, appreciate, and manage others in an organisation. However, they can also provide unique opportunities to enhance personal and organisational effectiveness.

Organisational behaviour seeks to emphasise the understanding of behaviour in organisations to develop competences in foreseeing how people are likely to behave. This knowledge may help in controlling behaviour that is not befitting the objectives of the organisation. Individuals are viewed as the key resources in an organisation and managers should be able to harmonise individual goals with organisational goals. Personality refers to some qualities, characteristics, skills and competences of individuals along with certain other traits like grooming and attitude. Most organisational behaviour strategies are eventually meant to optimally utilise the capabilities of individuals and groups towards achievement of organisational objectives. However, it is important that staff is adequately motivated to fulfil those objectives. Therefore, when studying organisational cultural variables, it is important to understand the behaviour of people in the institutions.

It is also essential to note that the most successful organisations make the best use of their employees’ talents and energies. All organisations seek to achieve their goals and objectives through various resources, that is, individuals and in order to understand and manage behaviour, management should understand what motivates or what makes the individuals tick [39]. Once a manager is able to understand the traits of personality of an individual worker, he or she can use the different methods of motivation. Hence, managers require both technical and interpersonal skills. The study of individual behaviour helps managers understand how perceptions, attitudes and personality could influence work behaviour, motivation and other important work outcomes such as satisfaction, commitment and learning. In this light, one can see the importance of understanding human as well as organisational behaviour.

Organisational behaviour draws support from the fields of individual psychology, social psychology, industrial psychology, political science, anthropology and economics, that is, incentives and transactions. Organisational Theory is directly related to OB and draws concepts and research from anthropology, sociology and theories of complex organisations. Studying organisational behaviour helps explain how organisations, structure work and power relationships, how they use systems for decision making and control how an organisation’s culture affects behaviour, how organisations learn and adapt to changing competitive economical, social, and political conditions.

In addition, OB is concerned with behaviour that occurs under the conditions posed by an organisational situation. Block defines OB as an interdisciplinary field dedicated to better understanding and managing people at work. It is both research and application oriented and it comes in three levels, which are individual, group and organisational. Anyone who plans to make a living in a large or small, public or private organisation needs to study and understand organisational behaviour because individual differences make the manager’s job endlessly challenging. Thus, OB investigates the impact that individual, group and structures have on behaviour within organisations for applying such knowledge towards improving an organisation’s effectiveness. The competitive pressures on firms continue to mount, and their skilful managements seek to strengthen their firms’ operational effectiveness and competitive advantage.

The effectiveness of management’s deployment of their firms’ technological resources and their strategic initiatives always depends on the quality and motivation of their workforces. Workforce diversity has important implications for management practice, adds that, managers have to shift their philosophies from treating everyone alike to recognising differences and responding to those differences in ways that ensure employee retention and greater productivity. If diversity is positively managed, it can increase creativity and innovation in organisations and decision making by providing different perspectives on problems but, if not managed, there is potential for higher turnover, more difficult communication and more interpersonal conflicts [15].

Importance of cultural change: Empirical literature review

In this section, the researcher analyses cases studies on the importance of organisational culture. Examples are drawn from Asian countries (China, South Korea, and Vietnam) and Africa (Namibia and Nigeria). The case studies were expected to draw lessons for the SOEs in Zimbabwe. The countries were selected because their economic environments have similarities to Zimbabwe.

SOEs in China: In China, the absence of strong and performanceoriented cultures resulted in the government making a paradigm shift on how to treat the SOEs. China’s industrial structure has become complex and differentiated due to moves towards exposing firms both to markets and to private ownership. Government policy is to retain SOEs in key industries, which are strategic in nature and/or where considerable economies of scale are anticipated, while others are to have their ownership restructured or to be sold outright [40]. The government has also encouraged SOEs to merge into business groups, ostensibly to achieve scale economies, but often in reality to bail out weaker enterprises and avoid the social costs of closure. A significant development in the 1990s has been the conversion of SOEs to joint stock companies, of which there were 13,103 by the end of 1997 [41].

Analysis of 40,238 SOEs surveyed in 1998 by the State Statistical Bureau indicated that 17% of them had completed restructuring [41]. Of the restructured SOEs, 55% had become limited liability companies, 16% had transformed into employee shareholding cooperatives and 7% had become private enterprises. Restructured enterprises generally had a significant private stake, though conversely some of the newly formed private enterprises still had a majority of their shares held by the state. The SOEs that had converted into fully private firms were generally small and in most the top manager was the main owner and likely to hold tight control.

Woetzel [40] argues that the Chinese government privatized and commercialized most SOEs and the Directors of SOEs were held more accountable for their successes and failures. In short, SOEs in China underwent a cultural change process. In addition, Ralston et al, [42] studied SOEs in China and concluded that there has been a transformation in the culture of these institutions and that organisational culture has been the indicator of change in SOEs. In addition, due to cultural change, there has been a marked improvement in SCM in SOEs in China. In fact, Corporations outside China are increasingly seeing the country’s open state-owned enterprises as partners in global markets. SOEs in China have been accepted as peers capable of adding value to joint ventures around the world [40]. Ralston et al, [42] concluded that the China’s SOEs have substantially been transformed to approximate a configuration desired by the Chinese government when it began the SOE transformation a couple of decades ago to make them globally competitive. The SOEs in China have developed a new culture, which values better individual accountability and interorganisational communication and coordination, an increased team spirit, and an emphasis on human resources and their development [40].

SOEs in South Korea: Since the 1980s, the performance of state-owned-enterprises (SOEs) has been disappointing while the privatization of SOEs has been treated with doubts. Policy makers around the world were left with few SOE policy options at a time when their performance caused not only administrative headaches but also political nightmare. The situation in Korea is similar where a sizeable SOE sector has under-performed and the government has been hard pressed to find solutions to enhance their performances. The underperformance of SOEs resulted in privatisation, the unprecedented economic challenges (due to 1998 economic crisis) left Korean government with no other choice but to sell off its stakes in SOEs. The government initially proposed to drastically reduce the number of SOEs from a total of 108 firms in 1998 down to 13 major SOEs and 8 subsidiaries at the end of 2002. By 2002, major SOEs including Korea Telecom (KT), Pohang Iron and Steel Corporation (POSCO), Korea Tobacco and Ginseng Corporation (KT&G), and the Korea Heavy Industries and Construction Corporation were fully privatized.

SOEs in Vietnam: According to Quy [15], SOEs in Vietnam used to have a weak culture because they were operating as monopolies. In the areas like electricity, health care, and water supply, the customers had no choices of suppliers, therefore, the managers in the SOEs were just ‘sleeping’. The SOEs usually disregarded customers’ needs and they treated customers as if they were supplicants rather than buyers. However, in 2005, Vietnam joined the World Trade Organisation (WTO) and there was ‘opening of borders’ and privatisation of some of the SOEs. The deregulation process resulted in the SOEs being able to recognise the importance of customer loyalty as the Vietnamese government allowed private companies to enter the former monopolized markets. Thus, the SOEs had to change their internal environment to adapt to the new situation [15].

SOEs in Namibia: Schlettwein [43] believed that culture was largely to blame for SCM challenges in SOEs in Namibia. Schlettwein [43] highlighted that over the period 2000 to 2010, less than 1% of Government revenue came from SOE dividends. In 2008/9 accounting year, the State received N$173.4 million in dividends, amounting to 0.7% of Government revenue. This was against an investment of 9% of the total expenditure that was spent by the State on SOE subsidies for that year, which was N$1.9 billion. In light of the non-performance of SOEs in Namibia, it decided to change the culture in SOEs. Schlettwein [43] stated that the Namibian government resolved that all heads of SOEs, from chief executives to the chairpersons of boards, were required to enter into five-year performance agreements with Government. To ensure good performance, it was resolved that board members be appointed on the basis of demonstrated skills, in a recruitment process where vacancies are duly advertised, ensuring more transparency in the selection. The Namibian Government saw the importance of improving the organisational culture and performance of SOEs. By encouraging a commercial culture managers and employees will pay more attention to cost-containment, service quality, and asset management than in an SOE driven by short-term political considerations [43].

SOEs in Nigeria: The ‘no-owner company’ culture of SOEs or the principle ‘what belongs to the state belongs to nobody’ attitude accounted for challenges in the Nigerian SOEs. Jerome pointed out that the expansion of SOEs was viewed as an important strategy for fostering rapid economic growth and development. However, most of the enterprises were poorly conceived and economically inefficient. They accumulated huge financial losses and worsened the debt crisis in African countries. In Nigeria, by l985, SOEs had become an unsustainable burden on the budget. It has been estimated that total investment in the SOEs exceeded US$35 billion, comprising of US$12.5 billion in equity, US$10.2 billion in government loans, and US$11.5 billion in unspecified and largely unrecorded subventions to various enterprises. However, the investments yielded low returns, about US$1.5 billion in dividends and loan repayments from 1980 to 1987. The reasons for the poor performance are well documented and not surprisingly bear a uniform pattern in many African countries. These include among others, the lack of residual claimant to profits, the presence of multiple and conflicting objectives determined by politicians, and the prevalence of incomplete contracts and government subsidies that protect internal inefficiencies and perpetrate soft budget constraints. In short, interventionism compromised financial discipline in government, and according to Mhone, cited in Omoyefa, many governments that claimed to be socialist were spending too much money on public services. This expenditure pattern was not sustainable and there was a need for cultural change in the SOEs.

Chapter summary

This chapter presented a review of literature on the concept of organisational culture. Case studies on the influence of organisational culture and the performance of SOEs in Asia (China, South Korea and Vietnam), and Africa (Namibia and Nigeria) were also presented. The case studies are expected to draw lessons for the NMMZ. Also, the light of the findings in this chapter, the non-performance of heritage sites in Zimbabwe and that of the NMMZ could be blamed on the organisational culture. Therefore, the succeeding chapters contain a detailed investigation on the influence of organisational culture on the performance of heritage sites in Zimbabwe as tourism products.

The Concept of Heritage and Its Meaning to Zimbabwe

Introduction

This chapter unpacks the concept of heritage and its meaning to Zimbabwe. Since 1972, a series of consecutive UNESCO conventions and declarations have aimed to set an international framework for the protection of diverse forms of heritage. While initially focusing on works of art, built environments and natural spaces, later UNESCO conventions and declarations have included other forms of cultural heritage, notably the notion of intangible heritage [44]. Since 1992, World Heritage Sites also include ‘cultural landscapes’ in recognition of the intimate relationships between culture and nature. From a touristic perspective it is easy to see the value of historic buildings, heritage sites and objects d’art. Much of international tourism is centred around these material expressions of culture whether it is the Taj Mahal in India, the contents of the Louvre in Paris, France, or a city such as Venice in Italy. The 1972 UNESCO convention focused on the protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, with an emphasis both on built environments and natural spaces, which are of ‘outstanding universal value’ from various aesthetic, scientific, artistic, historic and conservationist points of view. In 2005, 812 cultural, natural and mixed world heritage sites inscribed. Of these, 611 are cultural sites, 154 are natural sites and there are also 23 mixed sites in some 137 countries.

The very fact that such sites are recognised and designated for their universal significance can transform them very quickly into tourist destinations. Indeed, this is one reason why some countries seek inscription in the first place, along with reasons to do with genuine protection of sensitive sites, landscapes and species, and the increased international profile and prestige designation brings with it. World Heritage Site status effectively allows greater levels of engagement with the past and its meanings outside of purely national, and sometimes, nationalistic contexts. Sites are provided with global exposure which generates a discourse of both interest and tangible concern; in some cases a concern which will make the difference between a site being abandoned or being preserved for future generations. The designation of World Heritage Sites is not only a recognition of their significance, it is also a powerful means by which heritage can be liberated to a global audience. Recognising the ‘heritage of the world’ not only signals a wider sense of responsibility towards our common past, but also the opportunities for public access to, education about, and the experience of, such important sites.

This increased exposure and popularity with tourists, can generate significant economic benefits for heritage sites and their wider geographical locations. At the same time it is important that such increased touristic activity is effectively managed to ensure the sustainability of the site and its surrounding communities. Increasingly, the World Heritage Centre, established in 1972 as the UNESCO coordinating body for World Heritage matters, is involved with management and training issues relating to the touristic dimension of sites, including supporting the elaboration of management plans to handle the pressures that tourists can create.

Although the notion of ‘cultural heritage’ was originally conceived within the industrialised and developed world and thus reflected the works and values inherent in such societies, the idea has been widened to cover heritages in the lesser developed world where there is less emphasis upon grand and permanent structures and recorded narratives. The recognition of intangible and ‘movable’ cultural heritage in the Convention for the Safeguarding for the Intangible Heritage significantly recognised other forms of heritage that has meaning beyond material manifestations, is transmitted through the generations and which is also central in shaping identity.

Tourists do not only encounter cultural heritage as just ‘the past’, but rather the past of a particular people or community in a living context. Tourists engage with the cultural heritage of a destination not only through monumental forms but in more intangible ways as the past enshrined in contemporary behaviours and practices. Increasingly various forms of intangible heritage are being mobilised for tourism purposes and experiencing living heritage is a particularly enriching experience for both tourists and the community. Festivals which highlight cultural rituals and artistic performances are often a key element in tourist itineraries. While tourist demand to see cultural displays and rituals can produce conflict with local communities over changing times of performance and content to suit the timings of the tour operator and the curiosity of the visitors, it can also provide a rationale to showcase and effectively preserve enacted traditions which would otherwise be lost.

Meaning of heritage

Definition of Heritage

Cultural heritage: Cultural heritage world over is becoming essential engine for sustainable development. There has been a wake for many communities living near heritage sites that cultural heritage can be used to stimulate sustainable development.

Monuments: architectural works, works of monumental sculpture and painting, elements or structures of an archaeological nature, inscriptions, cave dwellings and combinations of features, which are of outstanding universal value from the point of view of history, art or science;

Groups of buildings: groups of separate or connected buildings which, because of their architecture, their homogeneity or their place in the landscape, are of outstanding universal value from the point of view of history, art or science

Sites: works of man or the combined works of nature and man, and areas including archaeological sites which are of outstanding universal value from the historical, aesthetic, ethnological or anthropological point of view

Defining cultural tourism: There is no singular, specific definition of either cultural or heritage tourism. Some call it cultural tourism, some heritage tourism, some cultural and heritage tourism or shortly cultural heritage tourism (Cultural and Heritage Tourism Alliance, 2002). Culture is a set of distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features of society or a social group. It encompasses, in addition to art and literature, lifestyles, ways of living together, values systems, traditions and beliefs [44]. The World has some 6000 communities and as many distinct languages. The National Trust’s definition of cultural heritage tourism is traveling to experience the places and activities that authentically represent the stories and people of the past and present. It includes historic, cultural and natural resources [45].

In 1985, World Tourism Organization (WTO) provided two definitions of cultural tourism. The narrower definition includes movements of persons for essentially cultural motivations such as study tours, performing arts and cultural tours, travel to festivals and other cultural events, visits to sites and monuments, travel to study nature, folklore or art, and pilgrimages. The wider definition includes all movements of persons, because they satisfy the human need for diversity, tending to raise the cultural level of the individual and giving rise to new knowledge, experience and encounters (Canadian Heritage, 2006). Heritage is a broad concept and includes the natural as well as the cultural environment. It encompasses landscapes, historic places, sites and built environments, as well as biodiversity, collections, past and continuing cultural practices, knowledge and living experiences. It records and expresses the long processes of historic development, forming the essence of diverse national, regional, indigenous and local identities and is an integral part of modern life. It is a dynamic reference point and positive instrument for growth and change [45].

Cultural tourism market share development strategy focuses on promotion of the unique cultural aspects of a city or region, in order to draw tourists interested in those particular cultural subjects to the area. Heritage management, on the other hand is defined as management of regions’ natural, cultural and built environments. As a strategy, this focus is gaining widespread acceptance nationwide and internationally among tourism offices and bureau to differentiate their cities, regions and states as desirable tourist destinations in an increasingly competitive marketplace.

It is a rule of thumb that a country’s culture is the lifeblood of tourism within that country. Most authorities argue that people is express their lifestyle through their religion, costumes, arts and crafts, architecture, music, dance and literature. All over the world people travel to different countries for the specific purpose of attending religious and non-religious festivals. They visit art and museum exhibits, and also musical events. People also travel for the specific purpose of visiting the great monuments and sites of the world such as the Angkor Wat in Cambodia, the Taj Mahal in India, the Great Wall of China or the Borobudur and the Prambanan in Indonesia. These activities characterize ‘cultural tourism’. Cultural Tourism is when people travel to various destinations to see different cultures, when people interact with communities exchange ideas as well as experience different lifestyles.

According to the WTO estimates 2014, cultural tourism has shown the highest growth representing one fifth of the Tourism market. The European market for cultural tourism has increased by as much as 20% in the past decade. Culture and tourism has a symbolic relationship. There is an intimate relationship between culture and tourism. It is through cultural tourism that arts and crafts, dances, rituals and legends which are at the risk of being forgotten by the younger generation may be revitalized when tourists show a keen interest in them. Monuments and cultural relics may be preserved by using funds generated by tourism. In fact, those monuments and relics that have been abandoned suffer decay from lack of visitation.

Culture and tourism must be mutually supportive of each other to make the relationship sustainable. The nurturance of this relationship needs the full corporation of public and private sector working together with local communities. Thus, governments need to engage in strategic alliances in the management of cultural heritage within their countries.

Natural heritage

Natural features: consisting of physical and biological formations or groups of such formations, which are of outstanding universal value from the aesthetic or scientific point of view.

Geological and physiographical formations: Precisely delineated areas which constitute the habitat of threatened species of animals and plants of outstanding universal value from the point of view of science or conservation;

Natural sites:Natural sites or precisely delineated natural areas of outstanding universal value from the point of view of science, conservation or natural beauty are another form of natural heritage. Heritage sites are perceived as an economic necessity and a public requirement and have symbolic value and their benefits are measurable [46].

There are two categories of natural sites. They can either be natural in terms of nature that is tangible. For example in this category one can point out landforms, rural scenery, flora and fauna as the variables of the natural sites. Natural sites can be in the form of Cultural aspects. This is expressed through various festivals, arts/crafts and traditional practices. The natural sites can be in form of built structures. These structures may either have been built by the ancestors and they have a cultural value in them. Examples of built structures include historic homes, monuments, and industrial sites.

Different Perceptions of the Meaning of the Term Heritage in Zimbabwe: There seem to be limited literature about Zimbabwe’s heritage. From 1890, when Zimbabwe was colonised, the colonial system tried by all means possible to tread down upon the identity of the indigenous people of Zimbabwe. The intolerance of colonialists to African virtues resulted in an end, in some communities, to traditional practices and values. The displacement of much of the Zimbabwean population due to colonial land policies, like the Land Apportionment Act of 1930 and the Land Tenure Act of 1969, disrupted some of these practices [47]. Most displaced people went to settle in the Tribal Trust Lands (TTLs), where they were “aliens” who could not easily fit into the new socio-cultural set-ups.

Despite the limited literature, the Zimbabwe Tourism Authority, argues that Zimbabwe’s heritage is made up of its people, wildlife, vegetation, and heritage sites. However, it is important to ensure that this heritage is ‘unpacked’ and there is clarity on what it entails. Findings revealed that the term heritage is too broad. There are various perspectives in which heritage can be defined. Heritage encompasses a lot of issues. Different people define heritage from different angles. In an interview with an official from the National Museums and Monuments of Zimbabwe (NMMZ) he revealed that the term heritage includes aspects of the way of life that have been borrowed from our ancestors. It is the role of the NMMZ to identify aspects that should be sustained. When defining heritage it is not only the cultural heritage that will be considered but the natural heritage as well. On a different note, another respondent indicated that heritage can be viewed from three dimensions. These are physical, cultural and intellectual heritage. Intellectual heritage are the intangible form of heritage. From a touristic perspective the major focus or the critical areas are the physical and cultural heritage. Another respondent emphasized that heritage is a broad term. Thus, when defining heritage it is essential to define heritage from different angles. The respondent emphasized that heritage can be defined from a legal point of view. It can also be defined from a local knowledge perspective, it can be defined from an academic point of view, and heritage can also be defined from a heritage management perspective. It then depends on the one who is defining the term, it depends on the point of view that the definer might choose to adopt. On a more general note, the term heritage can be generally defined as the legacy that is passed from one generation to other be it tangible or intangible. He further argued that generally heritage is just nhaka (legacy), the cultural and natural sites that we have in our country, the values even the intangible heritage.

Findings revealed that the key factor that is considered when it comes to defining the term heritage refers to what aspect of the part or item that is valued by the community, be it a place or an object. When a community agrees that the aspect of this object is valuable to them then they collectively decide to preserve it for future generations, then one can define that object as heritage.

