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ISSN: 2375-4389
Journal of Global Economics
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The Perception of Entrepreneurs towards Operational Performance of Industrial Estates in Southern Districts of Tamilnadu - A Study

Selvaraj N*

Department of Commerce, Saraswathi Narayanan College, Madurai, India

*Corresponding Author:
Selvaraj N
Assistant Professor, Department of Commerce
Saraswathi Narayanan College, Madurai, India
Tel: 09843727975
E-mail: [email protected]

Received November 09, 2015; Accepted December 29, 2015; Published January 04, 2016

Citation:Selvaraj N (2016) The Perception of Entrepreneurs towards Operational Performance of Industrial Estates in Southern Districts of Tamilnadu - A Study. J Glob Econ 4:167. doi:10.4172/2375-4389.1000167

Copyright:© 2016 Selvaraj N. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

The Entrepreneurship Development Programmes (EDPs) became the most novel approach. The process of EDP ranges from identification of appropriate candidates, imparting necessary skills and knowledge about financial, technical and managerial aspect of business, to developing motivation and giving infrastructural support for establishing new business enterprises. Government of India has implemented several programmes in order to generate employment among unemployed youth. Experience of the entrepreneurs shows the number of years under which they have been working since its establishment. It indicates the life period of the business unit so far completed. It may influence the profitability and also the perception towards various problems encountered in enterprises. The performance of the enterprise is measured from the income of the enterprises. The returns of the enterprise indicate the total net income drawn from the enterprises. Entrepreneurs have orally stated the net income. The entrepreneurs are allowed to mention the average monthly income from the enterprises at the time of survey. The enterprises involvement index is a tool developed by Padaki at ten dimension which consists of motivation, role in promotion, role in management, role in decision making, time spent on unit related work, perceived satisfaction in life, training, pride in being an entrepreneur, membership in professional bodies and future plan. The present study is an attempt to analyze the operational performance of industrial estates in southern districts of Tamilnadu.

Keywords

Involvement; Attitude; Performance; Entrepreneurs; Industrial estates

Introduction

India is one of those countries, which have accorded high priority to entrepreneurship development through the operational performance of industrial estates. In the post-independence period, the Government of India felt the need for entrepreneurship development. Since 1950 a substantial amount of research and development effort has taken place in this area. The Entrepreneurship Development Programmes (EDPs) became the most novel approach. The process of EDP ranges from identification of appropriate candidates, imparting necessary skills and knowledge about financial, technical and managerial aspect of business, to developing motivation and giving infrastructural support for establishing new business enterprises. Government of India has implemented several programmes in order to generate employment among unemployed youth. The rate of success of the programmes was not up to the mark because of failure to identify the potential interest, skill, their willingness to learn new skills or improve the existing ones and their readiness to become entrepreneurs. The present study is an attempt to analyze the operational performance of industrial estates in southern districts of Tamilnadu.

Data source

The study is based on both primary data. Primary data have been collected from the selected entrepreneurs in the southern districts (Madurai, Theni, Dindigul, Virudhunagar, Ramanathapuram and Sivaganga) of Tamil Nadu with the help of an interview schedule. Secondary data have been obtained from the books, journals, web sites and unpublished records.

Period of the study

The primary data relating to the entrepreneurs of has been collected during 2014-2015.

In this paper the involvement and attitude of the sample entrepreneurs regarding the facilities available in the industrial estates have been analyzed. If an industrial estate programme has to be successful, the entrepreneurs who run their units there have to be satisfied regarding the facilities available in the industrial estates. Generally the entrepreneurs prefer low cost shed, banking facilities, infrastructure facilities, canteen, postal service, skilled and cheap labour and the like. In addition, an attempt has also been made to discuss the experience, sources of capital, return on investment, performance of the entrepreneurs, impact of entrepreneurs’ involvement and constraints faced by the entrepreneurs in the industrial estates.

Experience

Experience of the entrepreneurs shows the number of years under which they have been working since its establishment. It indicates the life period of the business unit so far completed. It may influence the profitability and also the perception towards various problems encountered in enterprises. The years of experience for the study is confined to up to two years, more than three years but less than five years and more than five years. The distribution of enterprises according to the years of experience is shown in Table 1

Experience (years) Number Percentage
Upto 2
3 – 5
Above 5
42
105
78
18.67
46.67
34.66
Total 225 100.00

Table 1: Experience of the entrepreneurs..

