The Relationship between Anxiety and Aggression with Burnout among Teachers

ISSN: 2471-2701

Clinical and Experimental Psychology

  • Research Article   
  • Clin Exp Psychol 2018, Vol 4(2): 194
  • DOI: 10.4172/2471-2701.1000194

The Relationship between Anxiety and Aggression with Burnout among Teachers

Hosein Ilanloo*
Allameh Tabatabaei University, Tehran, Iran
*Corresponding Author: Hosein Ilanloo, Master of Family Counseling, Allameh Tabatabaei University, Tehran, Iran, Email: [email protected]

Received Date: May 01, 2018 / Accepted Date: May 15, 2018 / Published Date: May 22, 2018

Abstract

Introduction: Education is one of the important educational pillars of the country and teachers have an important role in this organization. Examining the causes associated with burnout is one of the factors that can be considered in preventing and preventing this phenomenon in planning.
Materials and methods: The statistical population of all Takestan teachers in the study year was 1969-97. Of this population, 302 subjects were selected based on random sampling and Morgan table. The research data were analyzed by means of the Maslach Burnout Questionnaire (1985), the AGQ questionnaire, and the Kettle anxiety inventory questionnaire.
Results: The main objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between anxiety and aggression with burnout among teachers in the city of Takestan using the regression analysis assay with spss23, showed that both variables of anxiety and aggression can significantly predict Burnout variables.
Discussion: the beta anxiety variable was more likely to predict the burnout variable than the aggression variable, and also between the three components of aggression, could significantly predict the burnout variable in teachers in the Takestan city.
Conclusion: Helping teachers to prevent burnout and reduce the burden on them has contributed to the development of education in the country. Thus it is a crucial issue. both variables of anxiety and aggression can significantly predict Burnout variables.

Keywords: Anxiety; Aggression; Burnout; Teachers

Introduction

Education is the underlying foundation of scientific and technological advances in the modern world. The civilization that mankind is proud of nowadays is, in fact, the result of the accumulation of experiences and the transfer of education from one generation to another, and the country that failed to acquire the necessary features of a scientific community should be the main cause in the system by learning to find a hometown, by removing the obstacles and problems in society definitely, it will be able to achieve many improvements in all fields. Therefore, due to the importance of the educational system, the main pillar of this system, teachers, should be of particular interest in all primary and secondary education curricula [1].

As people working in each organization face stresses, pressures and problems and suffer from complications, teachers also face a variety of stresses. One of the results of these stresses is burnout among them. The concept of job burnout was first introduced in early 1970s by Herbert Freundenberger in New York, and in Maslach and Paniz in California. Occupational burnout is a form of physical, mental and emotional exhaustion that leads to low morale, negative attitudes toward the client, derisive attitude toward career progression and reduced person’s efficiency [2].

Job burnout depends on a variety of factors, including inappropriate selection, lack of adequate skills, inappropriate relationships with colleagues, and individual and social stressors. In general, burnout is an important physical-psychological disorder due to stress and nervous pressure. Hence, stressors that include individual, organizational and socioeconomic factors have a significant role in burnout [3]. Occupational burnout is a disorder caused by prolonged exposure of the person to psychological stress, and its symptoms are emotional exhaustion, physical and mental illness [4].

It seems that burnout, especially in the cortex of teachers and nurses, is higher than other social jobs. Teaching is one of the most prestigious professions, and teachers always face a lot of stress in their career. One of the consequences of these stresses is burnout. The results of researches in Iran that have addressed the burnout of teachers [5-9] shows that among these working groups, burnout is commonplace. In recent years, the burnout of teachers has attracted a lot of attention and is expanding [10].

Job burnout leads to a decline in the quality of service provision. If the symptoms of burnout are not addressed and there is no cure for it, both the individual and the organization in which the person works is affected [11].

A recent meta-analysis on 116 studies conducted in the last fifteen years investigated the relation between demands, role conflict and ambiguity, student misbehavior and teacher burnout, and found that work overload represented the strongest antecedent of emotional exhaustion [12]. Also, qualitative studies tend to outline overwork as one of the most prominent stressors for teachers [13,14].