In another interview with an official from the National Zimbabwe Monuments, the respondent emphasized that heritage is that which was inherited from the ancestors and that which authorities and local communities have chosen to keep and pass on to the next generations. Heritage is divided into two main categories natural and cultural. Natural heritage are those natural phenomenon like trees, mountains, rivers, waterfalls, gorges and forests. Cultural heritage includes that which has been derived from the way of life of communities, societies or ethnic groupings in the country. This includes built heritage like ruins, monuments, Caves, graves. There are also tangible elements like objects, material culture that includes materials like walking sticks, cooking utensils, and dressing.

There are also the intangible heritages these are mainly things that one cannot touch but they have spiritual bearing on how people live as Zimbabweans. These involve things like dances things which we have spiritual attachments and are connected to them. Basically that is how the Zimbabwean heritage is understood from the National Monuments point of view.

Research revealed that there is also another dimension of heritage which includes the liberation heritage. The liberation heritage is a category that has not been realized to be a heritage for a long time in Zimbabwe. Of late, people have come to realize its value; it has taken long for people to regard the liberation heritage like the battle sites, the graves, the songs and dances that are part of the liberation as really something that is part of the heritage. Historically in Zimbabwe people have talked about the liberation heritage but there have been no practical efforts that have been put in place to ensure that this heritage has been recognized as a typology and being looked after in the manner in which other forms of heritage have been considered in the country.

However, Zimbabwe is one the countries in Africa with rich cultural and natural heritage. Zimbabwe has diverse types of heritages, which range from tangible, movable and immovable. When it comes to the richness of Zimbabwe in terms of heritage comparing with other countries within the region Zimbabwe has five sites, which are on the world heritage list.

Defining Heritage as a Tourism Product

Tourism is a worldwide giant industry which has a high increase rate such that UNWTO’s Vision forecasts that international arrivals are expected to reach over 1.56 billion by the year 2020, which were 842 million in 2006 (World Tourism Organization). Cultural heritage tourism is also, increasingly being used as a tool to stimulate regional development in rural and urban areas (New Zealand Tourism Research, 2007). Cultural tourism is growing faster than most other tourism segments and at a higher rate than tourism worldwide [48]. Actually spotlighting the arts, culture, history and heritage to attract tourists is nothing new, particularly in Europe and because travelers were becoming more and more interested in opportunities to learn about places through their art and history, cultural tourism consistently grows. Since tourism is nowadays used to stimulate regional development, cultural heritage tourism is used for, both preservation of regions as well as economic development of the regions. Cultural tourism can be defined as the subset of tourism concerned with a country or region's culture and its customs.

Cultural tourism generally focuses on communities who have unique customs, unique form of art and different social practices, which distinguishes it from other types/forms of culture. Cultural tourism includes tourism in urban areas, particularly historic or large cities and their cultural facilities such as museums and theatres. It can also include tourism in rural areas showcasing the traditions of indigenous cultural communities (i.e. festivals, rituals), and their values and lifestyles. Preserving cultural heritage appears to be a key factor in economic policies supporting tourism development. It is a widely accepted fact that preservation of cultural heritage is important and it is also used as a tool for tourism product differentiation [49]. Cultural tourists as cited by Hughes are seen as typically well educated, affluent and broadly travelled and they generally represent a highly desirable type of upscale visitor. It is generally agreed that cultural tourists spend substantially more than standard tourists do. Cultural tourists are expecting different experiences from their vacations and these expectations are becoming more important day by day. During these experiences tourist can interact with three kinds of cultural attributes; the physical (built heritage), the general (the daily life of the host community) and the specific cultural activities of the host community (rituals and festivals).

Additionally, mass tourism is a product of the late 1960s and early 1970s. Since then a number of interrelated developments in the world economy, have converted part of the industry from mass tourism to socalled new tourism. The new tourism, which is the idea of responsible, green, soft, alternative and sustainable tourism, basically refers to the diversification of the tourism industry and its development in targeted markets where cultural heritage tourism is in the first rank. Changing lifestyles of the new tourists are creating demand for more targeted and customized holidays. A number of lifestyle segments, families, single parent households, empty nesters (couples whose children have left home), double-income couples without children, will become prevalent (common) in tourism, signalling the advent of a much more differentiated approach to tourism marketing. Changing values are also generating demand for more environmentally conscious and natureoriented holidays.

Heritage has much potential in bringing tourists in Zimbabwe. As a tourism product, people want to see those things that are peculiar to Zimbabwe. For instance, during cultural exchange programs tourists will be interested in seeing items that they do not have in their own countries. People are interested in learning the lifestyles and the cultures as well as learning more about our heritage.

The research indicated that Zimbabwe heritage as a tourism aspect has a lot of features which include, culture of its peoples and contemporary to current, food and eating habits, social habits, attitude to life, manmade sites and archaeological sites, historical facts and sites and the people are part of the heritage that attracts tourism in Zimbabwe. There is also the culture, social, historical, way of life, the aged people that can be shown to various visitors. Zimbabwe has wilderness cites, wonder sites, some ancient linked tribes still living in their original state more or less. The Victoria or Mosi-oa-tunya is typical of a natural heritage site that has developed into a wonder site counted among the top seven in the world. Wilderness experience in Zimbabwe has to be the second most valuable site for Zimbabwe that is loved by tourists. Among other world heritage sites there is Mana pools and Bvumba forest.

As a tourism product, the people of Zimbabwe have a rich cultural history, which counts for tourists were especially some remote tribes living in border areas of the country far removed from the modern day civilization. These include areas like Chipinge in Manicaland Province and the Tonga people in Binga (Matabeleland North). Furthermore, as a tourism product; Zimbabwe has many historical sites. These sites are peculiar to Zimbabwe and there is mystery and cultural values that are attached to these sites. Major historical sites in Zimbabwe are Great Zimbabwe, Khami Ruins, Pit caves of Nyanga these are dwelling sites of the ancestors and some Rock Art paintings in the caves.

The Extent to which Zimbabweans value the heritage

Zimbabweans value the pride of their heritage to some extent. Basically, Zimbabweans value the national heritage. The inquiry revealed that the major obstacle in the manner in which the people appreciate and value Zimbabwean heritage has been the colonial period that has tended to undermine, underplay and ensure that Zimbabweans look down upon their heritage. Taking for example, for people to have pride in their culture for instance the achievements in the civilization of architecture like in the construction of the great Zimbabwe with the manner in which it was done, the colonial period has tried to deliberate it and assign it to foreign origins saying that it belongs to King Solomon. Colonialists have also tried to make everything that is locally valued in religious terms as satanic and demonic to make sure that people do not value it. For instance, most mission stations are located close to national shrines to make sure that those beliefs are pacified. For instance, Epworth, Matopos are closer to mission stations. Therefore, currently a number of Zimbabweans look down upon their heritage or their culture mainly because of that background.

On a different note, another respondent argued that the major issue depends on the type of heritage that is being discussed. For example, within the cultural heritage there are quite a number of things that have to be considered, one can look at the culture, traditions, and then evaluates on the value that is being placed on it and the extent of the value placed on the culture. On the other note, one can looks at things in Zimbabwe that have not been commercialized properly. Then one gets to question on whether Zimbabweans value these things or not. When one is establishing the level of value that is being placed on an item, it is crucial to determine whether there is an understanding or appreciation of this culture within the local community’s point of view. All in all the value ascribed to a certain tradition depends on the society, how the society values those traditional practices. For example, there are some traditions that engage in traditional ceremonies such as rain making, the fact that they still practice that tradition shows that they do value the culture. Nevertheless, if they no longer practice the ceremonies then they probably would no longer be valuing it. If one group of people consider the passing on that form of that culture towards the younger generation it shows that they still value the culture. Thus, it can be argued that the level of value that is placed on the Zimbabwean heritage by the Zimbabweans cannot be determined from a general perspective. One has to analyze different levels and the different cultural practices as well as the different communities and age groups and be able to establish fairly the value that is placed in the heritage in Zimbabwe.

Additionally, on a different not as well, findings revealed that if one looks at the physical heritage, it can be evaluated from a number of perspectives. Firstly, if the government has established a whole department and allocated money for development of those sites this shows that the culture is valued in the country from a national level point. At national level, heritage can be said to be valued by people if they are prepared to pay their money and visit the sites. Then the very basic thing: when a certain fee is required in order to access the sites that means that monetary value is allocated to these sites as well. One can argue that when one question on the issue of valuing heritage, there are really a variety of perspectives in which heritage can be valued. Therefore, in determining the level of value placed on the heritage site by the locals a lot of perspectives have to be considered.

An example has been the Epworth balancing rocks in Zimbabwe. It is a national heritage site: but the locals cut down trees they do not place value on the monument since it is located within the community. The major question that has been asked when determining the level of value was to the local communities know the value that is in these sites in Zimbabwe? On this note, one will be now looking at the value of heritage from a variety of levels within the country. At National level, the National museums and monuments value the heritage because they decided to preserve the area. Then at community level probably they do not value the heritage because of ignorance. The other issue to consider would be that the local community has it been benefiting from these sites. Are the local communities realizing the economic value of the heritage sites? A heritage may be valued at national level but if the communities are not aware of the value of the heritage or are not realizing the economic value of the monument, then they will not have an understanding of it. That is when we see the value of the sites by locals depreciating because there will be no awareness at the base. In Zimbabwe, there are quite a number of sites that are valued at national level but at the community level they have no significance.

Heritage is a comprehensive concept that consists of many diverse values like cultural, natural, historical, architectural, archaeological, and geological values. Heritage is a mirror of different ways of lives and habits, in other words, different cultures and eras of the mankind and the society they live in. A well-preserved heritage enables communities to learn about their cultural history truly and chronologically. After the World War II, the world has seen a gradual increase in technology and urbanization resulting in a series of threats to heritage; social, environmental and economical. Because of migration and industrialization population density between rural areas and cities differ greatly. Globalization changed people’s lives in an undeniable way, a way that is mostly stereotyped. These kinds of facts pose a great threat to intangible cultural assets. Heritage is not a renewable resource; therefore, it should be conserved in the most efficient way. The word “preservation” has existed from the beginning of the very early times of human history, but its definition. Until recently, preservation is nearly equal to just protecting the physical assets, but now it is seen as a clear fact that when trying to protect heritage national, social, cultural and economical aspects of the protection process should be taken into account. It aims to conserve, use and develop the heritage and to sustain it values and significance by giving the heritage a compatible use. It is worth of mentioning that, the most important innovation of the management approach involves the sustainability principle.

Chapter summary

There seem to be limited literature about Zimbabwe’s heritage. From 1890, when Zimbabwe was colonised, the colonial system tried by all means possible to tread down upon the identity of the indigenous people of Zimbabwe. The intolerance of colonialists to African virtues resulted in an end, in some communities, to traditional practices and values. The section managed to define heritage and give different perceptions of the term heritage. Heritage generally is the legacy that has been passed on from one generation to another. It is a broad term that has to be defined from a variety of perspectives. The section managed to define heritage as a tourism product in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe has a rich cultural, historical both tangible and non tangible. These can be utilised as quality peculiar tourism products and the government can utilise the funds that are drawn from the funds that are realised from the tourism visits to maintain various heritage sites in Zimbabwe. Findings from this section revealed that when determining the level of value placed on the heritage of Zimbabwe there are a number of perspectives that have to be considered. The value of heritage can be determined from different levels. One has to analyse the value that Zimbabwe places on the heritage from the national level point of view. For instance, the fact that there is a ministry and a fully fletched department that is allocated by the government specifically for the management of heritage sites in Zimbabwe. It shows that the country values its heritage to some extent. Then the value of heritage can be determined from the local community level point of view. Do the communities know the importance of the heritage sites that we have in Zimbabwe. Heritage value can be determined from the various practices. This depends on the communities and the level of knowledge they possess as well as the level of economic value they place on the sites. The next chapter discuses on the heritage sites in Zimbabwe.

Heritage Sites in Zimbabwe

Introduction

The NMMZ is presently custodian of 137 National Monuments. Among these are outstanding monuments and the world heritage sites, which are premier tourist attractions not comparable to any other sites throughout the world. These include the famous Victoria Falls Mosi o Tunya-Smoke that thunders, Great Zimbabwe, and Matobo Hills area. Monuments depict a variety of cultural and natural support phenomena that together embody the history of man in Zimbabwe and his attraction with the environment. A number of National Monuments have been opened to support tourism industry and therefore to generate the much needed foreign corporate world, to identify products and services as truly Zimbabwean. The most popular sites are Victoria Falls, Great Zimbabwe, Matobo Hills, Murewa Caves, Tsidi Ruins, Khami Ruins, Ziwa National Monument, Old Bulawayo National Monument, Muzilikazi Grave National Heroes Acre, Domboshava Caves and Nalatele Ruins among others. Zimbabwe has diversity in terms of Heritage sites and there are five internationally recognized heritage sites in Zimbabwe are Great Zimbabwe, Khami Ruins, Mana Pools, Victoria Falls and Matobo cultural heritage. The country is ahead, as compared to other countries within the SADC region for instance countries like Malawi, which has only one internationally recognized heritage in the country.

Tourism potential of heritage sites in Zimbabwe

Heritage tourism is a broad field of specialty travel, based on nostalgia for the past and the desire to experience diverse cultural landscapes and forms. It includes travel to festivals and other cultural events, visit to sites and monuments, travel to study nature, folklore or art or pilgrimages. The word “heritage” in its broader meaning is generally associated with the word “inheritance,” that is, something transferred from one generation to another. Owing to its role as a carrier of historical values from the past, heritage is viewed as part of the cultural tradition of a society. The concept of “tourism,” on the other hand, is really a form of modern consciousness. In this study, both heritage and cultural tourism are used in combination and/or interchangeably.

Cultural/heritage tourism is the fastest growing segment of the tourism industry because there is a trend toward an increased specialization among tourists. This trend is evident in the rise in the volume of tourists who seek adventure, culture, history, archaeology and interaction with local people. From a touristic perspective it is easy to see the value of historic buildings, heritage sites and objects d’art. Much of international tourism is centred around these material expressions of culture whether it is the Taj Mahal in India, the contents of the Louvre in Paris, France, or a city such as Venice in Italy. The 1972 UNESCO convention focused on the protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, with an emphasis both on built environments and natural spaces, which are of ‘outstanding universal value’ from various aesthetic, scientific, artistic, historic and conservationist points of view. In 2005, 812 cultural, natural and mixed world heritage sites inscribed. Of these, 611 are cultural sites, 154 are natural sites and there are also 23 mixed sites in some 137 countries.

The very fact that such sites are recognised and designated for their universal significance can transform them very quickly into tourist destinations. Indeed, this is one reason why some countries seek inscription in the first place, along with reasons to do with genuine protection of sensitive sites, landscapes and species, and the increased international profile and prestige designation brings with it. Heritage tourism represents a major potential for local and national economic development. Meskell [50] argue that heritage sites generate revenue through tourism. The link between culture and tourism is the most visible aspect of the contribution of culture to local development. The monuments are the magnet that attracted the visitor to the community but the monument itself was only a minor beneficiary of the economic impact. Nyaupane pointed out that visits to cultural and historical resources have become one of the largest and fastest growing sectors of tourism industry. Cultural heritage sites play a major role in economic development through them being the centre of tourist attraction and as such tourism is a major component of economic development. It is argued that 37% of the global tourism has a cultural motivation. Rypkema [51] argues that heritage tourism is an important component of local economic activity in many places in Europe and cultural tourism is a major contribution to tourism overall and is among the fastest growing segment of the tourism sector. According to a UN General Assembly report of 2011, heritage tourism presently accounts for 40% of world tourism revenue. It was argued that cultural heritage in general and in particular those inscribed on the UNESCO World heritage List, generate substantial revenues and employment for tourism.

This increased exposure and popularity with tourists, can generate significant economic benefits for heritage sites and their wider geographical locations. At the same time, it is important that such increased touristic activity is effectively managed to ensure the sustainability of the site and its surrounding communities. Increasingly, the World Heritage Centre, established in 1972 as the UNESCO coordinating body for World Heritage matters, is involved with management and training issues relating to the touristic dimension of sites, including supporting the elaboration of management plans to handle the pressures that tourists can create.

Tourism is able to generate both income and employment relatively cost effectively by drawing upon the (previously largely untapped) resources of nature and culture. Studies which have taken places in Europe, Asia and North America have shown that heritage tourists stay longer and spend more per day and therefore have a significantly higher per trip economic impact than do tourists in general. Rypkema [51] further his discussion when he explains that if heritage tourism is done right, the biggest beneficiaries are not tourists or even hotels, restaurants, petrol stations that service them, the biggest beneficiary are local citizens who gain a renewed appreciation of their site’s unique history and character.

As tourists are becoming more sophisticated, their need to recapture the past has been increasing. Tourists have been visiting cultural/heritage sites more frequently. Cultural/heritage tourism offers several benefits to tourists and residents, as well as governments. First of all, cultural/heritage tourism protects historic, cultural, and natural resources in communities, towns, and cities. People become involved in their community when they can relate to their personal, family, community, regional, or national heritage. This connection motivates residents to safeguard their shared resources and practice good stewardship. Second, cultural/heritage tourism educates residents and tourists about local/regional history and traditions. Through the research about and development of heritage/cultural destinations, residents will become better informed about local/regional history and traditions which can be shared with tourists. Third, cultural/heritage tourism builds closer, stronger communities. Knowledge of heritage provides continuity and context for communities, which instills respect in their residents, strengthens citizenship values, builds community pride, and improves quality of life. Fourth, cultural/heritage tourism promotes the economic and civic vitality of a community or region. Economic benefits include the creation of new jobs in the travel industry, at cultural attractions, and in travel-related establishments and economic diversification in the service industry (restaurants, hotels/motel, bed-and-breakfasts, tour guide services). There is also manufacturing (arts and crafts, souvenirs, publications), and agriculture (specialty gardens or farmers’ markets); encouragement of local ownership of small businesses; higher property values; increased retail sales; and substantial tax revenues (Virginia Department of Historic Resources).

In Zimbabwe, the National Monuments are protected and promoted in accordance with the National Museums and Monuments Act 1972 [Chapter 25:11]. This law replaced the Monuments and Relics Act 1936, which in turn replaced the 1902 Ancient Monuments Protection Ordinance and 1912 Bushmen Relics Ordinance. In April 2000, there were approximately 14,000 entries on the Archaeological Survey, of which 118 were National Monuments (including natural, cultural, and mixed sites).

The heritage sites and their potential as ‘World Class’ tourist destinations: Zimbabwe’s Heritage is the substance of what was left by ancestors through material culture, belief systems and ways of living. It is unique, consists of natural and cultural, tangible and intangible scattered all over the country. It ranges from Stone Age, Iron Age and the late farming communities. Dry stone walls consist the most unique architectural prowess that define Zimbabwean as a people and has granted us the identity we carry as a people. Rock paintings and engravings are part of Zimbabwe’s heritage, which is also scattered in the country giving evidence of an artistic nature of ancestors, which was a means of communication and expression of various spiritual and cultural livelihood. Belief systems, myths, taboos and material culture. There are springs, wetlands, mountainous landscapes, rocks, caves and trees which have intangible values as well as minerals. Zimbabwe’s heritage fits as a tourism products because it is unique and carries a wide range of values: historic, cultural, scientific, aesthetic, religious as well as economic.

NMMZ is a responsible heritage custodian and one of its mandate is to present the heritage to the public hence marketing is an essential tool to achieve that. However, like any government funded institution NMMZ is struggling financially to perform its duties which include marketing. Therefore, there is a need to ensure the availability of financial resources enable adequate management of heritage management. Research works, conservation and restorations works can also be conducted effectively with availability of financial resources. Need for financial resources can also lead to over exploitation of heritage sites through tourism, which may lead to loss of heritage or desecration of sites.

According to the NMMZ officials, the heritage sites are ranked. The world heritage sites are at the top followed by class one National Monuments. The sites are ranked from class one to class three.

Class one: These are sites that have site museums, they have tour guides and custodians based on these sites, they are highly accessible and they command high number of visitors thus, so visitor-ship is high, they have a site museum to collect cash from those sites. Tourist destinations those are fully functional and operational and with a lot of infrastructure to cater for the visitors.

Class two: There is only a custodian who acts as a custodian and a tour guide. There is no site museum. Accessibility is not as excellent as the first category. People can get there but they collect cash from these sites.

Class three: These are the sites that are not publicised extensively because the major duty is to conserve and preserve these areas. The sites are opened when there is need. Access is free but accessibility is difficult. NMMZ do not normally encourage exposure or marketing of these sites because the cultural heritage is non renewable. Once these cultures are over visited and carrying capacity is stretched, they are bound to be destroyed.