From Table 1, it has been observed that a maximum of 46.67% of the entrepreneurs have experience of more than three years but less than five years. Only 18.67% of the entrepreneurs have experience up to two years.

Investment in the enterprises

The distribution of enterprise according to the amount of investment made on the enterprise is shown in Table 2.

Investment (Rs) Number Percentage
Up to 10,000
10,001 – 20,000
20,001 – 30,000
30,001 – 40,000
40,001 – 50,000
Above 50,000
8
15
23
29
76
74
3.56
6.67
10.22
12.89
33.77
32.89
Total 225 100.00

Table 2: Investment made on the enterprise

Source: Primary data.

From Table 2, it has been observed that around 66.67% of the enterprises have investment above Rs. 40,000. Only 3.56% of the enterprises have the investment up to Rs.10,000. The enterprises which have investment less than Rs.30,000 constitute 20.45%.

Sources of capital

The important source of capital among the entrepreneurs is shown in Table 3.

Source of Capital Number Percentage Rank
Own/Spouse
Friends/Relatives
Private money Lenders
Self – help groups
Chit Funds
Commercial Bank
253
132
176
128
67
86
56.22
29.33
39.11
28.44
14.89
19.11
I
III
II
IV
VI
V

Table 3: Sources of capital of the entrepreneurs.

Table 3 reveals that the important sources of capital among the entrepreneurs are their own/Spouse, Private money lenders and Friends/Relatives since the respective % age to the total are 56.22, 39.11 and 29.33 respectively. The least source of capital among the entrepreneurs is Chit funds.

Monthly income from the enterprise: The performance of the enterprise is measured from the income of the enterprises. The returns of the enterprise indicate the total net income drawn from the enterprises. Entrepreneurs have orally stated the net income. The entrepreneurs are allowed to mention the average monthly income from the enterprises at the time of survey. The distribution of enterprise according to the average monthly income is shown in Table 4.

Monthly Return (in Rs) Number Percentage
up to 5000
5001-10000
10001-15000
15001-20000
Above 20000
38
47
62
42
36
16.89
20.89
27.55
18.67
16.00
Total 225 100.00

Table 4: Monthly income from the enterprises.

From Table 4, it has been observed that a maximum of 27.55% of the total enterprises are earning an income of Rs.10001 - 15000 per month. Only 16.89% of the enterprises earn a monthly income of up to Rs.5000.

Return on investment: The return on investment is the ratio between the return and investment of the enterprises. The return of investment is a real indicator of the profitability of units. The average rate of return on investment is shown in Table 5.

Return on investment (in percent) Number Percentage
Upto 5
6 - 10
11 -15
Above 15
44
107
60
14
19.55
47.55
26.67
6.23
Total 225 100.00

Table 5: Average return on investment of the entrepreneurs.

From Table 5, it has been observed that 47.55% of the total units earned an average return on investment of 6-10%, whereas the number of units that earned a return on investment of above 15% constitutes 6.23%. The average returns on investment among the enterprises are 8.92%, whereas the standard deviation is 3.74.

Involvement of the Entrepreneurs

The qualities of entrepreneurship depend on the degree to which they are involved in managing their enterprises. Padaki (1994) mentioned the role of women in running their enterprises. The involvement of women in managing the enterprises has been influenced by their demographic and environmental factors [1].

The enterprises involvement index is a tool developed by Padaki at ten dimension which consists of motivation, role in promotion, role in management, role in decision making, time spent on unit related work, perceived satisfaction in life, training, pride in being an entrepreneur, membership in professional bodies and future plan. The above said ten enterprise involvement variables are rated at five-point scale among the entrepreneurship, which carries 5,4,3,2 and 1 mark according to their nature of involvement. The sum of scores obtained by the entrepreneurs from all ten variables and the rated sum of maximum scores of all enterprise involvement variables are used to find out the Enterprise Involvement Index (EII).