When teachers teach in class, the physical dimensions of the classroom and the variety of classroom students and their perceptions of these classes exert total pressure on teachers to increase their efficiency. Now, if the teacher does not have enough mental and psychological health and is anxious when attending a classroom, this is due to the causes and the effectiveness and effectiveness of his activities in the classroom [15]. It should be noted that teacher behavior is considered as an important environmental factor for prediction of emotion [16].

Teachers’ quality of teaching also leads to the development of emotional regulation by providing an appropriate atmosphere for students to learn. An anxious teacher loses interest and enthusiasm for class in terms of teaching and educational activities because of having a level of psychological stress. In other words, anxiety causes the quality of interaction between teachers and students to be reduced. Although some experts believe it is necessary to have little anxiety for life and everyday life, but the high level of anxiety also causes serious harm to the body, mental, social, occupational, and educational levels, and the person to have one Deprived of acceptable quality of life in life [17].

Regarding the effect of anxiety structure on the performance of individuals in everyday life in and around the country, various studies have been carried out that each have addressed aspects of this research domain. Anxiety and stress in work and life can cause discomfort and problems with sleep, gastrointestinal tract, interpersonal relationships, and job performance [18]. In the research, significant findings about the relationship between the anxiety and performance of nurses in the anesthetic department were revealed. These findings suggest that low anxiety and high anxiety are related to poor performance, while moderate anxiety is related to good performance [19]. With increased anxiety, the rate of inefficiency of driving and verbal and nonverbal aggression increases [20]. In another study, which investigated the effect of anxiety on cognitive function, it was concluded that with increased anxiety, processing power decreases and the effectiveness of the subjects’ performance is destroyed [21]. In another study on the anxiety of primary and secondary school teachers, the results indicated that one quarter of them had tension and anxiety [22].

Aggression may develop in a variety of ways. Theological and physical form of it represents the instrumental or behavioral components, the anger of the emotional and hostile entity represents the cognitive aspect of aggression [23]. Cox calls aggression a practice that directly targets harm and harm others [24]. Lavar considers aggression a product of failure, which results in deliberate damage to others. Of course, this damage can be implemented in a variety of ways, and even involves psychological harassment such as humiliation, insult, and deceit [25]. Taylor also calls aggression any kind of action that is intended to harm others [26]. According to the commentary, aggression is an action that involves both forms of physical and psychological harm. It is a deliberate aspect that is not accidental, it involves only human beings and does not target objects [27].

In a relatively comprehensive definition of aggression, Kakeli describes it as follows: Aggression refers to a behavior that is carried out with the intention of destroying property or harming another person, and involves the mere neglect of the health of others and possibly himself. The consequences of aggression may be physical or psychological [28].

Research has shown that aggression has many physical, psychological, and social complications, causing symptoms such as feeling helpless, loneliness, social incompatibility, neglecting others’ rights and wishes, gastric ulcer, migraine, hypertension, depression, anxiety and academic failure. People who have behavioral problems, including aggression, not only suffer from a symptom, a physical condition, have a headache and gastrointestinal pains, but are isolated and lonely, and do not care about the social needs of others.

Methodology

The present study is correlational. The statistical population of this research is all Teachers of Takestan city in the academic year 2016-2017. Based on the Morgan table, 302 individuals were selected, of which 7 were loosed and 295 were selected. Before submitting a questionnaire to subjects on how to answer questions, they provided an explanation that encouraged participation and conscientiousness in completing the questionnaire. After collecting data by questionnaires, the results were analyzed by regression analysis simultaneously with spss23. The research tool is as follows:

Massage burnout questionnaire

The Burnout Questionnaire for Teachers was made by Mulls in 1985. This tool is a questionnaire that is based on a new estimate of stress or exhaustion. The questionnaire has 22 questions that measure emotional exhaustion, measure the phenomena of personality dedictating and the lack of personal fulfillment within the framework of professional activity, and especially to measure the phenomenon of burnout in professional groups, such as nurses, Teachers and so on. The method of scoring this questionnaire follows the following 22 questions:

Questions 1, 2, 3, 6, 8, 13, 14, 16 and 20 represent the subscales of emotional fatigue. Questions 5, 10, 11, 15, and 22 represent the depersonalization of the personality. Questions 4, 7, 9, 12, 17, 18, 19, and 21 also represent a subscale of individual performance. Scope of each question Changes from (0) to (6). The total score of questions of any scale represents the individual’s score on that scale. In this questionnaire, the option between (never, low, sometimes, moderate, high, and always) represents grades 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, and higher score acquisition also indicates more problems.