Most tourists to Zimbabwe value and are attracted to these forms of heritage sites. Statistics show that a lot of tourists visit to experience these natural and cultural sites. Most people seek experience in culture. They want to find out how people live, how they enjoy and how they do their daily chaos. They collect a lot of staff from the local crafts and industries. The reason why Zimbabwe National Museums and Monuments do not open heritage sites randomly or open all of them at one time is because it is difficult to manage sites that are in the remote areas. They are more expensive to manage because visitor-ship in those sites is low. The return that they get by opening access to them, by putting human resources there is not always that you find them giving returns. The practise is not peculiar to Zimbabwe. That a country does not open up their entire cultural heritage at one point. By ranking, it means that the managements categorise them and when they see that there is more volume in class one then class two is opened, when there are more in class, class three will then be opened. In order that one cannot just throw money everywhere without necessarily evaluating whether there is need to open up more sites.

The study showed that Zimbabwe has more than 1000 heritage sites. However, some sites can be exploited while others cannot. Other sites like Mzilikazi’s grave have cultural limitations. People say you cannot use a king’s grave for financial or tourism purposes. It is sacred. However, there is need for cultural change and change is a process that takes time. A Regional Director interviewed said the ways in which heritage sites can be used to attract more tourists will never be enough. When you are in business you continue to expand and grow. There are a number of efforts that national museums and monuments have put in place to develop class one and class two sites. “To ensure that they develop infrastructure for tourists, they have established adequate infrastructure for instance, having a site museum to give information about the sites to the visitors. Investing in human resources tour guides, custodians and we have a national museums and monuments website to ensure that people get access. The organisation also exhibit and market the heritage sites. There are various efforts in place that are being done to ensure that visitor-ship increases”.

There are five World Heritage sites in Zimbabwe, which are Great Zimbabwe, Khami Ruins, Mana Pools, Matopos and Victoria Falls. There are other heritage sites like Domboshawa, Heroes Acres, Epworth Balancing Rocks, Ngomakurira Mountains, Naletale Ruins and Ziwa. However, this study focused Great Zimbabwe, Heroes Acre, Domboshawa, Ngomakurira and Naletale. The researcher also visited two Museums, which are Military Museum (Gweru) and Natural History Museum (Bulawayo). The succeeding sections presents the findings on the sites visited. Recommendations for enhancing the attractiveness of the sites are also made.

Great Zimbabwe: Great Zimbabwe is NMMZ’s cash cow and prime heritage site. It was declared a National Monument and World Heritage site in 1937 and 1986 respectively. The builders of Great Zimbabwe are believed to be the Karanga, a sub group of the Shona who constitute a majority of the population in Zimbabwe [52]. It is situated 27 kilometres south-east of Masvingo town. Great Zimbabwe is the country’s largest archaeological site and the largest archaeological monument in sub-Saharan Africa. It represents the great civilization that existed in the country between 1200 and 1500 A.D [53].

The study showed that about 58 000 tourists (domestic and foreign) visited Great Zimbabwe in 2014. There was a slight improvement in 2015 and 61 000 people came to Great Zimbabwe. The figures include the locals, the schoolchildren and they fluctuates. The local community understands the value, the importance of the Great Zimbabwe cultural site. The great Zimbabwe has a local management committee, which is responsible for conscientise people on the importance of the great Zimbabwe site. Locals in Masvingo are given access to the site. They fill in forms and they are given free of charge entry. Great Zimbabwe has a good relationship with the local clients around Great Zimbabwe.

Great Zimbabwe was mainly built of cut granite blocks, laid in regular courses, and contains a series of daga-hut living quarters, a community area, and a narrow passage leading to a high conical tower. Basically, it is believed to be the site of the main and religious center of Great Zimbabwe. It is believed that when the old huts were destroyed the remains were lived off new huts were built. Lot of items were suggested to be found were said to have belonged to the spirit mediums and chiefs which includes bowls, large soapstone, gold objects and ceremonial spear. The succeeding paragraphs highlight the main attractions at Great Zimbabwe.

The great enclosure: It is suggested to be were king’s residence, or wives or premarital initiation school. The Conical Tower is one of the largest structures in the Great Enclosure, is 33 feet high at 16 feet in diameter. Traditionally the Conical Tower is said to represent a grain harvest symbolizing a good harvest and prosperity.

The valley enclosure: This is where other wives and villages lived an estimate of about 50 household is believed to have lived on these stone wall enclosures. As one walk along the Valley Enclosure they are evidence of remains of Dhaka, huts, platforms and small towers. The Zimbabwean bird the seventh one, which is used as the National Emblem, is believed to be found in the seen closures. On the enclosure large amounts of iron and copper, beads and pottery were found.

The Hill Complex and the Cave: The Hill Complex was the Kings’ fortress and ruling. This is said to be were the platform where the Kings sat and surveyed their Kingdom. Tourist gets to say something and hear their echoed coming from the bottom.

The Shona Traditional Village: It was recently restored after authorities had initially removed it a few years ago. The village is one of the major tourist attraction, sine this where visitors get a feel of how life was like at the Ancient City.

What is there for tourist to see at the village?

• Traditional dancing done by the locals, performing a Shona song accompanied by their music which includes shakers and traditional drums. As they will be dressed in their traditional finery, tourist can also join in as they sing and dance.

• Art and Craft Center were one gets to see pottery making, bakery and beadwork. Stone/wood carving during the Great Zimbabwe years it was every man’s responsibility to be able to make basic implements for the household e.g. yokes stools and axe hands.

• Lastly the village will provide an overnight accommodation to visitors willing to experience the African night in traditional hoes using the cultural materials, and they can also enjoy the traditional foods.

The Great Zimbabwe Museum: This is the most exciting part of the site, as visitors get an idea of the various day to day lives. They also get artefacts. The main attraction is that tourist get to see the original soapstone birds known as the Zimbabwean bird. However, no one is allowed to take any photos of the, as they is security cameras and policeman in the room with the birds.

The study showed that, as a stand-alone monument, Great Zimbabwe is operating very well they have some improvements. Management have tried to innovate but innovation can never be enough. Lodges are being run by the great Zimbabwe. They have opened a restaurant, they have camp sites and lodges, and they are now hosting weddings (1200 venue and tent).

Great Zimbabwe is lagging behind on several areas in terms of innovativeness. In terms of technology, clients need Wi-Fi. One NMMZ official said, “We do not have Wi-Fi”. The impact of international Regulations for example VISA satisfaction, issues of prescriptions from international organizations the likes of UNESCO or other governing boards they have their restrictions which hinder the innovativeness of the sites. For instance they cannot build a large hotel since they cannot meet the international standards required. This limits their ability to make money.

Marketing strategies at Great Zimbabwe: The NMMZ official interviewed said, “the marketing strategies that we use include moving around schools, companies, attending festivals and Indabas, Sanganayi and Zimbabwe International Trade Fair so that we meet international and national clients. Great Zimbabwe has a website. We market via the website and constantly update information on the site, although it’s national”.

Great Zimbabwe also have a sound relationship with other organisations and government entities and departments. For instance, Great Zimbabwe is working well with the government authorities like ZTA. There is ZTA Masvingo and ZTA Harare, who sometimes bring visitors. An official, also said, “commenting on the need to have partnership we are working in partnership with the Zimbabwe National Army (ZNA). They bring Soldiers training tour guides and they were awarded certificates. We are in good books with National Parks and the Masvingo Rural District Council (MRDC) as well”.

Service Provision and facilities that can enhance the attractiveness of Great Zimbabwe: During the time of the study, Great Zimbabwe had accommodation and two dormitories. These two dormitories only cater for 100 children. This limits the number of school children that can be accommodated at once. Of which the site cannot accommodate two schools at the same time. This is not viable in terms of business competitive. Even the dormitories are not enough they can only accommodate up to thirty four people. Accommodation is very cheap executive lodge $50 per couple $40 dollars for standard lodge.

Challenges that are being faced at Great Zimbabwe: A number of challenges are affecting the sustainable management of Great Zimbabwe. The NMMZ official interviewed said. “when you are surrounded by homesteads the major challenge is of deforestation. This is a protected area but villagers still insist on tree cutting. The community still cut trees and veld fire. Though we have tried to create awareness and have fire campaigns, the community is still lagging behind in terms of compliance” (Table 3).

SWOT Analysis of Great Zimbabwe:

a. Strengths

• Several tourism facilities built around it.

• It is a World Heritage Site.

b. Weaknesses

• Lack of advertisement limits the number visitors to the site.

• They do not have facilities to cater for the disabled visitors.

• Abulation faculties not in good order

• The administration offices needs a facelift, especially in terms of furniture

c. Opportunities

• Development of refreshment food courts on site

• Getting more tourists if they advertise more.

d. Threats

• Visitors to Great Zimbabwe can lead to the repositioning of the stone structures.

• Increase pressure on the structures if there are more visitors.

Other Facilities and Attractions Around and Close to Great Zimbabwe: Great Zimbabwe Ruins are close to a range of accommodation facilities that will suit ant visitor from business leisure to business tourist, these will include:

• The Great Zimbabwe Hotel

• Norma Jeans Lake View Resort

• Zim Parks and Lodges

• Kyle View Holiday Resort

Norman Jean Lake View Resort and Zim parks: Visitors get to see an overlook of Lake Mutirikwi and with the best fishing grounds. It is located just 10 minutes away from Great Zimbabwe ruins, let meet the needs of any visitor by offering a range of accommodation from selfcatering lodges to hotel rooms. They also have a restaurant available for the convince of their guests offering a full English breakfast and a four course meal for evenings. They also have facilities of the disabled and internet connections.

Zim Parks and Lodges: Accommodation: it offers a range of selfcatering lodges available at the Kyle Recreational Park.

Other attractions that visitor can view include:

• A trip to Lake Mutirikwi

• Kyle Game Reserve drive

The Game Reserve Drive: Masvingo is also home to an excellent bird life which includes the African eagle, mostly known as the Zimbabwean bird. Animals found in the park – they are about 25species of wild mammals. These animals commonly seen by include: buffalos, warthogs, zebra, crocodiles, Rhinoceros and hippopotamus. They is also a picnic sites mainly for daily use. The picnic sites have ablutions and fire places.

National Heroes Acre: The National Heroes Acre is located in Harare and is a burial sites for Zimbabwe’s national heroes. The shrine is built on a hill, in the western side of Harare. There is a forest, which has small wildlife like monkeys and antelope. At the top of the hill, one can have scenic view of Harare’s western and southern suburbs. There is also a museum at the National Heroes Acre. However, there is an issue of marketing. At Heroes Acre, people are scared and they think that they cannot go there. This is despite the fact that the place is very interesting. In addition, the place has a lot of potential. NMMZ can have billboards where people can be informed that they are welcome to come at the Heroes Acre. Even at Long Cheng Plaza and in Warren. If the place is well marketed they can attract more visitors. People want to see the graves of heroes but they are scared and they do not know that they are allowed. Therefore, marketing is very weak, people are scared of heroes acre, largely because of the presence of military. There is also a need for cultural change, heroes acre is more than a burial site. So more facilities can be provided there.

Positive Impact Negative Impact
It helps to preserve and appreciate traditional cultures and history. Some of the traditional dancing preformed, are to be performed for certain festivals but now they are done to entertain tourist.
It can be used by local communities in conducting rituals on this site and helpful in doing archaeological research value. Great Zimbabwe is open to the public and visitors causes damages to the monument by overusing certain paths and areas especially the entrances to the Great Enclosure and Hill Complex through climbing of the walls.

Table 3: Social Cultural Impacts of Tourism at Great Zimbabwe.

Domboshawa Caves: The monument came under the custodianship of National Museums and Monuments of Zimbabwe in 1936. The monument is accessible it can be reached via Borrowdale Road. It lies approximately 30 kilometres north of Harare. The major attractions on Site include an Interpretive Centre or Site Museum, beautiful rock art panels, geological formations, natural scenic environment that includes streams and wooded vegetation. Facilities available include the camping grounds and toilets facilities, picnic facilities braai stands, resting and picnic stands.

The main reason why Domboshawa was declared a national monument is that we have rock art that was done by the San. The rock art is similar. The paintings are archaeological evidence that shows that some people once lived in the area and they left evidence, rock art. The evidence could be traced back so that one can identify the exact people who painted the rocks. Besides the archaeological evidence, there is oral evidence that is passed on from one generation to another. The Domboshava site is surrounded by the community the mountain has traditional significance to the people of Domboshava. The forest that surrounds the mountain is called Ndambakurima; (a land that refuses to be cultivated). Long back, the ancestors had allocated the place for farming. Therefore, when people destroyed the trees so that they could farm, but when they came back they could find the trees back in place. This was mysterious and the place was sacred. Therefore, the elders allocated the area for traditional meetings and sacred religions. At the cave there is also, besides paintings there is a geological tunnel, Ninga. It starts from the cave. Forefathers could offer sacrificial animals to the ancestors.

What the Local Community is Benefiting from the Site? There were a lot of problems between the community and the management regarding the management of the monument. This is because from way back the community was not benefiting. Nowadays the locals are allowed to have their projects at the monuments. They are encouraged to keep the environment clean. The community is involved in decision making when it comes to issues affecting the monument. Projects are done free of charge. Employment at the sites is drawn from the community provided there are people who are qualified. Rural electrification, the monument provided financial support.

Services to add in Order to Enhance Attractiveness of the Site: There are a lot of services that the NMMZ can do. The problem is that there is no adequate land. There are no camp sites. When it comes to development, the place needs to have quality standard restaurants so as to attract visitors. A lot of ideas are there but there is no adequate financial support from the government.

Marketing is a major weakness. The NMMZ official interviewed said that a meeting with the team from the Zimbabwe Tourism Authority has been conducted whose agenda had been on seeking assistance towards marketing of the site. Even at National Museums and Monuments, there are archaeologists. There are researchers but the major challenge is that there is no one with a marketing background. Monuments had no exposure for marketing purposes. They were treated as preserved places.

Partners at Domboshawa: There are no specific organisations that the site is partnering with. But individuals come and assist the site. Much help is needed when it comes to marketing of the site.

Challenges Faced at Domboshava when it comes to Site Management: Most challenges emanate from the community. There is no smooth relationship between the community and the management of the heritage sites. There is no clear cut communication on what the site means to them. The NMMZ official said, “the local community feel that the government took away their heritage (Government yakatitorera zvinhu zvedu), long back people used to climb the mountains, use the monument for free, animals could graze freely, and they had free access to the community, religious ceremonies were done at the site. Now it is a protected area”. Therefore, the community feels that they are being shunned from their right to free access. Domboshava have been facing challenges of ownership with the community. The locals think that they are losing ownership of the heritage site. At one time, Domboshava Ruins where vandalized. They at times sneak in and cut trees as a means of sabotage, Zimbabweans do no not value their monuments. They do not understand the values of the national monuments. They expect to enter freely into the areas without paying and they do not contribute towards the preservation of the sites. They feel that only foreigners should pay, Zimbabweans expect to have free access to heritage sites. Domboshava also faces a challenges of veld fires. The locals are yet to understand that the management at the site is just custodians of the sites; they are not taking away their legacy.

Ngomakurira Mountains: Ngomakurira mountains are in the same vicinity with Domboshawa caves but are a further 10km away. Ngomakurira is a heritage site because long back drums could be heard in the mountain. People did not know who played those drums. It is a mystery up to this day. Ngomakurira means drums beating. Therefore, because of the mystery that is involved with the mountain the government saw it necessary to award the site a national monument status.

At Ngomakurira there are quite a number of tourists that visit the mountain. Mountain climbing is a bit challenge so most people are hesitant to climb. Very few school children come. The site receives a few tourists and other local individuals. There are no strict regulations at Ngomakurira. The major issue that is required is that the visitors and locals should preserve the site and also deforestation and littering are prohibited.

The Facilities that can be put in place in order to Attract Tourists: The site needs electrification; there is need for a restaurant for refreshments. What is amazing is that at Ngomakurira the electricity lines are there but the site has not been electrified. There is no water at the facility. The features that are at Ngomakurira that attracts tourists includes: a cave, echo point, seasonal stream, there is a beacon which one can view the mountain. There is also a need for adequate tour guides at the site. One tourist interviewed said, “there is no one around in this place. Very few people visit the place. When it comes to services provided, there are no services provided. The workers at Ngomakurira are just taking the money. There is no interest in telling people what the place it about, what used to happen here, one cannot travel from different parts of the world just to hear that drums used to be heard in this mountain. Tourists want to see things. What would be good is that the guys welcome you correctly. There is nothing that has been done here in terms of conservation. Instead of collecting money to pay the staff, they have to conserve the heritage”.

In addition, the monument is not being marketed very well. Marketing tends to be seasonal. Mostly they intensify the marketing strategies during rainy season and then during the dry season they do not market the place and there are fewer tourists.

It was also pointed out that the locals feel that they are being shunned out. What the society does not understand is that they are not being shunned out, the monuments is protecting the area. Unfortunately a site that is in a community, locals have attachment to the monument. They believe that they have communal ownership. Not everyone living in the area has an attachment to the monument that is why there are so many challenges especially the challenge of poaching. The respondent argued that there is a need to create awareness, awareness is more important than putting barriers at national monuments. Locals do not appreciate the value of the monument. Locals are contributing to deforestation. When making bricks the area is large and unfenced. So some locals especially children may climb the mountain without the approval of the management. The headman was supposed to conscientise the community but the effort is not fruitful. The major problem is that the locals are not aware of the value of the monument they are not given adequate information.

Recommendations for Ngomakurira: There is need for electrification of the area and an information center so that when tourists come they can get adequate information of the site. There is need for raising awareness to the locals on the need to preserve the site since it is their legacy. The NMMZ official at the site said, “our sites should be affordable and they should offer many different activities that cater for different age groups. They should offer many services like restaurants, refreshments to liven up the places unlike what happens at Ngomakurira where there are no services at all. They should preserve the sites like what happens at Ngomakurira the stream runs dry in dry season and nothing should be changed about that”.

Tourists interviewed also had some recommendations. One of them said, “if they want to keep up and improve the site they have to provide decent toilets, information desks, they have to conserve the site keep it natural. Disseminate information about the site. It is not all about money, it is all about preservation of nature”.

There is untapped potential at Ngomakurira. However, the head of monuments explained that they are currently working on addressing all the ills at Ngomakurira Heritage Site. They are working on improving the facility, electrification, road infrastructure. “There are challenges that we face hopefully by end 2016 things will have changed at Ngomakurira”, said the Head of Monuments in the Northern Region. There is some wildlife (antelope) but the problem of poaching. There question is whether more wildlife be introduced. In some sites visited, for example, Nalatale Ruins (Central Region), a fence is being erected in an area surrounding Naletale so that they contain wildlife. There is also a possibility of a borehole to supply water (can the natural stream be feed from a borehole so that natural swimming pools be perennial, tourists, especially whites like to swim. There are overnight prayer sessions and the question is, “is all revenue being collected?’. Ngomakurira is a multi-purpose site with a lot of potential.

Proper offices and an informative centre are required at the site. There is a shopping centre (seem to be not active) and a church conference centre about 1km from the site. One can ask, ‘how about accommodation provision, something like Inn on Great Zimbabwe’. There is a vending structure erected by ‘CAMPFIRE’ but it is in decay.

Naletale Ruins: Naletale Ruins are located in the Central Region. The place seems to be isolated but has a lot of potential. There is need for wildlife to attract tourists. The site management is embarking on a project in which the National Parks wants to create a small Game Park and a wildlife fence being constructed by Insiza District, which is a sign of innovation. During the time of the study, the site was not attracting visitors. The site receives more than ten visitors per month. Locals hardly come. Excluding school children, the locals do not come frequently because mostly there is nothing more interesting for them to see more than the site. The major challenge is that of marketing. There is no signpost along Bulawayo road (at Daisyfield, which is the shorter route from Gweru) and a tourist can easily get lost.

The facilities are the site are not proper. The information centre is just like a simple cottage, there was no creativity when it was contracted. There are Blair Toilets. There is need for a lodge in place. The site is surrounded by farms. Therefore, there are not many challenges from the community.

Military and Aviation Museum: The Military and Aviation Museum is located in Gweru (Central Region). The nature of Zimbabwean heritage is so wide in the country that national museums had to be decentralised up to regional level. Each region has a research mandate. The central region was given a mandate to research on the military history and the mining history of the country. The NMMZ official interviewed said, “most of our military history has aspects of the colonial era. There are a few mining equipment that we have had from the pre historic and pre-colonial era. This is because during the past the mining prospects were low in this region. However, in the collection of military museum, they have the mining equipment that is currently in use in Zimbabwe and that which we had been used during the colonial era”.

The military history that is at the museum is that which was used during the pre-historic military history, apart from the arrows and bows the museum has the collection, which in terms of colonial artefacts forms the basis of the military history collection. At the museum there is also the aviation aspect. There is a collection of the equipment that was used from 1945 when the heritage of this country was reactivated. This was the period that formed the basis where history of aviation really started. Pre-colonial, in the museum there are artefacts that were obtained in Europe even before colonialism. There are some guns that were used around 1700. There are also arrows and bows that were used pre-colonial. However, most of the artefacts that we have are definitely colonial.