Enterprise involvement index (EII) =Equation  (1)

Whereas,

EIS = Enterprise Involvement Score

MEIS = Maximum of Enterprise Involvement Score

i…..n = Number of Enterprise Involvement Variables

mAge and involvement of the entrepreneurs

By the age of the respondent, there are four different classifications namely up to 30, 31-40, 41-50, and above 50. The mean value of ten different enterprise variables is calculated under four different classifications of entrepreneurs according to their age. The ‘F’ statistic is also calculated for the purpose of identifying the significant difference among the various classifications of entrepreneurs on the basis of age [2]. The resultant mean and F-Statistic of each enterprise involvement variables are shown in Table 6.

Enterprise Involvement Variables Group Means F-Statistics
Age of Respondents
Upto 30 31-40 41-50 Above 50
Sources of Inspiration
Help during setting up stage
Managing various functions
Major decision
Time spent towards unit related work
Satisfaction
Training
Pride in being an Entrepreneur
Membership
Future Plan
3.6326
3.5714
4.0157
3.4712
3.5965
3.3151
3.5294
3.5829
1.5212
3.1981
3.7527
2.0312
2.0513
4.1619
3.4109
3.5213
3.1541
4.0345
2.1891
2.6314
2.8316
2.6516
3.3729
2.6986
2.3896
3.0593
3.1075
3.0521
3.0089
2.0726
2.7314
3.5315
2.8351
3.0591
2.3324
3.0184
3.7489
2.8635
2.3641
2.0394
3.8914*
3.5314*
-1.1119
3.3264*
1.1187
1.4612
0.8956
3.4314*
3.6133*
3.3962*
Overall Involvement 3.5798 2.8051 2.7384 2.8433 3.0402*

Table 6: Association between age and involvement among the entrepreneurs.

From Table 6 it has been inferred that the most important enterprise involvement variables among the entrepreneurs under the age of upto 30, 31 to 40, 41 to 50 and above 50 are managing various functions, major decisions, managing various functions and training since the mean scores are 4.0157, 4.1619, 3.3729 and 3.7489, respectively. The significant differences among the different age group of entrepreneurs noticed in the case of enterprise involvement variables are namely sources of inspiration, help during setting up stage, major decisions, pride in being an entrepreneur, membership and Future plans since the respective ‘F’ values are significant at 5% level. Regarding the overall enterprise involvement, there is significant difference among the entrepreneurs under different age group.

Education and involvement of the entrepreneurs

The entrepreneurs are classified on the basis of their education as School level, College level and Technical Education. The involvement among the above group of entrepreneurs is analyzed with the help of mean score on each enterprise involvement variables and its respective ‘F’ statistic. The resultant mean values and ‘F’ statistics are shown in Table 7.

Enterprise Involvement Variables Group Means F-Statistics
Level of Education
School level College level Technical Education
Sources of Inspiration
Help during setting up stage
Managing various functions
Major decisions
Time spent towards unit
related work
Satisfaction
Training
Pride in being an Entrepreneur
Membership
Future plan
4.0131
3.8341
2.3314
3.0319
3.5291
3.0612
2.7156
3.1978
1.6312
1.1609
4.0661
4.1011
4.0139
3.1345
2.8129
2.0106
3.3718
2.1389
2.3520
2.0814
1.7863
2.1374
4.0356
2.0345
3.5314
2.0134
1.7334
2.8717
2.8345
4.5312
3.1724*
1.3122
2.4312*
1.6029
1.7341
2.3497*
1.1329
2.7817
1.0985
2.5892*
Overall Involvement 2.7144 3.0923 2.6693 2.1232*

Table 7: Association between education and involvement among the entrepreneurs.

Table 7 shows that the overall involvement is high among the entrepreneurs having college level education since their mean score is 3.0923. Entrepreneurs with school level education follow it and their mean score is 2.7144. Higher level of education among the entrepreneurs augments greater involvement. The significant difference among the different educated entrepreneurs is seen in the case of enterprise involvement variables namely sources of inspiration, managing various functions, satisfaction and future plan.

Caste and entrepreneurs involvement

The association between caste and involvement among the entrepreneurs is exhibited with the help of the mean of each involvement variables among the different caste entrepreneurs and the ‘F’ statistic. The calculated mean of each involvement variable among different caste entrepreneurs and their respective ‘F’ statistics are presented in Table 8.