To validate this questionnaire, Maslach and Jackson used Cronbach’s alpha method and reported the validity of each of the subscales in the following equation (Table 1). Najrani also established the validity of Maslach’s burnout in 1997 as follows (Table 2). In a study conducted by Khalidi in Iran in 1996, the total validity of the questionnaire was 0.91, and Badri also mentioned the reliability of Maslach’s burnout questionnaire in 2000 as follows (Table 3).

Subscriber Scale Method Credit factor
Emotional exhaustion Cranbach Alpha 0/92
Drop the character Cranbach Alpha 0/79
Individual performance Cranbach Alpha 0/71

Table 1: Correlation coefficient of job burnout inventory was reported by Murshall and Jackson.

Subscriber Scale Method Credit factor
Emotional exhaustion Cranbach Alpha 0/90
Drop the character Cranbach Alpha 0/65
Individual performance Cranbach Alpha 0/81
Total questionnaire Cranbach Alpha 0/93

Table 2: The coefficient of reliability of the burnout questionnaire was reported by Nazarian.

Subscriber Scale Method Credit factor
Emotional exhaustion Cranbach Alpha 0/90
Drop the character Cranbach Alpha 0/79
Individual performance Cranbach Alpha 0/71

Table 3: The coefficient of reliability of the burnout questionnaire was reported by Badri.

AGQ questionnaire (AGQ)

The questionnaire consists of 30 articles, 14 of which relate to anger, eight of which are related to the agent, and eight of which are also malicious factors.

The AGQ Aggression Questionnaire is a self-report paper-pencil scale, and the subject never, rarely, occasionally, and always answers to one of four options. For each of these four options, the values are 0, 1, 2, 3 respectively. Except for Article 18, which has a negative emotional load and is reversed to score, the total score of this questionnaire is from zero to 90, and the total score is obtained. People whose score on this scale is less than average will be aggressive. The psychometric properties of this scale are as follows:

The re-test coefficients between the scores of subjects in two rounds (test and retest) for all subjects (N=91), female subjects (N=48) and male subjects (N=38) R=0, r=0.64 and r=0.79. Also in this questionnaire Cronbach’s alpha coefficients (internal consistency) for all subjects (0.874) were 0.86 for male subjects and 0.89 for male subjects.

Cattle’s anxiety questionnaire

This questionnaire has 40 questions and aims to evaluate the apparent and hidden anxiety of individuals. The reliability or reliability of a tool is its degree of stability in measuring what it measures, that is, how much the same measuring device yields the same results in the same conditions.

This scale has been studied based on extensive research and is probably the most effective tool provided as a short questionnaire for measuring anxiety.

This questionnaire is in the field of objective tests and is valid. Also, the above questionnaire has soft (normative) that can help the examiner to interpret the scores. The coefficient of validity of this questionnaire was 0.72. This questionnaire can accurately measure the physiological aspects of anxiety according to its apparent complications. This questionnaire has been standardized since the beginning of 1988 with the collaboration of a group of psychology students at the University of Tehran.

The validity of this test, which is repeated through repeated implementation, is always above 0.70 and has the ability to distinguish between anxious and natural people.

Results and Discussion

According to the findings, 185 (62.71%) of female teachers and 110 (37.28%) were male. 67 (22.7%) of the respondents who responded to the research questionnaires were in the age group of 26 to 30, 55 (18.6%) in the age group of 31-35, 82 (27.8%) in the age group from 36 to 40, 44 patients (14.9%) were in the age group of 41-45 and 47 (15.9%) in the age group of 46-50. 23 (7/8%) 1 to 5 years old, 146 (49/5), 6 to 10 years old, 45 (15.3%), 11 to 15 years old and 81 (27.5%) more from 16 years of age.

As shown in Table 4 the mean and standard deviation of occupational burnout were 69.78 and 17.66 respectively. The mean and standard deviation of aggression variables were 60.03 and 16.22 respectively. Mean and standard deviation. The anxiety variables were 53/40 and 16/87, respectively.