Lessons that users of the Military Museum Can Draw: The occupation of the country by Rhodes’s crew, organisationally the country was still young. Zimbabwe had no communication means and roads that can be used to alert the people about the invasion. The occupation of Matabeleland, the Africans lost in battles even though the whites where few in numbers, they had machinery, they had better fire power, they were armed unlike the Africans. For instance, about five hundred people could be killed in one minute. There also lessons about mining. The NMMZ official said, “us Zimbabweans, we were not educated but the gold was being mined and processed. The prospecting was done with indigenous and traditional methods. For example, a tree could indicate the availability of minerals in the soil. That knowledge is unique to Zimbabwe and it is viewed as heritage. Indigenous knowledge systems are the ones that were applied in the mining sector. The museums task is to capture these knowledge systems and preserve for future generations”. However, due to resource restrains, the institution is not being able to have their researchers go into the field to research. Currently the knowledge that is in the museum was from oral accounts from the elderly. They would record. As the case stands right now they cannot go into the field. The organisation is aware of the reservoir of knowledge that is in the people.

The Military Museum is also exploring innovative ideas so that it generate revenue. The Regional Director said, “museums has a tourism project; we are appealing to the government and the tourism sector. The museum has an education program, because within this military museum there is nothing much to interpret to the clients. A gun is a gun and one can actually see it from the artefacts that are there. The artefacts in the museum have not been as attractive as other museums. Once one visits, no one would want to revisit again. When one sees a gun and a plane and a few artefacts there is nothing that can motivate that person to revisit again.” Therefore, in order to encourage revisits, there are educational programs that have been run within the museum. Within these programs exercises and assignments are given to school children and the pupils do those exercises and they might get excited that they would want to come again.

The programs have been included in education curriculums. An outreach project has been initiated. There is a mobile museum that goes to Masvingo. The team is involved in awareness campaigns. Informing the communities on what heritage in Zimbabwe means, how they should preserve that heritage and the issues that contribute towards heritage in Zimbabwe. The museum informs the society on how they can communicate with museums and monuments when they have discovered things that could be preserved for future generations.

The museum has also been embarking on primary schools visits. A national primary schools’ quiz has been initiated as well, the museum has an objective of informing the children to know their history, and we want them to know how to preserve their history. The Regional Director said, “we want to keep them aware that this heritage is very important and how they should preserve it.”

Partnerships at Military Museum and in the Central Region: The Military Museum has been trying to establish partnerships with mines that are within the Midlands Province. These mines include Umki, Mimosa, Marowa and Sino. The regional Director said, “Sino helps the museum very much; good relations have been established with the mine especially with fuel and other resources. Nevertheless, with these other mines partnership is yet to be established. Project proposals have been drafted and the mines are still to respond. The government does not have adequate financial resources so there is need for the museum to partner with these mines and other private players.”

Most of the activities that have been pointed, for instance the quiz, mobile museum are a sign of innovativeness on the part of national museums and monuments. There are other areas that NMMZ has been innovative so that they improve the attractiveness of the site. In this regard, the Regional Director said, “the museums approached a number of embassies; the French embassy was responsible for the restoration of the Khami National monument. The museums approached the US Embassy and it funded the restoration of the Naletati ruins”.

Marketing Strategies that have been Adopted: The study showed that the marketing strategies are not quite in touch with the Morden trends. The museums used to have brochures but most of them have not been updated. However, educational training programs have been designed in such a way that they empower the children because they believe that they are the leaders of tomorrow. Because of lack of resources to put in place brochures, in the national strategic plan there was anintention to print broachers, information sheets and place them in all entry points of strategic areas. These include the airport and the borders. This is because tourists have not been aware of the heritage sites that we in Zimbabwe have. The most popular site that we have in Zimbabwe is Victoria Falls. The other areas have not been popular. “Our marketing is poor”.

There are also difficulties in trying to acquire the knowledge that the people have in areas around them. The Regional Director said, “we want to give them the responsibility; we want them to be in partnership with the monuments in the drafting of management plans. Also within the schools, there is also a school in Shurugwi where we made an agreement that they preserve a historic site in the area. The school is responsible for cutting grass and general maintenance of the area. This was done to make sure that they own the program. To avoid clashes. However, the major challenge that we have are financial issues. We have traditional cultural monuments and it is our responsibility to make sure that they do not fall off. The major problem is the issue of funds to preserve our areas.”

Natural History Museum and Sites in the Western Region: Natural history museum is located in Bulawayo. The museum has a potential of becoming one of the major tourist attractions in the City. However, NMMZ seem not to be making maximum use of this unique resource and is restricting visitors by their ‘strict’ adherence to closing times. The researcher observed that there is no flexibility and the museum sticks to a rigid opening time of 830am to 5pm, everyday. There is a need for flexibility and open for loner hours, especially on Friday and Saturday. There is a restaurant at the museum and one can wonder why the museum cannot open till 10pm on Fridays and Saturday. People usually like to go out during weekends and NMMZ could take advantage of that social behaviour and open long hours.

In addition to the Natural History Museum, in Western region there are three World Heritage Sites: Victoria Falls, Matobo Cultural Landscape and Khami. There are also Classes, which define heritage sites in Western Region of NMMZ in terms of development and importance. Some of the sites that fall within the list are Old Bulawayo, Inyathi Old Mission, Stromatolite geological formation site, Gwanda Cave of hands, Provincial Heroes Acres, Fort Tuli, Chamunonwa, Nkankezi, Filabusi Memmorial, Indaba Tree, Orbicular Granite site and many more. The sites need to be developed in terms of visitor facilities, interpretive centres or site museums. A national marketing programme, which incorporates all heritage sites should be developed. Access roads, visitor friendly facilities like energy sources; lights, cooking facilities, camping sites, toilets, bathrooms, running water. Internet services like Wi Fi. There is a need for interpretive centres, brochures, curios, tour guiding and refreshments.

Visitation at heritage sites

Zimbabwe received 1 880 028 tourists in 2014, up from 1 832 570 in 2013. Of this figures, heritage sites received less than 250000 tourists (less than 14%). Table 4 shows the visitation statistics from year 2009 to 2015 while Figure 4 shows the trends.

Figure 4 shows that there was marked increase in the number of visitors to heritage sites between the year 2009 and 2010. Economic stabilisation due to the adoption of the multi-currency system could be one of reasons for that increase, especially for local visitors. From 2011 to 2015, there has been a marginal increase in visitorship. The low growth rate in the number of tourists seem to be at variance with the core objectives contained in NMMZ’s strategic plan (2012-2015). The core objectives in the strategic plan included the need to improve heritage awareness from 30% to 50% by 2015, to improve generation and management of financial resources from 10% to 30% by 2015, and to improve customer satisfaction from 20% to 50% by 2015.

business-and-economics-journal-Heritage-Sites

Figure 4: Trend in Visitation to Heritage Sites.

Furthermore, the low increase in the number of tourists visiting heritage sites is not in line with national plans for tourism development. For example, the Ministry of Tourism and Hospitality Industry plans to grow its revenue from the current $800 million to $5 billion by 2018. There is a need for NMMZ to attract more visitors to the heritage sites so that it moves in line with national plans and global trends. Globally, tourism is a world-wide giant industry which has a high increase rate such that UNWTO's Vision forecasts that international arrivals are expected to reach over 1.56 billion by the year 2020, which were 842 million in 2006 (World Tourism Organization, 2015). Heritage tourism is also, increasingly being used as a tool to stimulate regional development in rural and urban areas and is growing faster than most other tourism segments and at a higher rate than tourism worldwide.

The influence of ownership orientation on services provided at heritage sites in Zimbabwe

Ownership orientation and service delivery

Ownership orientation and working hours: The study sought to establish whether the employees could work overtime even if there is no allowance. One interviewee said, “it is difficult to work without overtime allowance”. One of the reasons is that there are no ownership claims to profit. Ownership structure influences the extent to which management is committed towards realising profits. SOEs, by virtue of being owned by government, have been characterised by the ‘no ownership’ culture, thereby limiting drive towards profits. According to Omoyefa, loss making in the SOEs, therefore, pushed for privatisation, which was a marked feature of the structural adjustment programmes (SAPs). Privatization of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) has become a key component of the structural reform process and globalization strategy in many economies. Several developing and transition economies have embarked on extensive privatization programmes in the last one and a half decades or so, as a means of fostering economic growth, attaining macroeconomic stability, and reducing public sector borrowing requirements arising from corruption, subsidies and subventions to unprofitable SOEs. By the end of 1996, all but five countries in Africa had divested some public enterprises within the framework of macroeconomic reform and liberalization.

National Museums and Monuments: Total Visitor Statistics in Zimbabwe
Region 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Northern Region 23 406 35 286 40 520 50 556 46 789 48 739 50 987
Central Region 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Locals-Private Tours 877 1 224 1 394 1 696 1 630 1 847  
Educational Tours 8 745 12 563 17 594 17 949 18 760 17 801  
Foreigners 54 88 74 49 95 91  
TOTAL 9 965 14 151 19 349 19 951 21 500 20 727 21 491
Eastern Region 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Locals- Private Tours 3776 3875 2302 3685 3516 3429 3263
Educational Tours 2242 6055 8867 8349 8644 7632 7642
Foreigners 2 60 107 100 95 85 114
Totals 6020 9990 11276 12134 12255 11146 11019
Western Region 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Locals Private tours 16883 18601 28661 28628 25479 34065 36802
Educational Tours 1493 34428 25578 20577 19413 25597 28151
Foreigners 1190 3246 4574 5951 6912 8558 8008
Total 19566 56275 58813 55156 51804 68220 72961
Southern Region 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Locals Private tours 17583 16201 28442 29654 26432 42765 35438
Educational Tours 1542 43274 26368 22537 19764 26343 29754
Foreigners 1075 3265 4436 6025 7036 8643 8753
Total 20200 62740 59246 58216 53232 77751 73945

Table 4: Visitor Statistics: 2009 to 2015.

The inability of public enterprises to contribute to development arose not only from their inefficiencies due to their monopoly or protected status but also because of lax governance and oversight. The checks-and-balances that come with private ownership are essential. The pressures that shareholders and external directors can exert on managers help to improve efficiency. More so, capital markets can exert pressure on companies to allocate scarce resources economically and to operate within ‘hard budget’ constraints, and that managers who are responsible to shareholders and outside directors can exert on workers to improve productivity, are all usually missing from public enterprises. Where SOEs were too strongly controlled by the State, they often became inflexible bureaucracies.

Additionally, SOEs face conflicting goals that affect the efficiency. The lack of profit-orientation culture prevents SOEs from identifying ways to improve efficiency. Managers in SOEs tend to relax because little revenues can be ‘compensated’ by government subsidies. Efforts to enhance performance fall to second place and weak accountability systems prevent the development of an ownership structure that triggers efficient behaviour from senior management. The absence of high and performance-oriented cultures resulted in countries like China taking a paradigm shift on how governments treat the SOEs. Woetzel [6] argues, “the Chinese government privatised and commercialised most SOEs.” The directors of SOEs in China became accountable for the successes and the failures of their institutions. In short, SOEs in China underwent a cultural change process. The same cultural shift process could be beneficial to SOEs in Zimbabwe.

Ownership orientation and Outlook of Administration Offices: The researcher observed that the outlook of administration offices, especially at Great Zimbabwe, leaves a lot to be desired. Offices for staff have broken down furniture and the buildings are in need of repainting. The same situation was also observed at the Military Museum. The poor state of office furniture and offices may not foster a culture of seriousness on the part of employees. The offices and furniture are part of symbols and ‘rituals’ that demonstrate the value that one should place in his or her work. The nature of office furniture also helps in shaping the personalities of employees. Every organisation has a particular culture, which is almost like a personality. It comprises an omnipresent set of assumptions which is often difficult to fathom and which directs activities within the organisation. In a nutshell, corporate culture may be defined as the beliefs and values shared by people in an organisation. Just as an individual's personality determines his behaviour, shared values and beliefs form the foundation of a particular culture that influences the actions and activities in that organisation.

Organisations are made up of people and not simply of buildings, production facilities, products, markets, strategic analyses and technological innovations. Every organisation has its own unique personality, which is known as its corporate culture. The heart and soul of an organisation is its people. Each of these individuals has his or her own value system and code of conduct. Furthermore, there are certain fixed patterns of behaviour, and leaders have their own value systems in the organisation. A combination of all these factors gives an organisation its particular personality and corporate culture.

Culture in an organisation, also termed corporate culture, can be defined as the beliefs and values shared by people in an organisation [54]. It is akin to the personality of the organisation. It therefore refers to a set of basic assumptions that work so well that they are regarded as valid assumptions within the enterprise. These assumptions are upheld as the correct way to do things or understand problems in the particular enterprise. The term ‘basic assumptions’ refers to the following;

• Beliefs or convictions about the world and how it works. These beliefs are based on and reinforced by personal experience. The individuals with whom he or she associates can influence a person’s beliefs.

• Values are the community's assumptions about what ideals are worth pursuing, for example, striving for success or avoiding debt. Values are also based on personal experience and the influence of the members of the community with whom an individual associates.

An organisation's culture is determined by numerous elements, such as symbols, rituals, ideologies, language, tales, assumptions, relationships and humour. The symbols of organisational culture include the following the architecture of the buildings, the arrangement of offices, the name of the organisation and the use of departmental title, and the way outsiders are dealt with.

In addition, organisation culture is often reflected and created by the building and offices of the organisation. The physical environment of the organisation reflects employees’ pride in their work, the importance of ostentation and tradition for them and the relative status of members of the organisation. In many organisations, top management always occupies the top floors in the buildings. Likewise, the physical arrangement of offices also has certain cultural implications. The arrangement of chairs and tables at meetings makes an explicit statement about the relationships between employees, managers, customers and so forth.

Additional characteristics manifested by culture are the name of the organisation, departmental titles, and slogans used within the organisation. A specific slogan introduced together with a new strategy may be extremely forceful. More so, the way in which outsiders are handled in organizations symbolizes organizational values. A reception area with a friendly receptionist who greets all visitors with a charming smile and gives them her undivided attention conveys a totally different image to the setup in which visitors have difficulty in attracting the receptionist’s attention on arrival. Another manifestation of this relationship is the way in which prospective employees are greeted and taken into service in the organization. Socialization of new employees is another aspect that indicates organizational culture.

Competent Human Resources at NMMZ: One Regional Director interviewed said that the strength of national museums is within its human resources. Most of the employees are adequately educated and most of the times they are invited into other countries to present papers and share the information. From there we also note some experiences from those countries that we can note here in Zimbabwe. For example the aviation museum, the shaping of the shades was borrowed from New Zealand, and then the display of artefacts was borrowed from South Africa. The museums borrow whenever they can and the exposure the get from various fields is enrichment to National Museums. However, emphasis should be on the provision of adequate trained guides at the sites. Heritage is dead if there is no interpretation. For tourists it needs to become alive and it can only become alive if someone is at home to interpret.

The Need for Employee Empowerment: Empowerment of employees is essential for ensuring the effective management of heritage sites. Empowerment is a process, and change does not occur overnight. There are many indicators of success, which are open management, team spirit, and decentralised control. Open management entails a situation in which team members are actively involved in meetings, evaluation and analysis of relevant issues, and identifying creative solutions. In addition, managers support their skill and autonomy, and allow team members to exercise control in these matters. There is also team spirit. Group members and managers show a high degree of enthusiasm, and company morale is high. For this reason, team spirit is important. Decentralised control is another option. Team members function with autonomy, overlapping roles, and functions. However, there are clear lines of authority.

Consequently, from the preceding discussion, it can be ‘inferred’ that employee empowerment is a process of distribution and redistribution of power (authority) to management and employees. The reason is that power is in the hands of management who can determine how to share it with employees. Nevertheless, there are differences between the powers of managers in the corporate world and the authority the leaders in the SOEs have. Various government departments have different constitutional roles. The managers in SOEs possess some degree of legal powers in addition to the normal supervisory responsibilities of managers in the corporate world. Distributing statutory powers has its challenges. Despite the advantages to both managers and employees, implementing employee empowerment initiatives in organisations is not an easy process. According to Kandula [55], both managers and employees often resist the implementation of employee empowerment programmes. The primary reason behind resistance is the wrong perception by managers who assume that employees will welcome the initiative (since it is to their benefit).

However, according to Johnson advancement does not happen. Employees can either perceive it as ‘another gimmick’ played by managers to exploit them or fear the increased levels of accountability, which are often associated with empowerment initiatives. In addition, in some organisations, empowerment is not welcome because it is ‘perceived’ as a hint that management is deciding to implement downsizing procedures. Another dimension of organisational barriers that comes in the way of empowerment is from top management. There is a perception that empowered employees will demand more compensation. The empowerment process could lead them to identify their real potential.

If there were staff empowerment programmes, any demotion in the future would force them to leave the organisation. Lambert stated that taking back power from employees after an empowerment process is often a big element of fear for management. There is a strong possibility that employees would resign if leaders reduce the power hitherto workers. For these reasons, the concept of employee empowerment is not ‘implemented’ in its full format in many organisations. For this reason, giving power to staff remains a highly misperceived and misjudged idea in the corporate sector.

Building Employee Capability: Cherrington [56] stated that total quality management has to be supported by building employee capability through education, training and development. Cherrington [56] defined training as the acquisition of specific skills or knowledge. Training programmes attempt to orient employees on how to perform particular activities or a specific job [57].

Cherrington [56] went on to state that education is much more general, and attempts to provide employees with general knowledge that can be applied in many different settings. Cherrington [56] went on to suggest that education and training require a systematic approach and the development of a sound education and training program, systematically gathering data about the employees or the firm’s needs. A good assessment includes an analysis of how well the firm is achieving its goals, the skills needed by the workforce to accomplish these goals; and strength and weaknesses of the current workforce. A careful analysis of these items provides valuable information to design effective training activities [57].

Firms that implement total quality management (TQM) invest heavily in training for employees at different levels. Without training, it is difficult to improve the performance of employees. The Total quality management aspiration of continuous improvement in meeting customer requirements is supported by a thorough learning orientation, including substantial investments in training and the widespread use of statistical and interpersonal techniques designed to promote individual and team learning. In view of the aspect of education and training, this research seeks to apply this principle in ensuring that there would be continuous improvement of total quality management concept in Zimbabwean SOEs. As a natural follow up to the concept of building quality in to people, the view of training would start with management and then workers. When the workers and management receive training on the essence of TQM application in an organisation, and make it a continuous process, employees would appreciate the need to get involved and participate in the implementation of the concept. The application of employee involvement and participation becomes imperative.

Employee Involvement and Participation: Daniel states that people are a fundamental component within any successful developing organisation. Take away the people and the organisation is nothing. Take away the people’s motivation, commitment and ability to work together in well organised teams and again the organisation is nothing. Conversely, inspire the people to work well, creatively, productively and the organisation can fly. Logically therefore, the development and proper utilization of people are vital to the success of all quality management initiatives. In view of the preceding, it is clear that employees must be involved in the running of the organisation, and should be trained and informed about the organisation. This encourages commitment and interest, leading to fulfilment and job satisfaction [57].

Juran and Gryna defined employee participation as the degree to which employees in a firm engage in various quality management activities. By participating in quality management activities, employees acquire new knowledge, see the benefits of the quality disciplines, and obtain a sense of accomplishment by solving quality problems. Juran and Gryna proceeded to explain that participation is decisive in inspiring action on quality management. An important point to take note of is that things such as teamwork, employee suggestions, and employee commitment exemplify employee participation.

The aim of a team is to improve the input and output of any stage. Deming states that a team may be composed of people from different staff areas, everyone having a chance to contribute ideas, plans and figures. Teamwork is sorely needed throughout the firm; it can compensate one’s strength for another’s weakness. Dean and Bowen concurs with Deming in that they said that, teamwork can be characterised as collaboration between managers and non-managers, between different functions. Dean and Bowen went on to state that, team work practices include identifying the needs of all groups and firms involved in decision making, trying to find solutions that will benefit everyone involved, and sharing responsibility and credit.

Schein [9] stated that to achieve effective employee participation, employees should be committed to their jobs and that job commitment can be defined in terms of one’s loyalty, identification and involvement with the firm. Davis added flavour by stating that if employees are committed to their jobs, they will be motivated to spend more energy on providing high process, product, and service quality to satisfy the firm’s customers. Deming highlighted that in order to have effective employee participation, employees should be encouraged to report their own working problems as well as problems they find in other areas of the firm. Employees should be encouraged to inform top managers or supervisors concerning conditions that need correction, for instance, inherited defects, machines not maintained, and poor tools. More importantly, employees should be encouraged to fix their own working problems. Ishikawa identified the benefits associated with employee participation and involvement concerning the concept of total quality management, and highlighted them as follows:

I. motivated, committed and involved people within the organisation;

II. innovation and creativity in furthering the organisation’s objectives; and

III. people accountable for their own performance, people eager to participate in and contribute to continuous improvement.