Enterprise Involvement Variables Group Means   F-Statistics
Caste of the Respondents
Forward MB /B Scheduled /Tribe
Sources of Inspiration
Help during setting up stage
Managing various functions
Major decisions
Time spent towards unit Related work
Satisfaction
Training
Pride in being an Entrepreneur
Membership
Future Plan
3.7781
3.6421
4.8661
3.7241
3.3712
3.0471
2.0076
4.0071
3.3718
3.8017
2.3541
2.2069
3.8716
3.0532
3.3718
3.5812
3.3124
4.0089
3.7123
2.7165
2.0395
2.7189
3.7345
3.0732
2.2154
2.3526
2.4176
4.0736
1.8196
1.3014
3.5619*
2.5019*
3.0619*
1.4324
1.6814
1.7204
1.3014
3.7716*
2.7169*
3.0624*
Overall Involvement 3.5019 3.2012 2.5190 2.1183

Table 8: Association between caste and involvement among the entrepreneurs..

From Table 8 it has been observed that the most inspired involvement variables among forward class, most backward class and scheduled caste/tribe are pride in being an entrepreneur, and managing various functions [3]. The overall involvement among the forward class entrepreneurs is greater than the other group of entrepreneurs since their mean value is 3.5019. There is significant difference among the different class wise entrepreneurs as to involvement variables namely sources of inspiration, help during setting up stage, managing various functions, pride in being an entrepreneur, membership and future plan since their respective ‘F’ statistics are significant at 5% level.

Marital status and involvement

The entrepreneurs are classified into unmarried, married, separated and widow/widower. The involvement among the above said marital status possessed by the entrepreneurs is analyzed with the help of the mean score of each enterprise involvement variables and its related ‘F’ Statistics. The resultant mean score of all enterprise involvement variables and their respective ‘F’ statistics is shown in Table 9.

Enterprise Involvement
Variables
Group Means F-Statistics
Marital Status
Unmarried Married Separated and Widow/
Widower
Sources of Inspiration
Help during setting up stage
Managing various functions
Major decisions
Time spent towards unit related work
Satisfaction Training
Pride in being an
Entrepreneur Membership
Future plan
3.6156
3.0056
3.5916
4.0183
2.7186
1.7324
1.7912
2.0017
1.8912
4.0014
4.1717
3.5315
2.8716
3.7819
3.0569
3.7124
3.7697
3.8315
2.7121
3.8124
2.7014
3.0517
3.6543
4.0124
4.0874
4.0596
3.5129
2.7816
2.0045
1.0585
2.7172*
0.8161*
1.1149*
0.8041
0.7421
3.315*
2.0561*
1.3565
1.1054
3.7154*
Overall Involvement 2.7122 3.5024 3.1539 1.8654

Table 9: Association between marital status and involvements among the entrepreneurs.

From Table 9 it has been observed that the entrepreneurs under different marital status significantly differ in the case of source of inspiration, satisfaction, training and future plain since their ‘F’ statistics are significant at 5% level. Regarding the unmarried entrepreneurs, the important variables are major decisions, future plan and sources of inspiration since their mean scores are 4.0183, 4.0014 and 3.6156 respectively, whereas among the married entrepreneurs the important variables are source of inspiration, pride in being an entrepreneur and future plans and since their mean scores are 4.1717, 3.8315 and 3.8124 respectively. The overall involvement among different groups of entrepreneurs reveals that there is a higher involvement among the married entrepreneurs since their mean value is 3.5024. Regarding the overall involvement there is no significant difference among the entrepreneurs under different marital status since the ‘F’ statistics are not significant at 5% level.

Family size and involvement

The family size of the entrepreneurs may influence the involvement. The association between the family size and involvement is analyzed with the help of the mean score of different aspects of involvement under different family size and their respective ‘F’ statistics. The mean value of involvement variables are separately calculated under different family sized entrepreneurs. The results are exhibited in Table 10.

Enterprise Involvement variables Groups Means   F-Statistics
Family size of Respondents
Upto 3 4 – 5 Above 5
Sources of Inspiration
Help during setting up stage
Managing various functions
Major decisions
Time spent towards unit related work
Satisfaction
Training
Pride in being an Entrepreneur
Membership
Future plan
4.2185
3.5145
3.0412
3.8712
3.8615
4.5214
3.3119
5.1019
3.1816
4.0591
3.7319
3.7819
4.5109
3.7851
2.0816
4.1127
1.8961
4.1369
3.6159
4.5121
3.4214
2.3524
3.1675
1.8199
3.1526
2.0815
1.6542
4.0569
1.5109
3.5315
3.7117*
0.8523
0.4676
3.0076*
1.7861
2.5679*
0.7162
0.2491
0.8024
2.3816*
Overall Involvement 3.8545 3.6125 2.6572 1.2641

Table 10: Association between family size and involvement among the ntrepreneurs.

