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The Reality of MBA Program Theses Utility between Theory and Practice in Organizational Development

Yahya Hussam Mansour*
Faculty, Department of Commerce, The Islamic University of Gaza, Palestinian Territory
Corresponding Author : Mansour YH
M.D, Palestinian Territory
Tel: +972598940211
E-mail: [email protected]
Received February 05, 2015; Accepted May 07, 2015; Published May 09, 2015
Citation:Mansour YH (2015) The Reality of MBA Program Theses Utility between Theory and Practice in Organizational Development. Review Pub Administration Manag 3:154. doi:10.4172/2315-7844.1000154
Copyright: ©2015 Mansour YH. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Abstract

This study aimed to explore the reality of MBA program theses utility between theory and practice. The researcher used the descriptive analytical method to study the relationship of six variables (decision makers, fund, organizational culture and structure, theses, theses rustles and recommendations, and graduates) on organizational development upon MBA theses. This study focused on the Islamic University of Gaza MBA program and the Palestinian Ministries in the Gaza Strip as a case study. The study population was divided into two: decision makers at ministries and on the Islamic University of Gaza MBA program graduates. The researcher used two different research instruments with each population: questionnaires were used with decision makers’ population which consists of (148), and semi-structured interview were used with graduates’ population which consist of (93). (107) questionnaire were recollected and analyzed by (SPSS) and (20) interviews were conducted with graduates and analyzed using thematic analysis method. The results showed that the two populations agreed that there is no organizational development upon MBA program theses based on four variables: (decision makers, fund, organizational culture and structure, graduates). Where, decision makers relatively does not support organizational development upon MBA program theses, and does not providing supportive organizational culture and structure. Also, graduates dose not allowing to apply their theses. As for (theses, theses rustles and recommendations) the two populations have disagreed and blame each other’s for unrealizing organizational development upon MBA theses. Where, the graduates’ population assure that their theses suitable to achieve organizational development. The study recommended decision makers to support scientific research and encourage researchers. Also, the necessity of taking into account institutions needs to theses topics and problems, determine theses variables and objectives from managers point of view, and examine theses applicability degree before prepare it. Moreover, benefit from graduates’ research experiences after completing their theses.

Keywords
MBA; Theses; Organizational development; Practice; Qualitative; Quantitative; Research and development
Introduction
Scientific research is a key pillar in the development and progression of communities throughout the ages and administrative sciences are one of the modern sciences which have become a concern field by researchers. Developing countries today face the great challenge where it is imperative to embark on the process of developmental change to improve the quality of life and requires a multitude of strategic interventions, where social research plays an essential part in every development process of social change, in the other hand, it can lead to implementing organizations to undertake constructive action programmers, to take the cue for mid-course correction [1]. In the Gaza Strip, many whom hold a bachelor’s degree attend to complete post graduate studies for masters’ degree in various disciplines. According to Commerce Faculty at the Islamic University of Gaza (IUG) web site (2013) [2] the Master of Business Administration announced from the university belief in the importance of graduate studies and their contribution to community service, where it considered that one of the main objectives of the program is to contribute the development of scientific research in administrative sciences filed. As a requirement to obtain the (MBA) degree, the student should prepare a thesis related to management and administrative science.
Research problem and justification
The proposed thesis investigated the utility of (MBA) theses, and the adoption degree and return of Decision Makers (DM) to its Results and Recommendations (RR) for Organizational Development (OD) process based on the importance of scientific research in renaissance communities and the number of (MBA) theses approved annually. The problem of the study consists of the researcher attempted to identify and analyze the reality of (IUG) (MBA) program theses utility in (OD). On the other hand, the researcher rechecked the role of graduates in (OD) process at the Palestinian Ministries in the Gaza Strip (PMG). Thus, the research problem can be summarized as the following question: What is the reality of (IUG) (MBA) program theses utility in (OD) process at the (PMG)?