The Level of Innovation and Initiative of NMMZ in the Management of Heritage Sites: Innovation is about being creative and coming up with new ways of doing things. Maiyaki [58] defined innovation as a process of making changes, large or small-scale, radical and incremental to products, processes, and services that result in the introduction of something new. Innovations add value to the customer and may create new products or services to serve new markets, enabling entities to expand market base or range of beneficiaries. Alternatively, it may lead to product or service improvements, such as better quality or service flexibility. To be called an innovation, an idea must be replicable at an economical cost and must satisfy a specific need. Innovation involves deliberate application of information, imagination and initiative in deriving greater or different values from resources, and includes all processes by which new ideas are generated and converted into useful products. In business, innovation often results when ideas are applied by the company in order to further satisfy the needs and expectations of the customers. It is also essential to note that innovativeness is closely related to entrepreneurship, which is about taking risks and coming up with new ideas.

When responding to question on whether NMMZ has been innovative, one Regional Director said, “in terms of innovativeness, we have been innovative. In terms of the national tourism plan, Great Zimbabwe for instance, there is a village where there are ladies with pottery and guys who sell curios, this shows that things have improved a great deal in terms of the level of understanding within the community. In Matobo things have improved. The guides there are excellent. There has been a policy that has been adopted to train the guys in order to make the monuments live. Live in the sense that if one is at Rhode’s grave begins to have greater knowledge of the monument. In Binga, they have a community museum. Binga Museum is live and there is an interpretation of the life of the Tonga people.

Participants also said that, at Great Zimbabwe, National Museums and Monuments provides accommodation for visitors, there are camp areas as well. The National Museums and Monuments have not moved with speed to provide specifically for discussion. The point of departure for the National Museums and Monuments is that for years the mandate of National Museums and Monuments has not been in profit making or in developing the sites for revenue. The mandate national mandate since 1972 have been to preserve the monuments and for other people to come and see the monuments. The grant they received from the government has been specifically for conservation. Unlike when one look at National parks who look after wildlife, he/ she would find that from their initiation because their resources have been regarded as natural and renewable. Therefore, the element of using the resources they manage for money was conceptualised from the beginning. Nevertheless, with regard to National Museums and Monuments it has just been the concept of preserving and all national Museums and Monuments board of directors have been so much concerned with preserving, making sure that structures survive, they do not fall. When they fall they are restored and reconstructed in the manner in which they are done.

The drive to develop these sites as tourism entities has only come recently, at the realisation of little flow of revenue from the government. In this regard, one interviewee said, “we started thinking why can’t we market these sites for generation of revenue even for their own preservation. Therefore, in the beginning it was for National Museums and Monuments to charge minimal rates for them to be able to just preserve the sites without necessarily it being a business entity. So it is just recently when began to think in the direction in which we can use these resources for income generation”.

The research established that one of the innovative ways that have been adopted by the NMMZ in the management of heritage sites is the strategic alliances. One of the Regional Directors interviewed said, “we have had partners. We have a program that we do that is called National Heritage Education Blitz. This program is funded by partners. We have had so many partners in this program. Additionally, the National Museums and Monuments’ budget is largely donor funded. Most of the partners are international partners though the partners are not many. Most of the work at great Zimbabwe has been donor funded. At Domboshava we are funded as well. Government grant has been minimal for quite some time”.

The National Museums and Monuments had alliances with the ZTA and they have had alliances with NGOs. Nothing much has happened when it comes to partnerships with the private sector except when Museums and Monuments have worked with the private sector in Great Zimbabwe and Khami ruins.

The concept of strategic alliances has become widely used in the business language to refer to the different type of partnership agreements between two or more companies that pursue clear strategic collaboration objectives, with different levels of possible integration among the members. Strategic alliances are partnerships of two or more corporations or business units that work together to achieve strategically significant objectives that are mutually beneficial.

A number of authors have written about strategic alliances. These include Amaldoss and Staeline [59], Isoraite [60], Shchipanova [61], Uddin and Akhter [62], Vogel and Pires da Cunha [63], and Zamir et al, [64]. All these authors agree that strategic alliances have advantages to organisations. The partnerships can be with suppliers and clients. In addition, Amaldoss and Staeline [59], Isoraite [60], Kittel [65], and Zamir et al. [64] all contend that firms also use cross-border alliances to transform themselves or to better use their competitive advantages in the rapidly changing global economy. For example, Kittel stated that GEC, a UK based company entered into strategic alliances in order to diversify.

However, not all strategic alliances are attractive and authors like Thompson and Strickland argued that some alliances fail. Failures can be attributed to a variety of reasons, but all revolve around lack of perceived benefits to one or more of the partners. Benefits may never have been realized in some cases, arid different goals and management styles may have caused dissatisfaction in other alliances. Thompson and Strickland also contended that alliances and joint ventures with foreign partners have their pitfalls.

When analysing the types of strategic alliances that have been created and implemented by different companies, academics tend to classify them based on different criteria. Writers like Savunen (2009), Theriault and Edwards [66], and Vogel and Pires da Cunha classified strategic alliances based on the areas of collaboration. The strategic alliances can be mostly summarised into three dimensions: joint venture, equity strategic alliance, and non-equity strategic alliance.

Joint Venture: This is when two or more firms form a legally independent firm to share their collaborative capabilities and resources to achieve competitive advantages in the market is termed as joint venture in the form of strategic alliance. Joint ventures are effecting in establishing long-term relationship and in transferring tacit knowledge. Because it cannot be codified, tacit knowledge is learned through experiences such as those taking place when people from partner firms work together in joint venture. Expertise and experience in particular field foster the sustainable competitive advantage. Tacit knowledge is an important source of competitive advantage for many firms [60].

In a joint venture, participating firms share resources and participate in the operations management equally. For example, Sprint and Virgin group’s joint venture, called Virgin Mobile USA, targets 15-to-30 years-olds as customers for pay-as-you-go wireless phone service. Brand (from Virgin) and service (from Sprint) are the primary capabilities the firms contribute this joint venture [67]. In another example, Sony Pictures Entertainment, Warner Brothers, Universal Pictures, Paramount Pictures, and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Inc. each have a 20% share in joint venture to use the internet to deliver feature films on demand to customers [67].

Equity Strategic Alliance: Ownership percentage is in equity strategic alliance is not equal. Two or more firms own the shares of newly formed company differently according to their contribution in resources and capability sharing with ultimate goal of developing competitive advantages. Internationalization of strategic alliances focuses on the linkages between two or more different firms’ management capabilities and operations activities. The different corporate cultures are matched into one goal in the strategic alliances when it crosses the boundaries of the country. Many foreign direct investments such as those made by Japanese and U.S. companies in China are completed through equity strategic alliances [64].

Non-equity Strategic Alliance: A non-equity strategic alliance is less formal than a joint venture. To ensure competitive advantages two or more companies form an alliance in a contract basis rather a separate company and therefore do not take equity shares. They share their unique capabilities and resources to create competitive advantages. Because of this, there is an informal relationship is built among the partners. Consequently, requires less formal relationship and partner commitments than other forms of strategic alliances.

The implementation process of non-equity alliance is simple than the others. Since it is less formal relationship in non-equity alliances, does not need that much of experience likes others. In a complex venture where success necessitates transfer of implied knowledge and expertise, non-equity strategic alliances are unsuitable because of their relative informality and lower commitment. However, firms today increasingly use this type of alliance in many different forms such as licensing agreement, distribution agreements and supply contracts [64]. The external factors like uncertainty regarding technology and complex economic environment motivate commitment in relationships.

Moreover, Zamir et al, [64] provided another classification of non-equity strategic alliances. These include outsourcing, affiliate marketing, technology licensing, product licensing, franchising, research and development, and distribution relationships.

Service delivery is about delivering the right good and services to clients at the right price. The needs of clients are dynamic due to the changes in the environment, therefore, companies need to constantly adapt. Markets are moving so quickly that is very difficult for one company to stay current on all technologies, resources, competencies, and information needed to attack, and be successful in those markets. As a result, companies are turning to strategic alliances as means for ensuring the provision of quality services. Authors like Mowla [68], and Zamir et al, [64] agree that strategic alliances offer a means for companies to access new markets, expand geographic reach, obtain cutting-edge technology, and complement skills and core competencies relatively fast. A network cooperative strategy is particularly effective when it is formed by firms clustered together, as with Silicon Valley in California and Singapore’s Silicon Island [68].

More so, Isoraite [60] stated that strategic alliances have the potential to allow companies to create new products, reduce costs, penetrate additional markets, pre-empt competitors, generate more revenue, and, therefore, create value for customers. In Japan, Shchipanova [61] argued that many domestic alliance arrangements are formed with an eye to extending a helping hand to a less-than-sterling company. Japanese companies have achieved an enviable reputation for relational capability, infusing trust and reciprocity into their transactions with customers and suppliers so as to spread the costs and burdens of product and process development, quality assurance, and customer service. In the aviation sector, the Star alliance, a group of five world-class airlines that was established in 1997, improved service delivery. Shumate and O’Connor [69] argued that the alliance brought together networks, lounge access, check-in services, ticketing and dozens of other services to improve the travel experience for customers and efficiencies for the carriers.

However, strategic alliances are not risk free. Authors like Kittel [65], and Zamir et al, [64] agree that there are problems associated with alliances. According to Kittel [65], more than half of all strategic alliances in the 1990’s were deemed failures in one way or another. In addition, transactions cost theory suggests that firms entering into alliances are potentially vulnerable to the opportunistic behaviours of their partners that impede achieving commitment [64]. Opportunistic behaviour is those conscious deceitful behaviours engaged in by one party to the exchange that are meant to enhance their own position or outcomes, usually at the expense of the other party. These opportunistic actions may take the form of misrepresenting competences, limited commitment of resources to the alliance, holding specific investments by the partner hostage, appropriating private information, or premature exit from the relationship.

Moreover, Zamir et al, [64] stated that unsuccessful alliances cause many losses to the partners of alliance. Some of the causes are as following:

1. Problems relating control of strategy implementation is a factor in failure of the alliance. When strategy implementation goes out of control of any of the organization in the alliance then the alliance starts moving towards failure.

2. When one organization depends solely on the partners of other alliances for skills, it is a drawback for the organization that depends on others.

3. When the concept of unequal gains prevail in alliance, partner getting less out of the alliance than those partners who gain more can cause problems and disagreement which can lead to failure.

4. When the partners in alliance do not manage the project properly, it creates trouble when it is not planned that how, who, when and where the process should take place and how much time and resources must be committed to manage the alliance. The partners must plan and monitor the progress of each step regularly.

5. Conflicts between the partners to decide the objectives and plans can cause a change in the viability and relation of a particular alliance.

6. When the strategic alliances lose control on basic strategy and they depend upon the alliance for growth of its overall business, and fail to concentrate on alliance goal and their organization goal separately then conflicts arise and partners may become competitors.

7. Differences in cultural values may lead to failure as culture clashes and different thinking can create a situation where parties in organizations disagree to some aspects of agreement.

8. Different cultures, environment and rules prevailing in partner organizations within the same nationality also cause failure of strategic alliances.

9. When strategic alliances are created, many job positions and their descriptions are changed to achieve the goal of alliance. There are role ambiguity and uncertainty about specific roles that may bind organizations from fulfilling their obligations created in the situation of alliance.

10. A partner may create multiple alliances with other competing organizations which may affect the alliance.

11. Antitrust regulations can fail an alliance. It can limit the benefits of an alliance by inviting governmental intervention.

Despite the problems associated with strategic alliances, authors like Isoraite [60], Mowla [68], and Savunen [67] provided some ways for ensuring that alliances are established and become successful. According to Mowla [68], to make a strategic alliance succeed, its managers must be able to create an environment of trust, maintaining broad strategic vision and feel genuine empathy for others, even those who are still competitors in other areas. The concept of mutually beneficial is important. As in every business relationship, the idea of a win-lose situation is far from being accepted. Seeking for win-win opportunities for all the members of the alliance is a critical element for the success of such partnership in the future.

Trust is another factor which is critical in a strategic alliance since each partner depends on the other to share information and to satisfy mutual goals. Trust can be examined from two distinct perspectives: character-based trust and competence-based trust. Character-based trust emphasises full awareness of each other’s true strategic intentions, the willingness to be honest about problems and to maintain confidentiality about strategic plans and key information vis-à-vis third parties. Competence-based trust relies on knowledge about each other’s specialised skills, ability to work well with others and decision making ability [69].

There are certain factors that are important to achieve success at each stage of alliance. In first stage of alliance, alliances are formed by scrutinising and selecting a suitable and reliable strategic partner, in the second stage the alliances are set, designed, job description and ownership at each level is made. Third stage is the managing and post formation evaluation stage, which includes supervising the perceived worth of outcome [70]. According to Zamir et al, [64] several key factors for strategic alliance formation and its success are important to consider. If a company overlooks the critical process of intensive analysis, designing, managing and evaluation any strategic move while practicing alliance, it can bear unrecoverable loss.

The influence of profit orientation on marketing of heritage sites as tourism products

Importance of marketing in tourism: Marketing is a combination of management task and decisions aimed at meeting opportunities and threats in dynamic environment in such a way that its market offerings lead to the satisfaction of consumers needs and wants in such a way that the objectives of the enterprise the consumer and the society are achieved. Kotler advocates that “marketing is the business function which identifies current unfulfilled needs and wants, defines and measures their magnitude determines which target market the organization can best serve and decides on appropriate product services and programs to serve these markets”.

Market perceptions play a critical role in destination promotion because tourism is an intangible product which cannot be physically experienced before the actual travel. Therefore decision to travel is determined by how the destination is perceived in the markets. These perceptions are formed through word of mouth, media reports, country travel advice, websites, social media and mobile based technologies amongst a myriad of communication platforms. Marketing is needed to attract both existing and potential customers by creating awareness; to particular products and services provide by different travel supplies. Marketing also plays a key role in trying to achieve customer satisfaction in order to meet the needs and wants of specific customers by generating repeat business customers.

• Firstly domestic tourist have increased due to the appreciation of the of the National Heritage site.

• tourist have also increased because of the aggressive marketing of the site by the National Museum and Moments and Moments of Zimbabwe, the Zimbabwe Ministry and Zimbabwe Tourism Authority

• Significant changes shows that the number of foreign tourist have significantly changed; from December 2014 to January 2015 from 4,823 to 5,000. Then in the preceding January to March 2015 they has been a great change, from 6, 507 to 8,000 in the same period the previous year at Great Zimbabwe.

Activities conducted by the NMMZ to market heritage sites: Marketing is one of the weakest functions in the NMMZ. The National Museums and Monuments have never had a marketing department since its inception. In 2013/2014 they started to involve a marketing department. What National Museums and Monuments have done is have people who point reference. The institution does not have a marketing manager in the organisation. Marketing has largely been adhoc, has not been well structured and well coordinated. It is just bits and pieces of marketing ideas being thrown around. However, they have participated in tourism efforts Sanganayi-Sanganayi and Agricultural shows in all the provinces including the Harare Agricultural Show. Museums and Monuments have done the traditional methods of brochures but they in most cases are outdated.

The marketing strategies that NMMZ use include moving around schools, companies, attending festivals and Indabas, Sanganayi and ZITF so that they meet international and national clients. Great Zimbabwe has a website. NMMZ also market via the website and constantly update information on the site, although it is national.

Publicity by use of brochures: These will consist of a brief detail of the attraction or facilities around it, photographs to show what it looks like. Their main purpose is to attract the readers to the particular destination.

Use of internet websites and social network platforms: These will give full information, photos and maps of the site under consideration like facebook, twitter, Instagram. Advertising on special tourism events like carnival and Sanganai programs where buyers and sellers meet and get an opportunity to showcase the products. The word of mouth by former visitors and encouraging local and international travel agencies to put Great Zimbabwe on flyers in order to create its awareness and publicity of the destination.

By advertising: By use of broadcasted media on the local television and also by print media e.g. featuring in flight magazines in domestic airports.

Increased sales promotions: Whereby they give discounts for a large number of people or people from the same organisation, especially during their low peak season.

Participating on tourism events: For instance on carnival programs and Sanganai which are held every year.

Pricing structures used at Great Zimbabwe and other facilities around it:

Discount pricing–This can be done by offering reduced prices. We find that historical monuments if they is a certain number or group of people from a certain place they can be given a certain percentage as a discount. This was done at the Great Zimbabwe monuments.

Variable Pricing- This is when different prices are set for different seasons for the year for the same product or service. This concept can be applied for accomodation offered at or around The Great Zimbabwe. For example, in times of low business prices should go down and during the peak season or holidays prices go up since the demand will be high. This is helpful in increasing tourists arrivals to Great Zimbabwe area.

Special Offers- This is when customers receive something for value for their money or something for free. This can also be used for accommodation e.g. at the Great Zimbabwe Hotel they were offering free accommodation and paying of meals at discounts for children below 12 years. These are mainly offered at particular seasons.

Facilities that can be provided at heritage sites: The research established that a number of facilities can be provided at heritage sites. These include informative centres, camping sites, accommodation, proper sanitation facilities and amenities like swimming pools. NMMZ should be aware of the fact that heritage sites from a tourism perspective are special sites. They are special products. If one is in Japan, possibly what forces the person to come to Zimbabwe is not necessarily the Khami Ruins. Khami Ruins is an add-on attraction; it is an incremental value upon to one’s holiday in Zimbabwe. There must be a number of things that attracts a tourist to visit Zimbabwe. These additional products add value to the holiday.

Heritage sites have different market segments. They might be divided into two segments that are the international market and the domestic market. For instance, in Domboshava there are a much diminished number of international tourists that go there. But the local, domestic market especially Harare, is a major area. The strategies differ from the strategies that are done at the Victoria Falls because some of them for the local tourists will be useless. Therefore, one need to be more focused, strategies should be customised for each and every site. If they are generalised then they won’t be able to enhance the service delivery at the monuments. Therefore, a strategy depends on the type of heritage site and the tourists it attracts. It depends on who visits there. So strategies are determined by the type of visitors. What needs to be done? If one visits rural areas there are a lot of bushman things but they cannot attract international tourists. The major issues are that are people aware of the site. There is also a need to protect the sites.

Suggestions for marketing of heritage sites: The participants said that marketing strategies were being utilised. Nevertheless, on the word vibrant, it has not been vibrant. The focus for quite a long time has been that of preservation and interpretation. In addition, part of the reason was the structure of the organisation. The museums have been supported by the government all along; the government were paid for the services and development activities at monuments so the role of national monuments was to preserve the sites. They were just stewards of monuments and making sure that people understand what is there. However, that has changed in a way that National Monuments want to establish a marketing department. What is needed is an understanding of the issues of tourist attraction for the personnel in the marketing department. One has to understand the things that drive tourists and come up with strategies.

The very successful examples can be picked from Midlands. The education officers have developed curriculum tools, the curriculum of schools. Students are given homework based on their tour. Therefore, it is not just a tour to the military museum but it is a tour that is part of the curriculum. It is all about awareness creation. The focus was not profitability. However, it is done to instil value or appreciation within the locals of the monuments.

There are events that are in place to market heritage sites, for instance, the museum week and cultural week. One Regional Director said, “the NMMZ has plans, several plans. It is actually the process of putting these plans into action that is the challenge we have. We have development plans. The organisation has a development plan for Chinhoyi. The plan came out in 2012. There is poor management and the department has to enhance our marketing plans and strategies”.

Promotion can play an important role in meeting educational and financial goals and objectives. If a site can accommodate greater numbers, and has a mechanism for retaining tourism earnings, it can be promoted to draw in additional visitors and generate increased revenue for sustaining operations, solving management problems and meeting goals and objectives. Many simple and low-cost promotional actions are possible; the manager can select those that are within the site’s capacity to carry out. In addition, many of the skills and materials involved overlap with those used in interpretation programmes.

Promoting a site to help finance management operations: A portion of visitor fees should be set aside to help finance promotional activities. This will start the cycle of attracting additional visitors thereby generating increased revenue for operations. A mechanism should be set up for retaining a portion of the earnings. This will create the necessary incentive to promote increased visitation. Even with such a mechanism in place, some sites may need outside funding to begin developing promotional materials; international organisations can be approached for such assistance.

The site manager should decide which type of visitors to target in a promotional campaign on the basis of the site’s policy and management objectives. Certain types of tourism fit a site’s goals and objectives better than others. As with any management action, promotional campaigns should reflect the site’s stated policy vision statement and objectives. For example, at natural sites, if local economic development is an objective, managers may wish to promote bird-watching or trekking where local people may be hired as guides or drivers. At an archaeological site affected by theft of objects destined for trafficking in stolen art, a promotional programme may be designed to attract betteroff visitors who are willing to pay an extra fee to support an artisan cooperative making high-quality replicas of objects at the site. These can then be sold to satisfy a portion of the demand fed by trafficking.

Dividing visitors into groups according to their characteristics, referred to as market segmentation, permits managers to set up well-directed promotional links between different consumers and organisations. The segmentation process requires research into the characteristics and preferences of visitors who may want to come to a site. Distinct segments of consumers might include those belonging to museum associations or organisations for the protection of wildlife. Identifying people with similar motivations and needs enables the manager to pinpoint the types of promotional materials needed. A simple example is an elderly target audience, for whom promotional materials can be in larger print and may list special services for senior citizens.