Table 10 depicts that the entrepreneurs who have a family size up to 3 are important variables are pride in being an entrepreneur and satisfaction since the mean scores are 5.1019 and 4.5214 respectively, whereas among the entrepreneurs who have family size above 5, important variables are pride in being an entrepreneur and future plan since their mean scores are 4.0569 and 3.5315 respectively. The significant difference among the entrepreneurs under different family sizes is noticed in few enterprises involvement aspects namely sources of inspiration, major decision, satisfaction and future plan since the ‘F’statistics are significant at 5% level. The overall enterprise involvement is higher among the entrepreneurs of family size of up to 3 as 3.8545. With the increase in family size among the entrepreneurs’ family, the enterprise involvement among the entrepreneurs is decreasing. But there is no significant difference among the entrepreneurs under different family sizes regarding the involvement since the ‘F’ statistics are not significant at 5% level.

Earning members per family and involvement

The entrepreneurs are classified on the basis of the earning members per family into one, two, three, four and more than four. The involvement among the entrepreneurs under different earning members per family is analyzed with the help of mean score and the ‘F’ statistic [4]. The mean of all involvement variables among the different groups of earning members per family is calculated. The ‘F’ statistic is also calculated to find out the significant difference among the entrepreneurs under different groups in each involvement variables. The resultant mean and their respective ‘F’ statistics are presented in Table 11.

Enterprise
Involvement Variables
Group Means   F-Statistics
Earning members per family
One Two Three Four More than four
Sources of Inspiration
Help during setting up stage
Managing various functions
Major decisions
Time spent towards unit related work
Satisfaction
Training
Pride in being an Entrepreneur
Membership
Future plan
3.8281
1.7541
3.2615
1.7516
3.7626
4.7214
3.0089
4.1141
3.3189
1.5019
3.3715
3.3516
3.7171
3.5405
3.6050
3.3085
3.0850
3.6055
2.5871
3.8055
3.7161
3.5420
4.0532
3.1269
3.3190
3.8124
3.1840
2.3615
3.3016
3.7161
3.8514
3.8421
2.6180
3.8714
3.0541
3.7454
2.5073
2.8341
3.0821
3.8771
4.1918
3.0861
3.8124
4.0519
3.8916
3.0591
3.0921
2.0261
3.1981
4.0854
3.8541*
1.2341
1.5654
3.8529*
0.7532
1.6345
0.8374
3.3179*
1.0372
3.0724*
Overall Involvement 3.0961 3.3913 3.4211 3.3326 3.4234 1.4961

Table 11: Association between earning members per family and involvement among the entrepreneurs.

From Table 11 it has been inferred that the involvement is comparatively higher among the entrepreneurs who have more than four earning members in their family compared to other groups. The average involvement is increasing from 3.0961 among the entrepreneurs with one earning member in their family to 3.4234 among the entrepreneurs with more than four earning members per family. There is no significant difference among the entrepreneurs under different groups of earning members regarding the overall involvement since the ‘F’ statistics are not significant at 5% level.

Occupational background and involvement

The entrepreneurs are classified according to their occupational background namely, agricultural labourer, farmer, non-agricultural labourer, government employee, private employee and microentrepreneur. The entrepreneurs from different occupational background may differ in involvement. In order to analyze the association between occupational background of the entrepreneurs and their involvement, the mean score of each involvement variables are calculated for different occupational backgrounds separately. The ‘F’ statistic is also computed to find the significant difference among the different groups of entrepreneurs in different aspects of involvement. The results are shown in Table 12.