Research objective and importance
The researcher has same aims to investigate the reality of research use, assess (DM) attitudes towards research, study (PMG) ability to achieve (OD) upon (MBA) theses, reveal the reality effect of (MBA) theses utility on the local public sector, explore to what extent (MBA) graduates are applying their thesis in the (OD) process, and develop the possible recommendations to improve scientific research application. On the other hand, the research importance has effects in several parties. First, ministries can study the possibility of applying research in practical life, explore the most important obstacles causing theory and practice gap, and identify weaknesses that hinder (OD) process. Second, universities may examine the extent of its contribution to the development process in the (PMG), assess the degree of the most important (MBA) program outcomes usefulness to the society, and direct researchers efforts to achieve the greatest possible benefit. Third, the community may describe the degree of linkage between theoretical science taught in educational institutions and what is applied in practical life and identify the difficulties faced ministries in activating the development process, to avoid it. Fourth, researcher can identify the extent of their contribution in developing (PMG) and submit possible proposals for new research.
Research variables and hypotheses
Based on literature review there is one dependent variable which is “organizational development upon (MBA) theses” and six independent variables that reflect (IUG) (MBA) theses utility which are: decision makers, fund, organizational culture and structure, (MBA) theses, theses results and recommendations, and graduates. Also, to evaluate (MBA) theses utility in (OD) and the factors affecting it, the researcher assumed the following hypotheses in his study:
▪ There is a statistically significant relationship at (α=0.05) between independent variables and organizational development upon (MBA) theses.
The following hypotheses stem from the first hypothesis:
▪ There is a statistically significant relationship at (α=0.05) between decision makers and organizational development upon (MBA) theses.
▪ There is a statistically significant relationship at (α=0.05) between fund and organizational development upon (MBA) theses.
▪ There is a statistically significant relationship at (α=0.05) between organizational culture and structure and organizational development upon (MBA) theses.
▪ There is a statistically significant relationship at (α=0.05) between (MBA) theses and organizational development upon (MBA) theses.
▪ There is a statistically significant relationship at (α=0.05) between (MBA) theses results and recommendations and organizational development upon (MBA) theses.
▪ There is a statistically significant relationship at (α=0.05) between (MBA) graduates and organizational development upon (MBA) theses.
▪ There are statistically significant differences among respondents at (α=0.05) towards organizational development upon (MBA) theses due personal traits (managerial category, gender, age, years of experience, and qualifications).
Theoretical Framework
This section proposes a critical review of literature about findings from secondary data sources. The researcher tried to explore (MBA) program. Next, the researcher described (OD) concepts and Action Research (AR) process. Finally, a review about the research practice gap cusses and the providing bridging efforts were explained.
MBA program
Postgraduate degree in business has been complimented and criticized since its introduction in 1900 first decade, where academics argues that the (MBA) lacking in theoretical rigor, while practitioner see it as lacking in practicality. The (MBA) program considered as the most popular business postgraduate form [3]. Based on the U.S. National Center for Education Statistics (2004) [4] total (MBA) holders in 2002-2003 were 127,545 which were only 3,280 in 1955-1956. Unfortunately, this level of growth has been neglected in scholarly research [5]. According to the literature (MBA) degree it may be defined as: a graduate business education degree purpose to provide training in the theory and practice of business management which may consists two years, the first year academic and usually involves the study of economics, finance, accounting, marketing and business strategy, while the second year the students may specialize and take courses in other areas such as manufacturing, technology management, information systems, or leadership and supervision skills [6].
(MBA) program develop through critical and comprehensive several stages and points, the first was Carnegie Corporation and Ford Foundation reports in 1959 which criticized the faculty quality, research productivity, and the messing of international, and suggest improving the admissions standards, asking universities to have a clear distinction from a Bachelor degree, and utilize scientific methods [7]. Secondly, Carnegie Commission report in 1978 which concerns about the lack of relevance, the over emphasis on quantitative content, and the lack of career preparation [8]. Later, Porter and McKibbin study in 1988, which noted that (MBA) program does not keep pace with changes and global business trends, too analytical curriculum, and suggest more integrated and improved relevance in faculty research agendas with greater collaboration between managers and academics [9].
(MBA) criticism rises by the dissatisfaction of both employers and graduates due business faculty failure to keep pace with the globalization trends and strategy, and receive a historical perspective while environment changing fast [10]. Others argues that criticism rests on business educators and the provided (MBA) program which is lack about social skills and original thought because the faculty try to fit student demands rather than considering business real live which led to suggestion about more communication and strengthening the relationship between educators and managers [11]. Later in this study, the researcher tried to focus on the main reason of that criticism from his point of view which due the gap between academic filed and practical life, try to study its causes, and what efforts have been provided to bridge such a gap.