Variable Levels Minimum Maximum Mean Standard Deviation Inclnation Skewness
  Total score 16 106 69/78 17/66 0 0
Exhaustion Emotional 15 44 27/31 6/63 0/27 0
  Drop the character 18 25 15/44 4/57 0/10 -0.5
  Function 14 39 27/13 7/89 0 -0.0313
aggression Total score 30 84 60/03 16/82 0 -0.0303
Anger 10 36 25/24 8/91 0 -0.0185
Invasion 9 24 17/61 4/44 0 -0.1
malice 9 24 17/18 4/10 0 -0.0833
Anxiety Anxiety 22 77 53/40 16/87 0 -0.0345
Obvious anxiety 11 39 26/70 8/23 0 -0.04
Hidden anxiety 11 39 26/70 8/79 0 -0.04

Table 4: The descriptive indexes of the variables studied in the study.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between burnout variables with aggression and anxiety variables. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between this variable. Prior to this analysis, the assumptions were made to carry out this analysis. The assumption of normalization was studied using indices of tilting and stretching. As you can see in the descriptive table, the value of these individuals in all of our variables is between 1.5 and +1.5. So they are normal in the result of all the variables in the sample. Multi-line statistics were also examined using the tolerance and inflation statistics of variance. The results are presented in the regression analysis table. As you will see, the size of these statistics is in the desired range.

The main hypothesis of research: There is a relationship between aggression and anxiety with burnout in teachers in the city of Takestan.

As shown in Table 5 the results of regression analysis show that there is a significant difference between the aggression variable with job burnout (Beta=0.33) and the anxiety with burnout with Beta=0.64 at the alpha level of 0.01 Positive and meaningful (p<0.01). This model was significant with F _ ((2,292))=2134.92. The linear combination of predictive variables with R = 96% predicted 93% of the variance of the job burnout variable. So, the more anxious and aggressive teachers in the vineyard city, the greater their burnout rate.

Model F R2 Non-standardized coefficients Standardized coefficient T The significance level Linear statistics
Power of Tolerance Vif
B standard error
Fixed 2134/92 0/93 10/68 1/00   10/67 0/001    
Aggression 0/35 o/05 0/33 6/24 0/001 0/07 9/22
Anxiety 0/67 0/05 0/64 11/88 0/001 0/07 9/22

Table 5: Results of simultaneous regression analysis to determine the predictive value of job burnout through aggression and anxiety.

Better anxiety variables were more than predictive of job burnout in comparison with aggression. First sub-hypothesis: There is a relationship between aggression components and burnout among teachers in the city of Takestan.

As shown in Table 6 the results of regression analysis show that between anger component with burnout is Beta=0.29, between invasion and burnout with Beta=0.012, between maladaptation and burnout with 48/0Beta = and there is a positive and significant relationship at the alpha level of 0.01 (p<0.01). This model was significant with F _ ((3,291))=1419.38. The linear combination of predictive variables with R=96% predicted 93% of the variance of the job burnout variable. Therefore, it can be said that the components of anger, aggression and malice in the teachers of the city of Takestan are higher, their burnout rates are also higher.

Linear statistics The significance level T Standardized coefficients Non-standardized coefficients R2 F Model
Vif Power of Tolerance
standard error B
    0/006 2/74   1/35 3/70 0/93 1419/38 Fixed
6/75 0/14 0/001 7/74 0/29 o/07 0/59 Anger
4/78 0/20 0/001 6/84 0/22 0/12 0/88 Invasion
8/05 0/12 0/001 11/45 0/48 0/18 2/07 Malice

Table 6: The results of simultaneous regression analysis to examine the prediction of burnout through aggression components.

The component of betrayal with beta had a higher share in predicting the burnout variable than the other two components. Second sub hypothesis: There is a relationship between the anxiety and burnout components among teachers in the city of Takestan (Table 7). As shown in Table 5 the results of regression analysis show that between the hidden anxiety component and burnout, Beta=0.50, between the apparent anxiety and burnout with Beta=46.6, at the alpha level of 01. There is a positive and meaningful relationship (p<0.01). This model was significant with F _ ((2,292))=1391.33. The linear combination of predictive variables with R=0.95 predicted 90% of the variance of the job burnout variable. So, it can be said that the more anonymous and obvious anxiety of teachers in the vineyard city, the higher their burnout rates are. The hidden anxiety component with beta had a larger contribution to predicting the burnout variable than the apparent anxiety.