Enterprise Variables Group Means F-Statistics
Occupational Background
Agricultural Labourer Farmer Non-Agricultural Labourer Government Employee Private Employee Micro Entrepreneurs
Sources of Inspiration
Help during setting up stage
Managing various function
Major decisions
Time spent towards unit related work
Satisfaction
Training
Pride in being an Entrepreneur
Membership
Future plan
1.2317
1.7679
2.7143
3.0524
4.0125
3.0012
3.0161
2.0131
1.8949
1.0854
3.0596
1.8624
3.0569
3.1541
3.0211
3.0121
2.7612
3.8718
1.6809
1.1631
2.0345
3.0321
2.8320
4.1251
2.7321
2.0756
3.0624
3.7894
2.0710
2.3458
1.1527
1.6531
1.8624
3.3345
2.8321
2.0162
2.0261
3.0541
3.3261
3.0810
3.6165
3.1345
2.7125
3.5181
3.0081
2.8081
2.6162
2.3120
3.7591
3.1715
4.1081
2.0071
1.6024
3.0654
3.5124
3.0510
2.0542
1.7861
2.0514
3.1916
3.6086*
1.0315
1.1610
1.6091
1.7615
3.3686*
1.1516
2.8516*
1.0920
2.5834
Overall Involvement 2.3433 2.6345 2.8133 2.2241 3.0534 2.6360 2.1699*

Table 12: Association between occupational background and involvement among the entrepreneurs

From Table 12, it has been inferred that the mean of overall involvement is increasing from 2.3433 among the entrepreneurs who have backgrounds of agriculture labourer to 3.0534 among the entrepreneurs from the background of private employment [5]. The mean of overall involvement among the entrepreneurs from micro-enterprises is 2.6360. The significant difference among the entrepreneurs from various occupational backgrounds is identified regarding the overall involvement. There is significant difference among the entrepreneurs from various occupational backgrounds is noticed in the case of involvement variables namely sources of inspiration, satisfaction and pride in being an entrepreneur since the ‘F’ statistics are significant at 5% level.

Material possession and involvement

The association between material possession of the entrepreneurs and their involvement is studied with the help of mean and ‘F’ statistic. The entrepreneurs are grouped according to their material possession on Nil, up to Rs.50,000, Rs.50,001 to Rs.1,00,000, Rs.1,00,001 to 2,00,000 and above Rs.2,00,000. The mean of each involvement is computed among the entrepreneurs under different material possessions. The resultant mean and their respective ‘F’ statistics of the involvement variables among different group of entrepreneurs according to material possession are shown in Table 13.

Enterprise Involvement Variables Group Means F- Statistics
Material Possession(in Rs)
Nil Upto 50,000 50001-100000 100001-200000 Above 200000
Sources  of inspiration
Help during setting up stage
Managing various functions
Major decisions
Time spent towards unit related work
Satisfaction
Training
Pride in being an Entrepreneur
Membership
Future plan
1.0186
3.1826
2.1941
3.3196
3.0861
2.8531
2.0101
3.1211
0.0912
0.8545
1.8534
3.7520
4.1024
4.0311
2.6106
3.3146
3.8715
4.0651
1.2188
1.5916
2.2571
3.5717
2.1819
3.2145
3.5719
3.0187
2.8061
2.7516
2.6516
2.0815
3.0871
3.4171
0.5616
4.1514
3.1116
3.0621
2.3079
2.5155
2.5245
2.5916
3.5214
4.1163
3.5024
4.1172
3.3091
3.3699
3.0111
3.0514
4.1515
4.0655
3.0716 *
1.7516
1.8814
0.8855
1.2041
1.3024
1.5014
1.0134
2.3850*
3.8151*
Overall Involvement 2.1558 3.0868 2.8057 3.0521 3.6233 1.7134

Table 13: Association between material possession and involvement among the entrepreneurs.

From Table 13, it has been revealed that there is significant difference among the entrepreneurs who belong to different material possession are noticed in the involvement variables namely sources of inspiration, membership and future plan since the ‘F’ statistics are significant at 5% level. The mean of overall involvement is increasing from 2.1558 among the entrepreneurs without any material possession to 3.6233 among the entrepreneurs with material possessors of above Rs.2,00,000. There is no significant difference identified among the entrepreneurs under different material possession regarding the overall involvement since the ‘F’ statistics are not significant at 5% level.