Organizational development and action research
(OD) provides an emphasis on performance and result to bridge the gap between theory and practice [12] and recently, (OD) has expanded to focus on the alignment of organizations with the complex and rapidly changing working environment through organizational learning and knowledge transfer [13] as an ongoing, systematic process of implementing effective organizational change. Also, (AR) is one of the fundamental (OD) concepts, and strives to contribute to both theory and practice, bridging the gap between them, and this has been a main (OD) goal throughout its history [14]. Glanz and others (2008) define (OD) as: process of continuous evaluating efforts including action planning and implementation which deal with transferring knowledge and skills to organizations that leads to improve its capacity for solving problems and managing future change. On the other hand, (AR) provides the basic approach to (OD) as its name suggest that it makes action to research by studying and solving the organizational problems [15]. While, French and Bell [16] defined (OD) at one point as: organization improvement through (AR). Reason and Bradbury [17] define it as: interactive process balance problem solving actions implemented in a collaborative context with data-driven collaborative analysis or research to understand underlying causes enabling future predictions about personal and organizational change.
Research and practice
Rynes, Jean, and Daft [18] argued that research insufficient to practical is the most serious problem in the business administration field. Moreover, Morris Holbrook [19] argues that researchers must find a resolution to the differences between academic inquiry and practical relevance in either teaching or research is nothing. From researchers and scholars point of view, Deshpande and Zaltman [20] concluded that researchers were from a different culture or community than users. Most researcher have no professional experience which may lead to topics as a theory in the scientific community only, thus it is ignored by practitioners if they do not know about it [21]. Others believe that managers’ involvement may have negative effects on academic system and managers cannot provide useful hints because business practice sees what it sees [22]. Also, Kravitz [23] outlines that academics must learn managers culture and take their perspective. Nonaka and Takeuchi [24] suggest successful socialization between academics and (DM) with each community understanding. Researchers in the public sector have frequently speculated that involving users in research are the keys to greater research utilization [25]. Mentzer [26] outline feedback from (DM) provides a trigger to researcher thinking.
About research and scientific papers aspect, Van de Ven and Johnson [27] view the gap where researchers fail in translating research into frameworks manager can apply. On the other hand, Wolf and Rosenberg [28] found many management publications focused on variables that practitioners cannot influence. Moreover, managers focus on solving problems where researchers are seeking new knowledge for its own sake [29]. Others outline that (DM) concerned with the usefulness of research findings, while researchers concerned with methodological issues of research [30]. Nonetheless, applicability and ambiguity of research have been identified as key barriers to research use [31]. Academic scientific research contrast what managers face and argues that (DM) use judgments with messy, incomplete, and incoherent data while statistical and methodological can blind them rather than helping [32]. Also, management lacks to cumulative research tradition and there is some research results based on only one study [33]. Van de Ven and Johnson [27] call for an engaged scholarship to collect information on managers’ views about important research topics. Flynn [34] highlights the importance of framing research questions in a theoretically sound manner. Similarity, academics must ask (DM) about the main drivers of success and focus on variables which can be influenced by them and seeking dialogue about the research model phase because it is difficult to correct later [35]. Also, qualitative research generates knowledge in an application context [36]. While, others ask academics to embrace mixed, qualitative, quantitative, (AR) method, and move away from positivistic methodologies [37]. Finally, modifying the style of language used in research could be a major lever to increase the practical relevance of management research [38]. Carter [39] suggests translating findings into agendas, tools and publication that managers can use in their work and sharing results with managers in executive summaries and managers’ journals through graphs and tables rather than detailed discussions of statistical expressions.
While, universities and journals publications institutions respect, academic journals having increased the requirements of methodical rigor which led research regression to the world of non-manageable variables [28]. Access to research findings was identified as a barrier in business sector [40]. In addition, academics are rewarded and promoted for publishing in prestigious journals which are interested in new science and scientific methods regardless the research validity and applicability [23]. Also, schools reward scientific research designed to satisfy academics [32]. Moreover, academics and (DM) may enrich each other by enables researchers to identify research topics based on (DM) help. Journals also may need to change their publication norms [41]. Finally, research findings should be more accessible to the practitioner community as well as the research community [29].