To be selected for management action, a market segment must have three characteristics:

• it must be measurable

• it should be easy to reach through promotional distribution systems, and

• it should promise increased earnings sufficient to more than repay the costs of targeting it with promotional materials.

Knowing how tourists inform themselves on a site they wish to visit will help identify where to focus promotional efforts. For example, since most “eco-tourists” wishing to see polar bears in Manitoba, Canada, seek information from travel agents, the site’s managers are wise to send their promotional materials to travel agencies. However, since few travel agencies are able or willing to stock the full range of available brochures and are ill-prepared to deal with specialised inquiries, a more efficient approach may be to send agents a brochure and then contact them personally to brief them on the site’s attractions and the logistics of reaching it.

Developing a theme using a site’s central message for the park’s promotion helps develop marketing and promotional materials. Combining a site’s most attractive elements to develop slogans or “sound bites”, will facilitate the design and creation of brochures and interpretation displays. For instance, a park could be “the best kept secret in the Caribbean”, or the place where “billions of years of nature meet thousands of years of history”.

An analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) can be used to identify gaps between a site’s promotion strategy and tourism trends. A SWOT analysis is a marketing tool used to evaluate a site’s promotional abilities by examining the strengths and weaknesses of its promotional organisation, financial and staff resources, and existing promotional strategy. Strengths and weaknesses are considered factors over which the site has some control; opportunities and threats are external. The analysis results in a matrix comparing the results. Strengths and weaknesses include:

• The ways in which the site is being marketed, the size of the marketing budget, performance measures and the degree and nature of the staff’s involvement in marketing efforts

• The site’s tourism products, including the quality of service, image and reputation

• A profile of current visitors

• Suppliers and the quality of goods and services they provide

• The people who handle any marketing for the site and the image they promote, for example, the way it is presented by tour operators compared with the site’s own promotional materials

Opportunities and threats include

• Political factors, including government legislation

• Economic factors

• Social factors

• Competition, identifying competitors and analysing their strengths and weaknesses

A known drawback of SWOT analysis is that it is carried out at one point in time but may guide policy over several years during which both internal and external changes are likely that would necessitate modifications to the strategic plan. Managers without sufficient time or staff to carry out promotional tasks may consider seeking outside assistance. Tasks such as writing to guidebook publishers, magazines and newspapers to publicise attractions and present management issues are time-consuming and vie for a manager’s attention. An independent promotional organisation representing the different interest groups may provide a solution. Such a group can analyse a site’s tourism market and management realities. It has the further virtue of being independent, so that it can bridge gaps between competing interest groups. A group such as an NGO with ties to the site and that knows the tourism business, or a government group with a mandate to coordinate all the stakeholders could play this role. If an outside organisation is solicited, it must be given clear direction so that its output reflects the site’s goals and objectives. For example, if a goal is to support local entrepreneurs, such as ground operators, the organisation must ensure that it promotes both smaller local operators as well as larger or regional and national companies.

Developing a site’s “tourism identity” is an essential element of a promotional strategy. This identity, which is based on the site’s goals, objectives and market potential, becomes associated with the site in the minds of potential visitors. It could centre on a famous fresco or an endangered animal, for example, and be used to develop a logo for future promotional activities.

Strategies for promoting a site: International tourist guidebooks can be a free source of promotion. Guidebooks are a popular source of information for trip planning and are available for almost every country and region of the world. Because guidebook information is constantly changing, new editions are regularly updated, and editors are usually willing to publish information free of charge. This presents an opportunity to have information on a site and local attractions and services distributed to a wide audience.

Supplying information to travel magazines, newspapers, radio and the internet is another cost-effective way to promote a site. Travel magazines and newspapers publish information on tourism attractions free of charge and local radio and television stations broadcast such information as a public service. These can all be useful sources of free publicity for the site. In-flight airline magazines reach a large public, and because they are published quarterly or bimonthly, articles remain in circulation for considerable periods. Most publications can be accessed by the internet and the information transferred in this manner.

Brochures can be used to distribute site information to a wide range of audiences. They can be mailed to national tourism offices, included in promotion- al information sent to tour operators, newspapers, magazines, radio and television stations and distributed to hotels. However, unlike other types of promotional material, brochures are costly to produce, and should be designed to remain valid over a long period of time. Most people who receive brochures read them. However, research has found that brochures are likely to exert more influence on people who have not visited a site before and less likely to attract repeat visitors.

Contacting tour operators directly is a useful means of interesting them in a site. Tour operators are always on the lookout for new attractions to sell to their clients. Operators, particularly companies that specialise in activities offered at the site, will appreciate receiving a brochure and any information about the local community. Direct contact with tour operators bypasses travel agencies and improves the chances of a positive response.

Producing an information package to area attractions and services can help direct benefits to local residents. If one of the goals of a site’s tourism programme is to benefit local communities, a multilingual community guide sheet may be a valuable promotional tool. It can direct visitors to neighbouring destinations and attractions, providing a detailed picture of what the area offers, including dining, shopping and accommodations. The information is especially useful for attracting the independent traveller. Such a package should be distributed to key points such as hotels in major cities and at national tourism offices or embassies abroad. If a site has internet, it can be distributed electronically. A guide can also be used as a management tool for bringing about desired visitor behaviour, by for example discussing cultural rules and taboos and good conservation practices. Such a guide can be produced by the community with the help of site management. A local NGO may provide free computer time and translating services. Selling the guide even if it is very simple may help pay for future copying expenses.

The challenges in the management of heritage sites in Zimbabwe

The Influence of the Environment on the Management and Attractiveness of Heritage Sites as Tourism Products in Zimbabwe: This sub-section provides the analysis of the components in the environment, in general, and the assessment of the airline industry, in particular. It is essential to note, the businesses do not operate in a vacuum, rather, they function in an environment. In this section, there is a discussion on the components of the NMMZ’s environment. The business environment is the total of all the external and the internal factors that influence a company. It is vital to bear in mind that the external conditions and the internal factors can influence each other and work together to affect a business. Some of the external factors are beyond a company’s control. The external factors could also be the outside constraints or opportunities. The general environment and the remote climate are the other terms for the segment. One can argue that the macro factors are generally more uncontrollable than the microenvironment factors. Given that the macro factors become unmanageable, the success of the company depends upon its adaptability to the environment. The macro environmental factors include the political, economic, social, technological, legal, and the ecological (natural environment) conditions.

Political Environment: The political factors are the governmental activities and political conditions that may affect a group. The examples of the political environment include the laws, the regulations, the tariffs and the other trade barriers, the war, and the social unrest. The political situation of a country is dependent on the organizations such as the philosophy of the political parties, the ideology of the government or the party in power, nature and extent of the bureaucracy influence of the primary groups.

The political environment has not been stable and NMMZ was affected by the withdrawal of donor funding. It is a political activity that affected the museums and monuments greatly. The tourism arrival in the country has reduced; this meant that there is a decline in revenue. Now NMMZ is largely relying in the local fiscus, the major clients being school children. One respondent said, “we have been affected even our research, publications and some other conservation programs that we used to do. Even the government grant that we used to receive, now the government is constrained economically thus there is no longer sufficient funds.”

In Zimbabwe, since the year 2000 tourist arrivals have been severely affected by the bad image that the country had acquired due to negative publicity. This negative destination brand has continued to haunt the nation to the extent that all efforts towards destination marketing will come to naught if this is not addressed. During the period 1980 - 1999 arrivals into Zimbabwe were growing at an average rate of 14% per annum. If they had continued on the same growth rate, over 14 million arrivals would have been realised by 2013. The graph below shows the actual arrivals up to 1999 and the hypothetical arrivals based on the average annual growth in the period 1980–1999. Since the year 2000 arrivals have been negatively affected by the poor image that the country acquired consequent to the concerted negative publicity drive by global mainstream media like the BBC, CNN, Sky News and other. This was after the fall out with Britain arising from land reform programme.

It was on the back of this media onslaught that neighbours like Zambia and South Africa upped their acts to increase arrivals in their own countries at a cost of Zimbabwe. The land reform programme and associated exodus of white farmers triggered much resentment and capital flight which made the economy plummet leading to the massive flight of our people to countries like South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States, in search of better economic pastures. Efforts from 2009 to counter the vicious attacks on our own image have borne some fruit and taken the sting out of a portent anti- Zimbabwe sentiment that had grown around the land reform programme and on own diaspora’s anti-nationalist sentiment. As a direct result of our efforts we were able to successfully bid to host the 2013 UNWTO General Assembly.

Going forward there is no question that we need to do a lot more to build a strong Zimbabwe National Brand and constructively engage our nationals in the diaspora, if we are to bring back what can be referred to as the pre- 2000 glory days. During this period 1980-1999 Zimbabwe enjoyed a very attractive country image, with international arrivals in the country growing at an average rate of 14% per annum, and over 48 international air carriers landing every week at Harare International Airport.

Economic Environment and the Influence of Financial Resources on the Management of Heritage Sites: In addition to the political factors, there are the macroeconomic factors. These elements can influence the business operations. The conditions include the interest rate, inflation, and the currency exchange regulations. The economic environment refers to the aggregate of the nature of the monetary system of the country, the business cycles, and the socio-economic infrastructure. In terms of financial resources, the NMMZ requires between US$2.5 to 3 million. At the moment, the SOE is using what it generate. One interviewee said, “we do not receive anything from the government not even a cent. We have scaled down. Therefore, to meet the shortfall be cut down operations. Instead of using ten experts we work with four.”

The study showed that finance is a major challenge in the effective management of heritage sites. Financial resources fuel business operations, therefore, NMMZ needs to have adequate financial resources for both working capital and capital expenditure. Finance, production, and marketing are often referred to as the three fundamental areas that require strong management expertise (Robbins and Coulter, 1999). Therefore, careful financial planning should precede the acquisition of any significant asset or change in business focus. Expenses must be scrutinized in line item detail on at least a monthly basis to assure financial obligations are on target. Cash flow is crucial to wise financial planning and cash or similar current assets on hand should be 1.5 times the level of current liabilities. The amount of collateral required for loans will vary by industry but expect to provide at least 30 to 40% of the equity needed for traditional loan purchases. Five credit factors generally considered are character, capacity for repayment, capital, collateral, and loan conditions. All of these elements relate to one’s ability to raise adequate capital. Finance or capital can be raised from a number of sources, both internal and external.

The budget for cultural heritage and tourism allocated to national and regional culture related institutes is far from being able to meet the demand. The infrastructure for the promotion of culture is not fully established at the national level, and it is also true that the financial support of the promotional programs for culture is insufficient. National and local authorities should avoid cultural events held only for demonstration purposes or the repetition of similar projects, and should try to harmonize the investment with the software. Additionally, new revenue resources should be developed and the tax rate adjustments and tax collection should be increased reasonably. Furthermore, for efficient fund raising and operations, the promotion funds for culture should be expanded. Certain principles should be established regarding the use of raised funds.

The Influence of the Social Environment on the Management of Heritage Sites as Tourism Products: There are also the social factors, which are the sociological factors related to the general society and the social relations that affect the companies. The societal elements include the levels of poverty, the population growth, and the health situation. It is important to note that institutions operate in society, and the situation of the clients affects the business volume. One can argue that the social changes, such as the migration as well as changes in the fashion and the consumer preferences are essential. The social dimension or environment of a nation determines the value system of the community, which affects the functioning of the business. The sociological factors such as the cost structures, the customs, the conventions, the values, the beliefs, and the mobility of the labour have far-reaching impact on the companies.

The operations of NMMZ cannot be separated from the social environment because if people have got their own challenges, low disposable income then they do not have income to visit the sites. One interviewee said, “the social environment has had a major impact on the flow of visitors. If people have salaries then there are more visitors for example at the end of the year when civil servants get their bonuses then we have more visitors. When salaries are delayed visitation is also delayed.”

Legal Environment: The legal environment also affects the management of heritage sites. One participants said, “the legislation was restrictive, but the act is being reviewed to align it to the new constitution. The new constitution provides for these initiatives. Hopefully by May 2016 we hope the new Act will be in place. So that the institution will be able to engage in commercial activities in order to develop the sites and improve revenue flow.”

Other Challenges Faced in the Management of Heritage Sites in Zimbabwe: One of the challenges is vandalism and graffiti at Ngomakurira and Domboshava. This situation is not peculiar to Zimbabwe. The conservation of heritage sites around the world is often challenged by acts of vandalism and destruction. These may, in certain cases, be politically motivated taking a form of protest directed at heritage sites which are seen as metaphors for modernity and external control over local resources. In other cases, they may include the often innocent collecting or acquiring of souvenirs by tourists. While the singular collecting of stones or plants, or the touching of a statue or removing of a piece of mosaic may not have a significant effect on a site as a whole, it implies often dramatic consequences when done by very large numbers of people.

In order to raise awareness among tourists about the fragility of heritage sites and the enormous costs involved in their preservation and maintenance, UNESCO collaborated in an experimental project lead by the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property (ICCROM). The idea was that if tourists are better informed about the fragility of heritage sites, they will assume more responsibility for their actions. To address this problem, an initial pilot study was carried out in 2002 focusing on the role of tourist guidebooks in raising visitors’ awareness and, in particular, the quality of information concerning the cultural heritage they included. The results of the study, based on a sample of popular guidebooks, showed that, while all guidebooks were rich in cultural information and historical/artistic descriptions, no specific message about the fragility of cultural heritage and the need for respect was included.

Chapter summary

This chapter focused on the management of heritage sites in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe has more than 1000 heritage sites, which can be visited by tourists. However, the NMMZ does not have the capacity to effectively manage all the sites. Marketing of the sites is very weak and there are also challenges of financial resources. In addition, there are issues to do with the accessibility of the sites. The next chapter focuses on country experiences in terms of the management of heritage sites.

Management of Heritage Sites in Other Countries

Introduction

Heritage tourism has dramatically grown and it is one of the largest market segments that have shown growth in terms of tourism. Due to the uniqueness of heritage and the intrinsic quality as perceived by various tourists, heritage tourism has developed so much potential in terms of it being a tourist product. European and Asian markets for heritage tourism have increased in the past decade. Some other regional countries are success stories in terms of heritage management. Therefore, the next section discuses the management of heritage sites in other countries, the other countries experiences, as well as the policy options that can be adopted by Zimbabwe.

Country experiences

Heritage tourism is one of the most forms of cultural tourism that have dramatically increased worldwide. Heritage tourism is a new revenue generating source for most African, Asian and European countries as well as other continents worldwide. Tourists often travel looking for rich and unique experiences as well as products that are original and peculiar to various countries. In as much as one would commercialise these heritage sites, the management of these heritage sites is very crucial and it has to be done in a sustainable manner. Table 5 shows a global list of the World Heritage Sites.

Table 5 shows that Africa is still at the bottom list on the world heritage site listings worldwide. This is not necessarily due to the fact that is a few heritage sites in Africa. The reason being Africa has so many untapped sites that have so much potential but the potential has not been tapped by the managers of theses heritage sites. Management of heritage sites in most African countries is very poor. There have been inadequate resources to manage these sites as well as lack of innovativeness and diversity. Most sites have been preserved and not exposed so Africa is still lagging behind on the world heritage list. What is amazing is that Southern Africa being the cradle of mankind, Southern Africa is a home to the ancient Khoi and San people, a lot of traditional and medicinal, human and wildlife co-habitation. These have not been tapped into, a lot of sites are there but they are not accessible, they are not developed and they have never been exposed even to the locals. These sites are now disintegrating due to lack of maintenance. That is why on the world listings Southern Africa has only 38 sites which is less when compared to Europe and North America with 404 it has a lot of cultural and historical heritage sites that has not been utilised.

In 2005, UNESCO through its office in Ramallah in the Palestinian Territories, and in close collaboration with relevant Palestinian Ministries initiated the flagship project ‘Cultural Itinerary–Jesus Christ Route’. The aim of this integrated project was to mobilise a selection of cultural, religious and natural heritage resources (tangible and intangible) in the area to create internationally marketed and high quality tourism products. In line with the United Nations Millennium Declaration [71], this was not only to pro- mote and preserve both tangible and intangible heritage resources along the “Jesus Christ Route”, but also to create conditions for the improvement of local capacities and knowledge, local economic contexts and infrastructures, local democratic governance and multi-sector cooperation, and the cultural creativity and self-esteem of the local populations. The project is creating job opportunities and revenue for scientists, technicians and skilled and semi skilled labour in the fields of architecture, archaeology, conservation, transportation, communication, tourist related activities (guides, bed and breakfast and restaurant managers), and in other sectors such as handicrafts, museums and agriculture.

Region Natural Cultural Mixed Total
SADC 20 17 1 38
Africa 33 42 3 78
Arab States 4 60 1 65
Asia-Pacific 48 129 9 186
Europe and North America 56 375 9 440
Latin Americaand Caribbean 35 83 3 121
Source: UNESCO (2015).

Table 5: World Heritage Sites: SADC and Globally, 2015.

The overarching philosophy underlying this and similar ‘routes’ projects initiated and implemented by UNESCO, is to use the rich and diverse assets of an area as a matrix for the global development of a wider territory and its diverse economic sectors. While considerations of economic viability and sustainability are clear concerns underlying these projects, UNESCO equally sees here opportunities to create conditions for inter- religious and intercultural dialogue and peace. To achieve this, the organisation works closely together with concerned governments, other UN organisations and NGOs, in order to carefully elaborate locally contextualised development strategies which integrate the various needs and aims of different economic and political institutions, com- munities, groups and actors. This is illustrated in particular by the “Jesus Christ Route” project in which different Palestinian Ministries and the ‘AD hoc’ working group were collaborating in the different research, planning, training and action phases.

Cultural/heritage sites are among the most preferred tourism experiences in America. In Virginia, there is the Virginia Historic Triangle (Williamsburg, Jamestown, and Yorktown). Virginia Historic Triangle has been called the ‘largest living museum in the world’. Furthermore, it is one of America’s popular vacation destinations, attracting more than 4 million tourists each year. Jamestown is where America began when in 1607, a few hardly souls carved out of the wilderness the first permanent English settlement in the New World. Williamsburg is the world’s premier living history site, an entire town that has been restored to the days when it was the political and economic center of the American colonies. Yorktown is where General George Washington defeated England’s troops in 1781 in the final battle of the American Revolution. Although famous throughout the world, the Virginia Historic Triangle is still a ‘small town.’ However, every year more than 4,000,000 tourists come to visit. Due to its varied, year-round attractions, it is one of the most popular visit destinations in the United States.

Many African countries today cherish development that is catalysed by cultural heritage. Heritage sites in Africa offer a unique opportunity for community empowerment through integrated rural development and it also has the potential to mobilize resources for cultural tourism, craft development and improved farming methods. The majikenda kayas of Nigeria, The Kasubi tombs of Uganda and in South Africa through the National Heritage Resources Act there has been a considerable realisation of development of communities springing or radiating from cultural heritage. Development can come in many forms but cultural heritage can provide opportunities for sustainable development. The government and Non-governmental organisations historically have been known by many communities especially in Africa as where development should come from but it is however apparent that many communities are realising that Heritage sites are alternative sources where not only development but sustainable development should come from.

Ouadane, Chinguetti, Tichitt, and Oualata are four desert cities in Mauritania included on the list of World Heritage Sites since 1996. Built in rich oasis and constructed around wells, these cities have been important nodes of exchange between nomads and sedentary populations since the middle ages. Situated at the crossroads of the trans-Saharan salt, gold and slave routes, they saw their golden age in the 15th century. Through the cohabitation of different nomadic and sedentary populations and the symbiosis of moral and material existence which developed in this context, these cities created a particular ‘spirit of the place’ based on different forms of cooperation. This ‘spirit’ is embodied, in particular, in the architecture and the quarters of these cities manifesting the presence and interactions of a large variety of tribal groups and communities.

In the middle of the 20th century, the social and economic conditions underlying life in these cities were challenged by the effects of important structural changes in Mauritania. New economic and social poles appeared along the country’s coasts leading to a demographic exodus of the desert cities. This exodus was further amplified by an important phenomenon of sedentarisation of nomadic populations and a series of droughts. In this context, Mauritania’s government initiated a programme of reforms including an agenda to alleviate poverty. One of the aims here was to stop the exodus of populations in desert sites by providing new economic and social perspectives.

In 2002, as part of a multilateral programme for the safeguard and development of world heritage cities in Mauritania, UNESCO, the Mauritanian government and the World Bank, signed a convention in order to carry out a pilot project regarding the sustainable redevelopment of the historic centres of Ouadane, Chinguetti, Tichitt, and Oualata. The aim of this project was to shape a strategy to halt the exodus and the subsequent abandonment of these historic centres. This strategy provided a framework for the rehabilitation of the historic centres of these towns and lead to the sustainable socio-economic development of local communities. In order to allow the renaissance of the spirit of these cities, a series of workshops were organised to familiarise populations and political and technical stakeholders with the values of architectural heritage preservation and to identify financial resources for the architectural rehabilitation of these places. Tourism in a wider sense, as a modern form of ‘nomadism’ was considered as one of the sources to revitalise traditional crafts and professions, to create new activities, and to improve visitor housing and reception areas.