Monthly income and involvement

The monthly income may lead the entrepreneurs to enrich their idea in enterprising. The higher income of the entrepreneurs generally makes the entrepreneurs to involve in so many enterprise activities. The present analysis examines the association between monthly income of the entrepreneurs and their involvement with the help of mean and ‘F’ statistic. The entrepreneurs are classified into up to Rs.1000, Rs.1001- 2000, Rs.2001-3000, Rs.3001- 4000 and above Rs.4000. The mean and ‘F’ statistic of each involvement variables is computed and presented in Table 14.

Enterprise Involvement Variables Group Means F- Statistics
Monthly Income(in Rs)
up to 1000 1001-2000 2001-3000 3001-4000 Above 4000
Sources of inspiration
Help during setting up stage
Managing various function
Major decisions
Time spent towards unit related work
Satisfaction
Training
Pride in being an Entrepreneur
Membership
Future plan
2.0135
1.6819
3.3026
3.8152
1.6617
2.0520
1.3066
3.1916
3.0092
1.5818
2.3061
3.0021
3.1150
2.1016
2.0661
3.0881
1.0810
3.5921
3.5019
2.7069
2.7345
3.0620
3.0015
4.0810
1.7126
2.7016
3.0512
3.0541
3.1079
3.7539
3.3019
3.0861
3.1329
2.8024
2.5124
2.8517
2.6516
2.5111
3.6317
2.5171
3.2043
3.0152
3.5411
3.5111
3.1530
3.0719
2.5423
3.5020
2.5040
4.0029
1.4461
2.7127*
1.0019
3.1119*
3.6919*
0.8542
1.6019
1.5071
0.3013
0.5515
Overall Involvement 2.1863 2.6516 3.0011 3.0011 3.2011 1.5024

Table 14: Association between monthly income and involvement among the entrepreneurs.

From Table 14, it has been observed that increase in monthly income of the entrepreneurs leads to increase in their involvement in enterprise. It is witnessed from the mean of overall involvement among the entrepreneurs under different monthly income groups.

The significant difference among them is seen only in few aspects of involvement namely help during setting up stage, major decisions and time spent towards unit related work since the ‘F’ statistics are significant at 5% level. But there is no significant difference among the entrepreneurs under different monthly income regarding the overall involvement. The important aspects of enterprise involvement among the entrepreneurs where monthly income is up to Rs.1000 and above Rs.4000 are major decisions and future plans since the mean values are 3.8152 and 4.0029 respectively.

Family income and involvement

The family income of the entrepreneurs may support them to enrich an enterprising. The far high family income motivates the entrepreneurs to take more risk in business and also to mould their personality. The family income in the present study is grouped into up to Rs.3000, Rs.3001-5000 and above Rs.5000. The association between family income and the involvement among the entrepreneurs is analyzed with the help of mean score of each involvement variables and its related ‘F’ statistic. The calculated mean and their respective ‘F’ statistics are presented in Table 15.

Enterprise Involvement variables Groups Means   F-Statistics
Family Income (per month)
Upto Rs.3000 Rs.3001-5000 Above Rs.5000
Sources of Inspiration
Help during setting up stage
Managing various functions
Major decisions
Time spent towards unit related work
Satisfaction
Training
Pride in being an Entrepreneur
Membership
Future plan
3.1069
1.7131
1.3211
3.5416
1.7126
3.2114
1.3516
3.5614
1.0861
3.0017
3.3716
3.8616
2.7015
2.5024
1.8735
2.5919
1.7127
3.8196
1.3126
2.5413
3.5097
3.5113
2.5451
3.8515
3.8061
3.0651
3.8406
3.6705
2.8060
3.0435
1.7806
2.5421*
1.7406
1.6541
2.3096*
1.5315
2.5071*
0.8504
1.3217
1.4961
Overall Involvement 2.3543 2.6532 3.3596 3.3061

Table 15: Association between family income and involvement among the entrepreneurs.

From Table 15, it has been observed that the most involved variables among the entrepreneurs belongs to family income of up to Rs.3000,Rs.3001-5000 and above Rs.5000 are pride in being an entrepreneur, help during setting up stage and major decisions since its mean values are 3.5614, 3.8616 and 3.8515 respectively. There is significant difference among the entrepreneurs who belong to various family income is identified in few enterprise variables namely help during setting up stage, time spent towards unit related work and training since the ‘F’ statistics are significant at 5% level. The overall involvement among the entrepreneurs is increasing from the less family income group to high family income group. There is no significant difference among the entrepreneurs belonging to different family income group regarding the involvement since the ‘F’ statistics are not significant at 5% level.