According to users and managers aspect, managers are presented with ideas rather than hypotheses and strategy rather than methodology [42]. (DM) may have problems in understanding the complex models of the scientific world [28]. Moreover, users are dissatisfied with research and believe it is not very helpful. Also, they have neither training nor time to employ controlled research and they give most weight to their personal impressions [23]. On the other hand, research evidence suggested that organizational factors affected research utilization [29]. Other researcher argues that research was used more often when the findings matched managers’ expectations [20]. Nonetheless, managers are unable to read academic and scientific journals [43]. Findings from empirical research confirmed that users often lacked the statistical skills to understand findings [31].
Practitioners should reach out to academics [23]. (DM) must know that research may not solve problems or make decisions, but it can provide information for managers to use to reduce risk in the decision-making process [44]. In addition, business users must be more involved in the first conceptual phases of research projects [45]. Campbell and his team [46] summarized that managers can help to identify relevant research questions. Moreover, Senge [47] found organizations that were more effective in using knowledge tended to have effective internal communication networks. The importance for practitioners to gain support and encouragement from managers has been claimed by many scholars [48]. Leadership is important to ensure that someone took on a leadership role in encouraging the use of research [49]. Finally, after reviewing literature, the researcher tries in Table 1 to summarize the gap causes and the bridging efforts under the four identified respects.
Previous Studies
In this section, the researcher aimed to provide an overview of literature that studied the theory-practice gap, research utility & applicability topic, the relationships between researcher and (DM), and how they can bridge the gap. This is very important step to assure understanding of the whole concept. The researcher depends on studies which published between “2004-2013”.
Study of LaPrince [50] “A qualitative exploration of management education: Business school offerings in comparison to employer expectations”
The aim of this quantitative study to explore the role of management colleges and determine the degree of it success in transferring required knowledge. The researcher found students are not provided with necessary skills and graduates usually false employment expectations after hiring because they still need effective training and career preparation. The researcher recommends management colleges to supply students with additional skills, suggests the need for increased cooperation with workplace, and suggests activating internships programs before graduation.
Study of Wolf and Rosenberg [28] “How Individual Scholars Can Reduce the Rigor-Relevance Gap in Management Research”
This study aims to discuss a number of management scholars’ studies in reducing the gap between theory and practice. The study argues that researchers can reduce the gap by improving their studies and evaluated it based on it is “applicability” because many (DM) claim that scientific management journals are not appealing and helpful. The study recommended to develop research problems that touches practitioners concerns, improve research language and focusing on descriptive research that can be understood by users, discussing results with practitioners., and ask management journals editors to focus on publishing research that affect managers and improve research (RR) dissemination methods in order to enhance the relationship between the parties.
Study of Bacchetti & Saccani [51] “ Spare parts classification and demand forecasting for stock control: Investigating the gap between research and practice”
The research team conducted their study to investigate the gap between research and practice in spare parts field, and found that the gap actually exist and one of the main causes is the lack of case studies, and some practitioners do not believe in the usefulness of research provided because they assume that are not applicable. Researcher suggests the need to study the gap between research and practice, and ask (DM) to understand their needs and increase cooperation.
Study of Kravitz [23] “The Research-Practice Gap in Diversity Management”
The researcher tries to clarify some ideas about the gap between research and practice and believes that one of the main reasons for the gap is the difference educational and training background, and argues that academics care about experiences and personal factors not (DM) problems, while (DM) care about profitability and professional experience. The researcher recommends (DM) to learn reading quantitative research, provide the necessary information for researchers and academic institutions have to play an active role.
Study of Brownlie, Hewer, Wagner, Svensson [52]”Management Theory and Practice: Bridging the Gap through Multidisciplinary Lenses”
The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between theory and practice in management and trying to understand the nature of the gap. The research team found that the most important causes of the gap is collaboration between users and knowledge producers, barriers of accountability and accessibility in research, and the formula for publication in academic journals. The team call to reimaging ways of representing knowledge to various stakeholders and call for a more market-oriented approach to understanding the knowledge economy and the mediating role of various players, including the researchers.
Research Methodology
The descriptive analytical method was used, while the primary data consist of two population; first are (DM) at the (PMG) which consisting of (148) respondent and represent quantitative data that collected through designed comprehensive survey has been examined by expert and conducting a pilot study to assess reliability, internal and structure validity of the questionnaire. On the other hand, the second population are (IUG) (MBA) graduates who study the (PMG) in their theses which consisting of (93) respondent and represent qualitative data which collected through deep (20) semi-structured interview to recheck the first population data.