There is clearly much scope for further development and expansion of cultural resources. From the list of the world heritage sites it can be noted that there is limited development of cultural resources. While SADC countries have 11.5% of global natural world Heritage sites and more than 60% of natural sites in Africa the region only has about 2.5% of global Cultural World Heritage Sites and 40% of cultural sites in Africa.

In the SADC region, contemporary and cultural heritage is rated as fairly popularity as popular or highly popular. However, for Lesotho, Madagascar, Swaziland and Zimbabwe the quality and variety of cultural experiences is rated among the best. The variety and quality of cultural experiences was rated a significant weakness for Botswana, Mauritius and Zambia. Cultural departments and Museums authorities are generally poorly financed in SADC member states and corporation between tourism and cultural agencies is very limited in most instances. As a result cultural resources suffer from a general lack of preservation, interpretation and tourism development. Compared to natural resources cultural tourism facilities are generally poorly developed and are not tourist friendly. Yet Southern Africa is home to the origins of Humankind, ancient Khoi and San cultures, a large knowledge pool concerning traditional and natural medicines, humanwildlife co-habituation and a wide spectrum of traditions, music and lifestyles. There is so much aspects of African contemporary lifestyle such as languages, humor and living environment. These features are of interest to tourists and even though these aspects may not be the main tourist attractors they could form an important part of the overall tourism package. Table 6 shows the World Heritage Sites in the SADC Region (Table 6).

Zimbabwe’s position in relation to other countries

In terms of managing heritage, the concept, the principle and in practice Zimbabwe used to be the leading African country in terms of managing counties. Most countries have come to Zimbabwe to see how we manage sites. However, other countries have overtaken Zimbabwe. The new dimensions that other countries have taken have made them rise to the top. In South Africa for instance, it has been focusing more on developing sites for tourism and the partnerships that they have with the private sectors. Most of their sites are well developed and they are in a good state they generate a lot of income. There is a good partnership between parks and other state enterprises. The other way is their prevailing economy, the SA Economy is thriving. People have better disposable income. In many other countries the museums are part of the ministry of tourism in Sudan For instance. In SA there are good relations between the departments other SOEs. Most of the national monuments in SA are found in national parks. The situation is different in Zimbabwe; the National Museums and Monuments has been under the Home Affairs Ministry. The reason why it was under the home affairs was for enhancing security and for the protection of monuments not for developing them as tourist resorts. It was protectionist more security wise other than to open up for enjoyment and generating income.

Country Number of Sites List of the Sites
Botswana 1 Tsodilo Hills
DRC 5 Virunga National Park, Kahuzi-Biega National Park,Garaba National Park, Salonga National Park, Okapi Wildlife reserve
Madagascar 3 Tsigy de Bemaraha Strict Nature Reserve, Royal Hill of Ambohimaga, Rainforests of Atsinanana
Malawi 2 Lake Malawi National Park, Chongoni Rock Art Area.
Mauritius 2 AapravasiGhat, Le Morne Cultural Landscape
Mozambique 1 Isla Mozambique
Namibia 1 Twyfelfontein (/Ui-//aes)
Seychelles 2 Aldabra Atoll, Vallee de Mai Nature Reserve
South Africa 8 Fossil Hominid Sites in the Cradle of Humankind, iSimangaliso Wetland Park, Robben Island,uKhahlamba/Drakensberg Park, Mapungubwe Cultural Landscape,Cape Floral Region Protected Areas, Vredefort Dome,Ritchersveld Culturaland Botanical Landscape.
Tanzania 7 Ngororngoro Conservation Area, Ruins of KilwaKisiwani and SongoMnara(in danger),Serengeti National Park,Selouse Game Reserve, Kilimanjaro National Park, Stone Town of Zanzibar,KondoaRoack Art Site
Zambia 1 MosioaTunya/ Victoria Falls
Zimbabwe 5 Mana Pools National Park,Great Zimbabwe National Monument, Khami Ruins National Monument,Mosi-oa-Tunya/Victoria Falls, Matobo Hills
Source: UNESCO (2015).

Table 6: World Heritage Sites by Country, SADC Region.

In relation to the countries in the SADC Region Zimbabwe fares better in terms of the number of world heritage sites. Zimbabwe has five world heritage sites. This is better when comparing to other countries within the region which include Botswana, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique Namibia and Zambia. The strength of national museums is within its human resources. Most of the employees are adequately educated and most of the times they are invited into other countries to present papers and share the information.

There is however clearly a much scope and need for further development of the heritage sites in Zimbabwe. There are a lot of challenges that have been hindering effective management of the heritage sites in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe used to be a learning ground for most heritage management authorities in the southern region but the situation has since changed. Comparing with other countries, Zimbabwe is lagging behind in terms of services and products that are being offered at the facilities. There has been lack of innovation and diversity in the management of the heritage sites.

However, due to various cultural exchange programs and the massive use other internet as well as expose and festivals that are held in different countries. Zimbabwe has borrowed some of the management techniques and has managed to develop theme and adopt theme to enhance the heritage tourism in Zimbabwe.

What Zimbabwe Borrows from Other Countries

Zimbabwe has managed to borrow policy options from other countries worldwide. The Heritage tourism in Zimbabwe has been largely influenced by lessons that it has drawn from various other countries. Zimbabwe has learnt from other countries like South Africa, the concept of Township tourism. Zimbabwe has also signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the Chinese government which is expected to contribute towards the financing and development of heritage tourism in Zimbabwe. Other developments that have been adopted by the authorities in Zimbabwe include the Sri Lanka, Norway and Zimbabwe arrangement which is a positive step towards resuscitation of the heritage sites. Zimbabwe is also a member of Southern African Association of Museums, the AFRICOM (Africa Council of museums). These associations have exposed Zimbabwe to various learning opportunities. The NMMZ is very open to new ideas. Most of the staff and archeologists in Zimbabwe often go for training, workshops and refresher courses in other countries to enhance their skills as well as exchange ideas with other successful countries that are doing well in terms of heritage management.

Zimbabwe can manage the flow of tourists to avoid congestion in these heritage sites. If one looks at South Africa, the Robin Island, there is preservation. It is also a focus for tourism. But because of the need for it to be sustainable, South Africa have put in place a mechanisms that make sure that it will limit the number of visitors, there is a ship that goes to Robin Island once a day if one misses it then one does not go there. From there one can also note some experiences from those countries that we can influence heritage management here in Zimbabwe. For example within the aviation museum in Zimbabwe, the shaping of the shades was borrowed from New Zealand, and then the display of artifacts was borrowed from South Africa. The Zimbabwe museums borrow whenever they can and the exposure they get from various fields is enrichment to National Museums of Zimbabwe. The other country that has significantly influenced Zimbabwe is France. It is a very interesting developing country and there are a huge number of visitors in France. Appleton, has been managed properly since visitorship is high they have put in place strategies to manage the visitorship. In German there is an Olympic museum, it’s very interesting and unique. Kenya is succeeding in terms of heritage management. They have pride in their heritage; Kenyans really know and appreciate their heritage. So Zimbabweans have to learn to embrace their heritage as well and they should have pride in their heritage.

However, in Zimbabwe there is a challenge in terms of the institutional arrangement in the management of heritage sites. There is not a very sound working relationship between National Museums and Monuments and National Parks in Zimbabwe as one would find between South African National Parks in and the South African Monuments. Great Zimbabwe used to be part of National Parks; historically it used to be managed as a national park. Chinhoyi caves and Matopos were managed by both National Parks and National Monuments, so National Parks would charge, National Monuments would charge then a visitor would end up paying twice to experience one place. The challenge of institutional arrangements within the management of heritage sites has had a negative impact on the development of the heritage sites in Zimbabwe. The government of Zimbabwe has not been decisive; on this issue whether it should allocate these functions to National Parks or NMMZ or to just merge these entities. The other options could be to have a park where monuments are found and manage them as one entity then they share the incomes.

Zimbabwe should borrow the concept

of comprehensive cultural tourism from other countries apart from the issue of good relations within various institutions. The element of regarding cultural heritage as a tourist resource that can be used to generate revenue should be borrowed. That is, the mindset should change especially regarding the way Zimbabwe have been managing heritage. Zimbabwean heritage has been managed primarily in terms of conservation without necessarily developing them, making them accessible, using them to benefit the communities around them. Management used to fence off the areas and the communities have not been allowed to access the sites. The communities have been divorced from the sites without being involved in the management of these resources. They were not allowed to do income generating projects on the sites other than the state institutions. Thus, Zimbabwe should be innovative; they should embrace corporate governance and adopt structural reforms to improve the management of heritage sites in Zimbabwe.

Areas that Zimbabwe is leading

There are very few but significant areas that the Zimbabwean management of heritage sites is leading. In Africa Zimbabwe happens to have educational programs and the francophone countries like Gabon, Ivory Coast among others are borrowing from Zimbabwe. Countries like Kenya, Tanzania and other countries they borrow from various presentations that are made during seminar presentations. Zimbabwe has the potential to influence other countries in the region and globally because it has quite a huge number of world heritage sites. The potential of Zimbabwe to influence others has remained untapped for a long time. As far as other countries are concerned in terms of management of our heritage site, Zimbabwe used to be doing very well in terms of management of heritage sites especially when it used to have funding. But right now Zimbabwe is underperforming. Some countries treat their national heritage institutions seriously. Politicians in Zimbabwe do not prioritise the heritage sites that we have. Funding is very much limited. Kwekwe museum, and Aviation museum where not completed, Aviation museum was only six months when Zimbabwe attained independence, thus it is still at its first stage of construction up to now. These museums were only in the first stage of construction but because they have not been valuable thus they have not been developed since independence. For instance the National Heroes Acre, nobody think about the heroes’ acres except when one dies. Thus, the heritage sites are not adequately managed. Heritage has not been prioritised for a long time in Zimbabwe.

Chapter summary

The chapter has managed to reveal that heritage tourism has dramatically grown and it is one of the largest market segments that have shown growth in terms of tourism. Due to the uniqueness of heritage and the intrinsic quality as perceived by various tourists, heritage tourism has developed so much potential in terms of it being a tourist product. European and Asian markets for heritage tourism have increased in the past decade. Some other regional countries are success stories in terms of heritage management. Therefore, the section discussed the management of heritage sites in other countries which include South Africa and Kenya among others. The other country experiences have influenced the management of heritage sites in Zimbabwe. Comparing Zimbabwe with other countries it has to improve a lot issues and adopt some strategies from other countries in order to address the problems hindering effective heritage management. Zimbabwe should promote cultural tourism as well as the commercialisation of heritage sites so as to enhance revenue collection as well as raise funds for heritage management and preservation.

Strategies for Packaging Heritage Sites in Zimbabwe as Tourism Products

Introduction

This chapter focuses on the strategies that the NMMZ could adopt to manage the heritage sites. Focus is on the options for managing the heritage sites as tourism products, the issue of financing and performance management.

Options for Managing Heritage Sites as Tourism Products in Zimbabwe

In terms of managing heritage, the concept, the principle and in practice Zimbabwe used to be the leading African country in terms of managing counties. Most countries have come to Zimbabwe to see how we manage sites. However, other countries have overtaken Zimbabwe. The new dimensions that other countries have taken have made them rise to the top. In South Africa for instance, it has been focusing more on developing sites for tourism and the partnerships that they have with the private sectors. Most of their sites are well developed and they are in a good state they generate a lot of income. There is a good partnership between parks and other state enterprises. The other way is their prevailing economy, the South African economy is thriving. People have better disposable income. In many other countries the museums are part of the ministry of tourism in Sudan For instance. In South Africa, there are good relations between the departments other SOEs. Most of the national monuments in SA are found in national parks. The situation is different in Zimbabwe; the National Museums and Monuments has been under the Home Affairs Ministry. The reason why it was under the home affairs was for enhancing security and for the protection of monuments not for developing them as tourist resorts. It was protectionist more security wise other than to open up for enjoyment and generating income.

There is no sound working relationship between National Museums and Monuments and National Parks in Zimbabwe as one would find between South African National Parks in and the South African Monuments. (That reminds one of the Victoria Falls rain forest some of these issues) Great Zimbabwe used to be part of National Parks it used to be managed as a national park. Chinhoyi caves and Matopos were managed by both National Parks and National Monuments, so National Parks would charge, National Monuments would charge then a visitor would end up paying twice to experience one place. The problem is an issue of institutional arrangements and also the government is not decisive, on this issue whether it should allocate these functions. A decision to just merge these entities, or have a park where monuments are found and manage them as one entity share incomes should be made.

In the respondents’ opinion, the strategies that could be used to improve the heritage sites would include having National Museums and Monuments be part of the Ministry of Tourism. It should be realised that the need for conservation of these sites is important because they want them to survive long, but the need for development of these facilities benefit more. This is because the Ministry of Tourism have such a mandate and they bring in more clients since they develop their sites. The government allocates huge grants to them. Other than that, if it is impossible then National Heritage and Monuments will have to partner with the Ministry of Tourism, there is need for establishing a close working relationship to share ideas. A sound marketing department will be handy.

In addition, there is a need for competent marketing personnel. The need for a marketing department and having marketing strategy documents to improve the marketing of Zimbabwe’s heritage sites. In addition, management training is essential for staff. One participant said, “as much as we want to preserve our sites, it’s not preservation against access. As much as we want people to come to our sites, we should have our archeologists trained in management skills. They should have business management. They should know how to manage the sites as a business entity. They are specialist in preservation of sites, they are trained in managing heritage sites as conservators but in business they do not have adequate knowledge. That combination would see the business thrive. A lot of potential is being untapped because we are conservators not business managers.”

Furthermore, at its 2010 meeting in Brasilia, the World Heritage Committee recognised the challenges and opportunities in the relationship between tourism and World Heritage and expressed its appreciation for the work that had been undertaken over recent years. It requested the World Heritage Centre to commence the development of a new and inclusive programme on World Heritage and Sustainable Tourism. The principles are as follows:

Principle 1: Contribution to World Heritage objectives: Tourism development and visitor activities associated with World Heritage Properties must contribute to and must not damage the protection, conservation, presentation and transmission of their heritage values. Tourism should also generate sustainable socio-economic development and equitably contribute tangible as well as intangible benefits to local and regional communities in ways that are consistent with the conservation of the properties.

Principle 2: Cooperative Partnerships: World Heritage Properties should be places where all stakeholders cooperate through effective partnerships to maximise conservation and presentation outcomes, whilst minimising threats and adverse impacts from tourism.

Principle 3: Public Awareness and Support: The Promotion, Presentation and Interpretation of World Heritage Properties should be effective, honest, comprehensive and engaging. It should mobilise local and international awareness, understanding and support for their protection, conservation and sustainable use.

Principle 4: Proactive Tourism Management: The contribution of tourism development and visitor activities associated with World Heritage Properties to their protection, conservation and presentation requires continuing and proactive planning and monitoring by Site Management, which must respect the capacity of the individual property to accept visitation without degrading or threatening heritage values. Site Management should have regard to relevant tourism supply chain and broader tourism destination issues, including congestion management and the quality of life for local people. Tourism planning and management, including cooperative partnerships, should be an integral aspect of the site management system.

Principle 5: Stakeholder Empowerment: Planning for tourism development and visitor activity associated with World Heritage Properties should be undertaken in an inclusive and participatory manner, respecting and empowering the local community including property owners, traditional or indigenous custodians, while taking account of their capacity and willingness to participate in visitor activity.

Principle 6: Tourism Infrastructure and Visitor Facilities: Tourism infrastructure and visitor facilities associated with World Heritage Properties should be carefully planned, sited, designed, constructed and periodically upgraded as required to maximise the quality of visitor appreciation and experiences while ensuring there is no significant adverse impacts on heritage values and the surrounding environmental, social and cultural context.

Principle 7: Site Management Capacity: Management systems for World Heritage Properties should have sufficient skills, capacities and resources available when planning tourism infrastructure and managing visitor activity to ensure the protection and presentation of their identified heritage values and respect for local communities.

Principle 8: Application of Tourism Generated Revenue: Relevant public agencies and Site Management should apply a sufficient proportion of the revenue derived from tourism and visitor activity associated with World Heritage Properties to ensure the protection, conservation and management of their heritage values.

Principle 9: Contribution to Local Community Development: Tourism infrastructure development and visitor activity associated with World Heritage Properties should contribute to local community empowerment and socio-economic development in an effective and equitable manner.

Private Public Partnerships (PPPs) as a Financing Mechanism

Gqoli [72] defined PPPs as contracts between government institutions and private parties in which private parties provide funding for government projects in return for profit sharing. In PPPs substantial project risks (financial, technical, and operational) are transferred to the private party and the private party benefits through unitary payments from government budget and/or user fees. United Nations [71] also pointed out that PPP differ in a fundamental way from conventional procurement contracting because they are long term oriented, covering a period on at least 20 years. In conventional procurement, the risks are assumed to be relatively contained in a contract which is focused on a short-term infrastructure deliverables. In PPPs, the key is to develop risk-sharing mechanisms that enhance the returns to both the public and private sector. PPPs are based upon a stewardship model in which the private sector takes a more aggressive role in aspects of the project to which they had previously been excluded from in the conventional procurement approach, such as design, financing, operations and maintenance [71]. In addition, Bloom [73] agitated that PPPs are about the public getting better, more cost-effective services; the private sector gets new business opportunities.

Implementation of PPPs: African governments are turning to the private sector to design, build, finance, and operate infrastructure facilities hitherto provided by the public sector. PPPs offer policy makers an opportunity to improve the delivery of services and the management of facilities. Governments are also turning to partnerships with the private sector as a means to improve the procurement of public services and enhancing performance management. When looking at PPPs in Africa, Gqoli [72] pointed out that African governments are looking to the relationships to radically improve infrastructure networks in their countries and enhance service delivery to their people. Governments are hoping that this development finance model, where the state shares risk and responsibility with private firms but ultimately retains control of assets, will improve services, while avoiding some of the pitfalls of privatization like unemployment, higher prices and corruption. In theory, PPPs may have the potential to solve sub-Saharan Africa’s profound infrastructure and service backlogs, where nearly 600 million people lack access to electricity, almost 300 million have no access to safe water [73]. Nevertheless, Aboubakr [74] argued that the record of PPPs in Africa since year 2000 is mixed, the process is complex, and governments should not expect PPPs to be a ‘magic bullet’.

Implementation PPPs in Africa seem to be a relatively new phenomenon. Nevertheless, PPPs have been used in Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, Lesotho, and South Africa to promote health care delivery [73]. In Zimbabwe, although mooted way back in 1998, it was only in 2004 that the Government made the first attempt of a framework on PPPs investment in the country. This was in the form of the ‘Public-Private Partnership in Zimbabwe Policy and Guidelines’ of 2004, which sought to provide the parameters for the development of an appropriate legal and regulatory framework to protect investors and consumers. The Guidelines however never really took off in a significant fashion, even though some PPPs projects have been done in the transport and health sector [75].

Consequently, PPPs were an answer to Africa’s health care challenges. For instance, the Kingdom of Lesotho’s health sector faced daunting challenges including battling the world’s third highest HIV/ AIDS prevalence rate (23% for adults aged 15-49), low life expectancy (45 years), and an over-burdened health care system with demand consistently outstripping the state’s ability to provide vital health care services, particularly for poor people [76]. In 2010, a new era in health care dawned when Health and Social Welfare Minister, Mphu Ramatlapeng, handed over three publicly-run clinics in Likotsi, Qoaling and Mabote to the Ts’epong Consortium, managed by one of Africa’s largest private health care providers, Netcare. The project replaced the 100-year old Queen Elizabeth II Hospital, which continued to operate at minimal level, with a new facility that can provide quality care for patients and improved working conditions for staff [76]. The project benefits from collaboration within the World Bank Group and a strong partnership with the government of Lesotho. The World Bank provided technical assistance to the design and management of the PPPs as part of the Health Sector Reform Program.

In addition, Lesotho has another example of PPPs, The Global Partnership for Output Based Aid (GPOBA), partnership program administered by the World Bank. GPOBA provided a US$6.25 million grant to help subsidize the cost of access to services for the residents of Maseru District, the capital city and home to nearly one-third of the country’s population [74]. The GPOBA grant means expectant mothers, infants, children, and patients at risk of or living with HIV/ AIDS and tuberculosis will have access to improved health services. As well as providing access to basic services for the poor, the output-based approach puts an emphasis on accountability and efficiency in service delivery, which complements the overall design of the larger hospital PPP project. The innovative financing and implementation structure of the project positions Lesotho as a leader in health sector public-private arrangements, potentially providing a model that could be replicated regionally and even globally. The success of PPPs in providing health infrastructure in Lesotho, can also be replicated in the NMMZ.