Linear statistics The significance level T Standardized coefficients Non-standardized coefficients R2 F Model
Vif Power of Tolerance
standard error B
    0/001 15/30   1/08 16/61 0/90 1391/33 Fixed
8/78 0/07 0/001 7/46 0/50 o/13 1/00 Hidden anxiety
8/78 0/07 0/001 6/88 0/46 0/14 0/98 Clear anxiety

Table 7: The results of simultaneous regression analysis to determine the prediction of burnout through anxiety components.

Conclusion

In this section, the results of this study are compared with the results of previous studies in this field and are discussed and concluded using existing theories regarding the variables of research.

The results of regression analysis showed that both variables of anxiety and aggression were significantly able to predict the variables of job burnout. The anxiety variable with more beta than the aggression variable had a larger share in predicting the burnout variable. Also, each of the three components of aggression was significantly able to predict the variables of burnout in teachers in the Takestan city. Among these three components, malicious components contributed more to predict the burnout variable. The two components of hidden and apparent anxiety were also able to predict the variables of the criterion. Among these two components, the hidden anxiety component played a greater role in predicting the burnout variable.

In explaining the findings of this realization, burnout is one of the stressors in teachers. Occupational burnout arises in people with behaviors such as loss of realism, reduced energy for continued beneficial activities, the loss of the ultimate philosophy of life, and the lack of sympathy and physical and mental disorders. There are many factors that contribute to burnout. Such as environmental, organizational and individual factors. For anxiety and aggression, it can be said that anxiety and aggression are the result of individual factors. Which includes personality problems, attitudes, stress coping strategies and family health problems.

Regarding the comparison of this research with the findings of other researches, it has to be said that to date no research has directly addressed the relationship between anxiety and aggression with the burnout of teachers. But due to the nature of the variables, it can be said that the result of this research with the findings, concluded in his research that the stress and anxiety of the teacher would disrupt good and effective relationships with the students has been consistent. Concerning the explanation of this result, it can be said that one of the problems of people with burnout is communication problems. Anxious people are also people who easily grudge, are not criticized, are isolated, feel guilty and regret about small things, and have a bad feeling that they do not want to see other people (according to the questions as a result, one can say that these personality traits of anxious people are common in relation to anxiety and burnout in them. That change in anxiety causes a change in job openness. Also, this study, with the findings of the astronomy and colleagues who concluded that the teacher’s anxiety and stress caused unbalanced conditions in the workplace and reduced productivity and increased their mistakes.

The characteristics of aggressive people include of self-denigrating, angry, delayed, overwhelmed, unscrupulous, opposed to others. The result of these behaviors is that aggressive people are very idealistic in relation to others. That is, they expect others to act according to their desires. So, the teacher can be said to be in relation to the student. Students who are not too young and who are in the stage of learning life skills are required to have a series of problems in their behavior that will disrupt teachers’ motives and, as a result, make aggressive teachers. Teacher’s aggression causes problems in communication between teachers and knowledge, and as a result of these problems, the teacher’s performance degrades and feels dissatisfied with his job, negatively assesses others as a result of his performance Decreased and did not feel personal.

Future Direction

So, finally, we conclude that given the importance of the teachers’ job in nurturing the next generation, they should be treated with anxiety and aggression through appropriate education and treatments and better services. Because job burnout affects not only the personal and social life of teachers, it also affects the students’ personal and social futures as well as the fact that students spend more time with their teachers during the days and even in the academic year. And this negative effect may even result in irreversible negative consequences in the advancement of science, industry and society in the future, which is irreparable.

Recommendations

In connection with the limitations of this research, one can say that the main limitation of the project is its generalizability. This research was conducted for teachers in the city of Takestan. It is suggested that this research be done in other cities and with other measurement tools related to the research variables.

References

Citation: Ilanloo H (2018) The Relationship between Anxiety and Aggression with Burnout among Teachers. Clin Exp Psychol 4: 194. Doi: 10.4172/2471-2701.1000194

Copyright: © 2018 Ilanloo H. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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