Data Analysis
First hypothesis had been examine quantitatively by testing the mean, P-value, and the test values for all and each dimension, and qualitatively by asking graduates’ interviewees as follow:
▪ Table 2 shows the mean of all paragraphs (53%), P-value=0.00 which is smaller than the level of significance (0.05) and the sign of the test is negative. The researcher concludes that (DM) respondents disagree to all paragraphs. While qualitatively the majority of graduates’ interviewees assured that there is no (OD) upon (MBA) theses regarding the research variables. So, the two population agreed about the main hypothesis, and negated if there is (OD) upon (MBA) theses.
▪ Table 3 shows the First dimension analysis which assumed that (DM) support (OD) upon (MBA) theses. The mean was (57%) and the P-value=0.06 which mean is insignificant. So, the researcher concludes that the respondents neutral to this field which mean the majority of the (DM) respondents don’t recognize if there is a tangible support to achieve (OD) upon (MBA) theses. While qualitatively, the majority of graduates’ interviewees assure that there is no any (DM) support to achieve (OD) upon (MBA) theses. The two populations agreed about the first dimension and negated (DM) support toward (OD) upon (MBA) theses
▪ Table 4 shows the Second dimension analysis which assumed that (DM) allocates fund for (OD) upon (MBA) theses. The mean was (53%), the P-value=0.00 which is smaller than the level of significance (0.05), and the sign of the test is negative. The researcher conclude that (DM) respondents recognize that there is no allocates fund to achieve (OD) upon (MBA) theses. While qualitatively, the majority of graduates’ interviewees assure that (DM) does not allocate fund for (OD) upon (MBA) theses. The two populations agreed about the second dimension and argued that (DM) does not allocate fund for (OD) upon (MBA) theses.
▪ Table 5 shows the Third dimension analysis which assumed that (OCS) supports (OD) upon (MBA) theses. The mean was (58%) and the P-value=0.15 which mean is insignificant. So, the researcher concludes that the respondents neutral to this field which mean the majority of (DM) respondents don’t recognize if there is a tangible support from the (OCS) to achieve (OD) upon (MBA) theses. While qualitatively, the majority of graduates’ interviewees assure that (OCS) does not appropriate and not supportive to achieve (OD) upon (MBA) theses. The two populations relatively agreed about the third dimension and argued that the (OCS) does not support (OD) upon (MBA) theses.
▪ Table 6 shows the Fourth dimension analysis which assumed that (MBA) theses harmonize to realize (OD). The mean was (50%), the P-value=0.00 which is smaller than the level of significance (0.05), and the sign of the test is negative. The researcher concludes that the majority of the (DM) respondents assure that (MBA) theses are not appropriate to realize (OD). While qualitatively, the majority of graduates’ interviewees assure that the provided (MBA) theses appropriate to realize (OD). The two populations disagreed about the fourth dimension if the (MBA) theses are harmonized to realize (OD).
▪ Table 7 shows the Fifth dimension analysis which assumed that (MBA) theses (RR) are effective to achieve (OD). The mean was (52%), the P-value=0.00 which is smaller than the level of significance (0.05), and the sign of the test is negative. The researcher concludes that the majority of the (DM) respondents assure that (MBA) theses (RR) are not effective to achieve (OD). While qualitatively, the majority of graduates’ interviewees assure that (MBA) theses (RR) are effective to achieve (OD). The two populations disagreed about the fifth dimension if the (MBA) theses (RR) are effective to achieve (OD).
▪ Table 8 shows the Last dimension analysis which assumed that (MBA) program graduates effect on attain (OD) through their theses. The mean was (48%), the P-value=0.00 which is smaller than the level of significance (0.05), and the sign of the test is negative. The researcher concludes that the majority of the (DM) respondents admit that (MBA) graduates have no effect at the organization according to their theses. While qualitatively, the majority of graduates’ interviewees assure that (MBA) program graduates do not effect on attain (OD) through their theses. The two populations agreed about the last dimension and negated if (MBA) program graduates effect on attain (OD) through their theses.
▪The Second hypothesis for the first population stated that there are significant differences among respondents at (α=0.05) towards (OD) upon (MBA) theses due personal traits. Table 9 shows that the p-value is greater than the level of significance (0.05) for each personal trait. The researcher concludes that the personal traits have no effect on (OD) upon (MBA) theses.