Moreover, in South Africa, the government has been exploring better ways of financing and managing pubic capital assets, serve the public interest, and deliver public goods and services PPPs. The main models of PPPs in operation in South Africa are the design, finance and operate (DFO) model, the design, finance, build, operate and transfer (DFBOT) model, the design and transfer (DT) model, the build, operate and transfer (BOT) model, as well as equity partnerships [72]. The implementation of PPPs follows certain stages, as in Table 7.

In Zimbabwe full implementation of PPPs is vital so as to build the infrastructure. According Biti [33] infrastructural development requires substantial investment by the private sector, especially in power generation, telecommunications, and railway and aviation services. In this regard, a number of PPPs were implemented in Zimbabwe and they include the rehabilitation of Plumtree-Mutare Highway (PPP with Group 5 of South Africa), a partnership between Harare City Council and Easipark. However, the implementation of PPPs seems not to be smooth. In Zimbabwe, there is no legal framework for PPPs. This resulted in debates being generated on how some of the PPPs were signed, for example City of Harare-Easipark PPP has courted a lot of controversy, so as the Airport Road construction. What raised questions on the implementation of these PPPs is the fact that they involve foreign partners and one wonders whether Zimbabwean companies do not have capacity to partner the public sector.

In addition, South Africa faces challenges in the implementation of PPPs. According to Creamer (2012), while presidential and governmental support for PPPs remains strong, leadership in this field is still considered to be weak as evidenced by the inability of the public sector to bring the many planned projects to fruition. For example, since 2000, on average, only two PPPs have been successfully concluded per year on the national and provincial levels (ibid). Also, Campbell [77] pointed out that too much has been done in secret, and that poor planning has cost the government. Venter [78] concurs with Campbell [77] and gave an example of the Gautrain Rapid Rail Link, in which only costs ballooned from R3.5 billion to R4 billion in 2000 to R30.462 billion in 2011. Therefore, appropriate legal framework is required in the implementation of PPPs.

PPPs require governments to think and behave in new ways that require new skills. They can be a tool for reforming procurement and public service delivery and not merely a means of leveraging private sector resources. PPPs are more than a one-off financial transaction with the private sector. They need to be based on firm policy foundations and long-term political commitment. Also, PPPs require application of sound performance management systems so that results are attained. Private sector partners look for these factors when deciding whether or not to bid for a project.

According to Farlam [79], increased use of private funding for governments’ capital projects call for efficiency and effectiveness. PPPs have resulted in the creation of hybrid organizations, and transforming or ‘’modernising’’ work practices in public organisations with the introduction of private-sector management practices (such as performance-related pay and business process re-engineering). Atun [80] also argued that PPPs evolved as a synergistic model to combine both the social objectives and the business objective of running profitable institutions. This meant that PPPs should embody performance management as one of their major characteristics.

Stage Description
Inception Registration of PPP project with relevant treasury, and appointment of project manager
Feasibility Study Preparation of feasibility study comprising of needs analysis, options analysis, project due diligence, value assessment, economic valuation, and procurement plan
Treasury Approval I
Procurement Designing of a fair equitable, transparent, competitive, and cost effective procurement process. Preparing bid documents, including draft PPP agreement
Treasury Approval IIA
Procurement Pre-qualification of parties, issuing request for proposals with draft PPP agreement. Receiving bids and selection of preferred bidder
  Preparing value for money report
Treasury Approval IIB
Procurement Negotiation with preferred bidder, and finalizing PPP agreement management plan
Treasury Approval III
PPP Agreement Signed
Development Measuring of outputs, monitoring and regulating performance
Delivery Reporting progress
Exit Evaluation by Accounting Officers
Source:  Gqoli (2004).

Table 7: PPP Project Stages.

Implementation of performance management

According to Centre for Good Governance [81] performance management is a broad concept that involves understanding and acting on the performance issues at each level of organization, from individuals, teams and departments to the organization itself. Performance management is aimed at improving organizational efficiency and effectiveness. Performance management also aims to ensure accomplishment of an organization’s mission and goals. In this regard, PPPs can be a strategy for ensuring performance management in the public sector.

Provision of basic services in developing countries has traditionally been the exclusive responsibility of public authorities. However, these agencies cannot, on their own, meet the continually expanding demand for services because they lack the funds to improve and develop services. Implementation of PPPs means that there is need to management performance so that private partners benefit from the agreements. Therefore, PPPs can be viewed as part of public sector reforms. Performance management is aimed at ensuring attainment of organizational objectives. According to Centre for Good Governance [81] far-reaching changes in the global economy have made it imperative for the governments all over the world to improve the quality of their governance structures.

Implementation of performance management in Zimbabwean public sector is seen through Results Based Management (RBM). According to Madhekeni [82], the concept of RBM in Zimbabwe came as a result of a number of factors. These include the problem of resource constraints, the quest for better quality and more responsive service delivery by citizens, and demands by the private sector for improved services and infrastructure for development and growth. The need to manage performance is also expressed in the current policy framework, the Zimbabwe Agenda for Socio-economic Transformation (ZIMASSET). ZIM-ASSET has cluster 7, which points out that Government will be reinvented to improve general administration, governance as well as performance management [83-88].

However, there are challenges in the implementation of performance management. According to Centre for Good Governance [81] absence of enabling conditions, cross cutting nature of operations, and disjointed set-up for performance management compromise performance management.

Chapter summary

This chapter focused on the strategies that the NMMZ could adopt to manage the heritage sites. Focus was on the options for managing the heritage sites as tourism products, the issue of PPPs as a potential financing mechanism and performance management. The next chapter presents summary, conclusions and recommendations.

Conclusions and Recommendations

Introduction

This chapter provides the conclusions and policy option that could be adopted in Zimbabwe to improve the management of heritage sites in Zimbabwe. Recommendations are provided in order to address the challenges that have been raised during the study. There is need to change the organisational culture, the NMMZ should embrace the diversity and corporate governance to improve the services. The paper also recommends the need to improve marketing strategies; the NMMZ should establish a marketing department. Private Public Partnerships and strategic alliances are crucial and these are the financing mechanisms that can be adopted to address problems of inadequate resources [89-91].

Summary of the main findings

This study showed that NMMZ is facing challenges in the marketing of heritage sites. There is also the issue of financial inadequacy as the SOE is failing to provide the required services at the sites. The research showed that heritage is a comprehensive concept that consists of many diverse values like cultural, natural, historical, architectural, archaeological, and geological values. Heritage is a mirror of different ways of lives and habits, in other words, different cultures and eras of the mankind and the society they live in. A well-preserved heritage enables communities to learn about their cultural history truly and chronologically. After the World War II, the world has seen a gradual increase in technology and urbanization resulting in a series of threats to heritage; social, environmental and economical. Because of migration and industrialization population density between rural areas and cities differ greatly. Globalization changed people’s lives in an undeniable way, a way that is mostly stereotyped. These kinds of facts pose a great threat to intangible cultural assets. Heritage is not a renewable resource; therefore it should be conserved in the most efficient way [92-98]. The word “preservation” has existed from the beginning of the very early times of human history, but its definition. Until recently preservation is nearly equal to just protecting the physical assets, but now it is seen as a clear fact that when trying to protect heritage national, social, cultural and economical aspects of the protection process should be taken into account. It aims to conserve, use and develop the heritage and to sustain it values and significance by giving the heritage a compatible use. It is worth of mentioning that, the most important innovation of the management approach involves the sustainability principle. The lack of cooperation between the governmental bodies and the private sector is always being felt heavily and this causes a great problem for the promotion of heritage sites as touristic destinations. Therefore it is essential that a master tourism marketing plan is prepared in coordination with all the authorities either from public or private sector. It is also necessary to overcome infrastructure problems such as transportation in order to ease reaching heritage sites [99-101].

Cultural and natural heritage that attracts so many tourists, and is a resource for development, is, fortunately, distributed throughout the world, thus providing an additional opportunity for many nonindustrialized countries like Zimbabwe. Raising awareness, educating and training the staff concerned, is essential in involving communities in the process of conserving and enhancing their heritage. It is the involvement of all that will enable the heritage of humanity to be better preserved, living conditions to be improved and poverty reduced [102]. Preserving cultural and natural heritage, to bring it within reach of all, making cultures and civilizations better known, improving daily living conditions and reducing poverty, is what gives meaning to the sustainability of tourism development.

The findings of this research demonstrate that heritage sites in Zimbabwe, for example, Great Zimbabwe has a lot of potential as a historical attraction, because of its richness in social cultural activities it offers to visitors. If satisfactorily implemented, Great Zimbabwe will make the tourists appreciate the local life that transpired years ago on the Ancient City, resulting in preservation of the local culture and history [103-105]. Therefore, the findings also revealed that if NMMZ increases its customer awareness through in increased usage of prompting and marketing the destination both domestically and internationally they will soon flooded with a huge number of visitors. In addition the research findings also supported the idea presented in literature review that continuous improvement in marketing and promotion through the internet [106-110].

Recommendations

Marketing: The paper recommends that Zimbabwe should concentrate more on the marketing of heritage sites. The promotion, presentation and interpretation of heritage sites should be effective, honest, comprehensive and engaging [111]. The locals should participate in all the marketing strategies. The NMMZ should mobilise local and international awareness campaigns. It needs to create an understanding within the people of the value of the heritage sites and the board should provide maximum support for the protection, conservation and sustainable use of all heritage sights in Zimbabwe [112-115].

Cultural tourism in Zimbabwe has to be marketed and promoted effectively. It is essential that destination addresses basic issues such as infrastructure, easy access, interpretation, guide services especially foreign languages must be of excellent quality [116]. Other forms of interaction that have to be included in the marketing strategies include the use of traditional methods which includes the use of maps, guidebooks that are up to date, pamphlets, story boards audio or visual displays supplement and complement guide services. For instance, Zimbabwe can adopt some strategies from other countries such as Thailand. The ‘Amazing Thailand’ campaign is a success story of an active, efficient and successful marketing campaign that has brought Thailand out of financial crisis which plagued the Asian countries in 1997 [117].

It is high time Zimbabwe should make use of the ICTs and develop advanced advertising strategies. Most cultural heritage-related advertising materials are focused on regional cultural heritage and cultural events. There is need for engaging private travel planning agencies to design specialized advertising and promotions materials. This will promote the growth of cultural tourism. According to a study conducted by the European commission, 20% of the tourist visits to Europe were made for cultural purposes. Furthermore, culture was the main component of travel for 60% visitors [118]. Thus cultural tourism has to be promoted in Zimbabwe.

Additionally, the NMMZ should be part of the Ministry of Tourism. It should be realized that the need for conservation of these sites is important because they want them to survive long, but the need for development of these facilities benefit more. This is because the Ministry of Tourism has such a mandate and they bring in more clients since they develop their sites. The government allocates huge grants to them. Other than that, if it is impossible then National Heritage and Monuments will have to partner with the Ministry of Tourism, there is need for establishing a close working relationship to share ideas. A sound marketing department will be handy [119-121].

Infrastructure and services: Heritage tourism should promote infrastructural development and improvement of services at the heritage sites. Products and services offered should be of high quality. Quality facilities could be provided at heritage sites to enhance the attractiveness of heritage sites. Facilities that could be offered include offerring accommodation: Visiting clients do not have accommodation for example in Domboshava clients want to watch sunset and sunrise but they do not have accommodation.

Tourists are expecting a rich experience which requires interaction with local communities. Tours should be customized. Detailed information about a tourist destination has to be given out electronically before the visitor comes so that they make informed choices about the destinations they are visiting and the activities they want to be engaging in [122].

Engage local communities: There is need for engaging local authorities in the management of heritage. The central government should consider the inclusion of policies in local development plans to protect the values, integrity and authenticity of heritage sites. Local authorities can support authorities through providing support and by the preparation of supplementary planning guidance to the national boards. Local authorities are closer to the grassroots [123].

Additionally, local communities should be active participants in the management of heritage sites. The issue of ‘Cultural Consent’ should be emphasized on the local communities. This means that local communities must agree to host tourists after deliberating on the merits of tourism. Tourism must not be imposed on them. Local communities have to be involved in tourism planning and ensure that they directly benefit from tourism. Train local people to develop tourism which is acceptable to them and complementary to their local customs Local communities in Zimbabwe do not value some of the heritage sites because they do not benefit from them. There is need to train the informal sector in the local communities to run microbusinesses such as guest houses, canteens and restaurants. This is evident in Domboshava though it is still on a small scale. Some local communities have been running a restaurant at the site.

Thus, heritage infrastructure development and visitor activity associated with heritage properties should contribute to local community empowerment and socio-economic development in an effective and equitable manner [124]. The Promotion, Presentation and Interpretation of heritage properties should be effective, honest, comprehensive and engaging. It should mobilise local and international awareness, understanding and support for their protection, conservation and sustainable use.

Adequate planning is essential: The NMMZ should emphasize on the production, adoption and regular review of agreed management plans for each Heritage Site. Strategic plans have to be constantly revealed. Tourism infrastructure and visitor facilities associated with heritage sites should be carefully planned, sited, designed, constructed and periodically upgraded as required to maximise the quality of visitor appreciation and experiences while ensuring there is no significant adverse impacts on heritage values and the surrounding environmental, social and cultural context [125].

Tourism planning, short and long term regional development policies and strategies, development plans, their implementation, tourism inducement act, strategic goals, projects are the most mentioned terms for the conservation and recovery of any heritage site. Planning for tourism development and visitor activity associated with heritage sites should be undertaken in an inclusive and participatory manner, respecting and empowering the local community including property owners, traditional or indigenous custodians, while taking account of their capacity and willingness to participate in visitor activity.

Strategic alliances: The utilisation of strategic alliances as a source of competitive advantage in today’s world is a reality. Every partner should be given equal decision making powers. The usefulness of company unions is complex, but their impact on every facet of economic competition is profound. No firm can afford to ignore the use of alliances in competitive strategy. Therefore, the NMMZ need to identify partners. In fact, ZIM-ASSET indentifies private-public partnerships (alliances) as one of the ways for financing SOEs’ capital projects. Heritage sites in Zimbabwe should partner with Zimbabwean blue-chip companies for them to be sustainable [127].

One of the most interesting and controversial topics in business management theories today is the concept of ‘strategic alliances’, a term that defines a rather innovative and interesting form of relationship between companies or organisations. The growing importance and quickening pace of strategic alliances in all kinds of different industries all over the world are in economic theories regarded as the answer to an ever-growing globalisation of the relevant markets and an increased competition [63]. According to Lincoln [70] strategic alliances are cooperative agreements between organizations that allow them to benefit from each other’s strengths. An alliance is a business-to-business collaboration or a business network [62]. In addition, Mowla [68] stated that alliances can be ‘horizontal’ (firms that are in the same line of business), ‘vertical’ (backward or forward), or ‘diversified’ (partnerships with businesses in other sectors of the economy). More so, there are contractual (non-equity) and equity-based alliances. Contractual alliances entail a relatively low level of commitment and may include the following co-marketing, research and development contracts, strategic suppliers, and strategic distributors/agents. Equitybased alliances, however, call for a higher level of commitment and may include strategic investment, cross shareholding, and joint ventures [64]. World Heritage Properties should be places where all stakeholders cooperate through effective partnerships to maximise conservation and presentation outcomes, whilst minimising threats and adverse impacts from tourism.

Organisations derive a myriad of benefits through entering into strategic alliances. Isoraite [60] identified four main advantages of strategic alliances. The merits are ease of market entry, sharing of risks, ability to share knowledge and expertise, synergy and competitive advantage. Therefore, a strategic alliance is a partnership that offers businesses a chance to join forces for a mutual beneficial opportunity and gain competitive advantage.

Human resources: Tour guides within the heritage sites are inadequate. For heritage tourism to thrive it has to develop a highly qualified guide system. Since interpretation is very important in cultural tourism, highly qualified guides must be fielded to interpret the culture. There guides must be fielded to interpret the culture. These guides must be certified through a cultural tourism qualification system. Well-informed tourists are at the very centre of all sustainable tourism activity. With good preparation, they are more likely to appreciate the distinctive features of a destination or heritage site, to enjoy the visit, to make return visits, to recommend the experience to others, to develop a long term interest in the place and perhaps to become ambassadors for its conservation.

The development of human resources is a very important aspect in cultural tourism. The preservation, promotion and interpretation of culture need highly skilled and competent people. The education and training of tourism personnel should be given highest priority. Cultural tourism requires a high degree of human interaction; people involved in this industry must have good public relations skills. The archaeologists in the Zimbabwean heritage sites should be trained in these skills. They must be able to interpret cultural values of the destination [116]. In this connection, tour guides must be given foreign language training. Education and training should be experience based, interdisciplinary in nature and customer-focused.

Furthermore, as much as Zimbabwe wants to preserve the heritage sites, it’s not preservation against access that should be emphasized. As much as people are wanted to come to our sites, NMMZ should have the archeologists trained in management skills. They should have business management. They should know how to manage the sites as a business entity. They are specialist in preservation of sites, they are trained in managing heritage sites as conservators but in business they do not have adequate knowledge. That combination would see the business thrive. A lot of potential is being untapped because Archeologists are conservators not business managers.

Expand opening hours: Expand opening hours of museums. Tourists should be able to access these sites anytime. Other local tourists go to work so some may want to visit the sites after work. For instance, in Bulawayo, the Natural History Museum they close early. Heritage sites should be flexible. This gives tourists freedom to visit the sites anytime and it attracts more visitors. Tourists do not like restrictions so if the sites should be flexible in terms of opening and closing hours.

Improve the institutional framework: Since there is not a very sound working relationship between National Museums and Monuments and National Parks in Zimbabwe as one would find between South African National Parks in and the South African Monuments. The government should clarify the roles of these institutions. Good institutional relations promote the development of cultural tourism in Zimbabwe. The government can form collaborations among the institutions. Collaborations or merging of these institutions improve the management of the heritage sites in Zimbabwe. One of the advantages of collaborations is that the organisations are able to equally share information. This avoids duplication of roles as well as policy discord within the sector. Alternatively, Parks and NMMZ could just merge or have a park where monuments are found and manage them as one entity share incomes.

Site management teams: The NMMZ should focus on the establishment of management or steering groups including stakeholder representation from key partners, major owners, managers and communities. The success of a site in terms of protection, conservation, and promotion depends on the input and shared vision of all the stakeholders.

Sustainable finance: A secure source of financial support is crucial to the success of World Heritage sites. This may come directly from the state, donors, trust funds or directly from visitors; often a mixture of all sources is used. Natural heritage sites that rely on sporadic, project-based funding are likely to remain at risk of funding shortfalls. Drawing up and implementing a plan for sustainable financing is thus a major element in management. Understanding and meeting the costs of heritage management today, many protected areas find it difficult to achieve financial stability (e.g. the ability to meet all the costs associated with the management of a heritage site). The reasons are often complex but have been summarized by the United Nations Development Programme as follows: government budget allocations that are below estimates of need, legislative, political or institutional constraints to innovation and cost-effective operations, due to the poor integration of protected areas into national development policies. Managers who are ill-equipped and poorly motivated to diversify funding sources and are often working without strategic financial plans or even management plans. There is limited technical knowledge on screening, assessment, formulation and implementation of new mechanisms to improve protected area financing. Financial planning is basically the process of defining costs and identifying ways to meet those costs. Good financial planning helps managers to make strategic financial decisions such as reallocating spending to match management priorities and identifying appropriate cost reductions and potential cash flow problems [116].

In addition, there is a need for NMMZ to build a diverse funding portfolio to minimize funding risks and fluctuations. Most sources of funding can be either insecure or subject to fluctuations. Combining different sources of funding is thus a key element to long-term financial sustainability (Appendix 1 and 2).

Private Public Partnerships (PPPs) as a financing mechanism: It is inevitable that PPPs are the way to go these days. SOEs have to engage in PPPs for them to survive in this harsh economic environment.

Dedication

This thesis is dedicated to my five children Nyasha, Fungisai, Sharon Chido, Tafadzwa Andrew and Moreblessing for their endless love, support and motivation. You are a delightful lot. Thank you for giving me the zeal to continue working.

Acknowledgment

First and foremost I would like to thank my academic advisor Mr Gordon Esses and all the supervising staff at Atlantic International University for their guidance and support throughout this study. With great pleasure, I would like to thank the senior management at National Museums and Monuments for giving me the authority to conduct a study on their organization and all their valuable inputs. I am grateful to persons who shared their thoughts and memories on the subject. Dr Nyaruwata, Mr Elvis Mari, Mr Jeffreys Majengwa, Mr Bvocho. Thank you all for the valuable inputs without which the project could not have taken shape. I would also like to thank most sincerely my research assistant Mr Brighton Shoniwa who worked tirelessly to collect the data and material for the research and all the endless hours we spend discussing the project. Last but not least I like to thank my friends and family for the encouragement. I thank the Almighty God for allowing me a chance to pursue my dreams.

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