Personal index and involvement

The personality of the entrepreneur is measured with the help of fourteen personal variables. The personal index is derived from the score on the personal variables. The personal index is classified into upto 20, 21-40, 41-60, 61-80 and above 80. In order to analyses the significant difference among the personal index and involvement the ‘F’ statistic is calculated. The resultant mean score under different groups of entrepreneurs and their respective ‘F’ statistics are given in Table 16.

Enterprise Involvement Variables Group Means F- Statistics
Personal Index
Upto 20 21-40 41-60 61-80 Above 80
Sources  of inspiration
Help during setting up stage
Managing various functions
Major decisions
Time spent towards unit related work
Satisfaction
Training
Pride in being an Entrepreneur
Membership
Future plan
1.0271
3.0620
2.5024
0.7585
1.1426
3.0214
2.1175
3.1406
1.0471
2.0742
1.7021
2.3816
1.0820
2.1141
1.0516
3.0921
1.0811
3.8505
1.8510
2.5121
2.0821
2.5124
2.5141
1.3414
2.3005
2.3181
2.8679
3.8589
2.5329
2.4116
3.0585
2.5071
2.8554
2.5024
2.5415
3.5020
3.0120
3.0512
2.5080
3.7121
3.1041
2.3621
3.2661
3.8061
2.3041
3.0543
2.8061
3.7011
3.8111
4.1024
3.7516*
0.8543
1.8925*
3.2015*
1.2016
1.0425
1.3024
1.0528*
3.8516*
3.3029*
Overall Involvement 2.0742 2.0580 2.4656 3.0124 3.2141 2.6459*

Table 16: Association between personal index and involvement among the entrepreneurs.

From Table 16, clearly shows that the entrepreneurs with different personality index significantly differ regarding all aspects of involvement variables except help during setting up stage, time spent towards unit related works, satisfaction and training. The overall involvement increases from 2.0742 among the entrepreneurs who have the personal index of up to 20 to 3.2141 among the entrepreneurs who have the personal index of above 80. The significant ‘F’ statistic of 2.6459 indicates that there is a significant difference among the entrepreneurs who have different personal indexes regarding the involvement.

Suggestion

Based on the findings and views expressed by the entrepreneurs the following suggestions are made for the improvement of entrepreneurship through the operational performance of industrial estates.

To instill confidence, intensive training may be given to the aspirants for setting up work units so that some group work units may be established. For marketing their goods, practical strategies need to be worked out.

The major problems, which are perceived as throwing spanners in the act of entrepreneurship, are purely socio-economical and psychological. To enhance the entrepreneur’s talent and experience in business, proper skill-oriented training may be provided. Educational institutions offer courses, which will help to inculcate the entrepreneurial skill among the youth. Entrepreneurs have to be innovative. Entrepreneur’s managerial skills always boost the satisfaction level and the image of entrepreneurs in the society. They can consistently and constantly increase their level of education. They try to have good rapo with the various financial, technical institutions and organization and different departments of Government engaged in entrepreneurship development activities.

Summary and Conclusion

The qualities of entrepreneurship depend on the degree to which they are involved in managing their enterprises. Padaki (1994) mentioned the role of women in running their enterprises. The involvement of women in managing the enterprises has been influenced by their demographic and environmental factors. The distribution of enterprises according to the years of experience, it has been observed that a maximum of 46.67% of the entrepreneurs have experience of more than three years but less than five years. Only 18.67% of the entrepreneurs have experience up to two years. The most important enterprise involvement variables among the entrepreneurs under the age of up to 30, 31 to 40, 41 to 50 and above 50 are managing various functions, major decisions, managing various functions and training since the mean scores are 4.0157, 4.1619, 3.3729 and 3.7489, respectively. The entrepreneurs with different personality index significantly differ regarding all aspects of involvement variables except help during setting up stage, time spent towards unit related works, satisfaction and training. The overall involvement increases from 2.0742 among the entrepreneurs who have the personal index of up to 20 to 3.2141 among the entrepreneurs who have the personal index of above 80. The significant ‘F’ statistic of 2.6459 indicates that there is a significant difference among the entrepreneurs who have different personal indexes regarding the involvement

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