Conclusions
The objective of this study is to identify the reality of (MBA) program theses utility between theory and practice in (OD) from (DM) and (MBA) graduates point of view. As well as, to measure (DM) personal traits on adopt (OD) upon (MBA) theses. The statistics show that the majority of responders are males with 96%; and 74% of the sample are older than 45 years, 76% of them have more than 10 years of experience, 59% hold postgraduate degrees.
The most notable conclusions outlines that the majority of the (DM) at the (PMG) and (IUG) (MBA) graduates assure that there is no (OD) upon (IUG) (MBA) program theses, where (DM) do not believes or neither support theses nor researcher to study the organization problems and focused on routine tasks without specify neither part of their career nor their time to (OD) upon (MBA) theses. Also, the results shows that (DM) trusts on their personal experience and expectations on their decisions and do not rely on (MBA) thesis nor researchers. On the other hand, on-going wars and the political and economic situation prevent (DM) to fundraise the (OD) process upon (MBA) theses where lacked of financial resources and donors interest drive (DM) to neglect (OD) upon (MBA) theses and give more priority to carry out their work and duties. Moreover, the (PMG) culture is unsupportive to achieve (OD) upon (MBA) theses, where (DM) refusing to disclose the ministries problems and do not adopt search method to resolve it, and the employees focus on completion routine tasks that stem from outdated laws and procedures which restrict innovation, and the (PMG) structure not appropriate to attend (OD) upon (MBA) theses, where it’s strong centralization and bureaucratic, and there is no research and development specialist unit.
On the other hand, (MBA) researcher determining their theses topics, problems, variables and objectives independently without examine the (PMG) needs, but based on previous studies and the scientific and academic community and they do not care about theses applicability degree or developing the (PMG), but pay their attention to methodological issues. Also, (DM) at the (PMG) argue that theses (RR) are ineffective to achieve (OD) and researcher used to write it without involving the organization and it limits procedural and applicable steps. Moreover, (DM) at the (PMG) did not invite (MBA) graduates’ to discus and benefit from their research experience. Also, (MBA) graduates’ roles expire at the end of the theses because they consider the master degree as an end in itself. Finally, there is no relationship between (DM) personal traits and (OD) upon (MBA) theses.
Recommendations
The recommendations are basically directed to (DM) at the (PMG) and (IUG) (MBA) program supervisors and students in order to enhance the concept of using (MBA) theses in (OD) at the (PMG) and other institutions, and achieving theses utility in the light of the aforementioned results, (DM) should take a central government decision to encourage and support theses and (OD) in partnership with local universities, and to contribute with researchers activities and specify part of their career to follow and read researchers developmental efforts in management various fields to promote the governmental system and action while academics and researchers are supposed to be involved as consultants in making the developmental decision with (DM) at the (PMG). Also, graduates theses should be exploited, and a governmental scientific research centre should be established in partnership with local universities to benefit from presented theses about the (PMG) as much as possible. Moreover, the government should consider activating research and development section in the governmental annual budget and each ministry, and outlay it without carryover it to any other section by invest in scientific research and adopting theses that contribute to the country’s development, and try to fundraise and propose them to donors. The government should consider developing systems, procedures and laws that encourage research culture in governmental institutions by adopting search method to solve problems and making decisions and each ministry should prepare research and problems plan which they are interested in, and present it to (MBA) program researchers where they can help them to solve it through their theses. On the other hand, research and development department should be established in each ministry and be in direct contact with (DM) and the organizational structure at the (PMG) should be flattened as well as reducing the degree of centralized developmental decisions in the governmental institutions.
(IUG) (MBA) program supervisors should support (AR) and raise the criteria of accepting proposed research by test it applicability degree so as to ensure theses utility in institutions under study and are compatible with their needs and the program researcher should identify theses problems, variables, and objectives in partnership with institutions under study. As a while, formulate theses (RR) in partnership with stakeholders in institutions under study and keep them informed of all stages of the research process.
Theses recommendations should include procedural applicable steps. Moreover, graduates should provide thesis summary to institutions under study after ending the research and (DM) should study (MBA) theses (RR) and discuss graduates’ after ending the research to take advantage of their search experience and work on implement the recommendations. Finally, stakeholders to research topic in institutions under study should provide feedback to graduates and (DM) about the thesis and its (RR).
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