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International Journal of Economics & Management Sciences
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The Role of Organization Culture in Achieving Organizational Excellence: Jadara University as a Case Study

Dr. Farid Mohammad Qawasmeh1, Nadeen Darqal2 and Israa Farid Qawasmeh3

1Assistant Professor, Jadara University - Jordan. E-mail: [email protected]

2Business Administration Lecturer, Jadara University. E-mail: [email protected]

3MBA Student, Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN), Malaysia. E-mail: [email protected]

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Keywords

Organizational Culture (OC), Organizational Excellence (OE), Jadara University (JU), Jordan

1. INTRODUCTION

Research on organizational culture (OC) and organizational effectiveness/ performance has established a conclusive link between the two. The question that our study will investigate and find answer to is to what extent this relationship is enough to assume a link between OC and excellence since excellence is the highest form of effectiveness and performance?

Literature covering corporate culture provides a basic understanding of how a corporate culture influences the operation of an organization. OC is one means by which organizations can achieve excellence. Culture, either strong or weak, can have a strong influence on organizations overall performance. Excellence, on the other hand, is viewed as an ongoing effort that all employees within an organization strive to achieve. Corporate leadership as well as top management play a pivotal role in such endeavor.

Our intent is to contribute a case study that reinforces this point and extends the empirical base for relating OC and excellence. Put differently, authors intend to check if the current success of the university can be attributed to a strong culture of excellence that JU claims. Therefore, given this background, the purpose of this study is to examine the role of organizational culture in achieving organizational excellence (OE) in Jadara University using a case study approach.

1.1. Problem Statement

It has become very obvious that organizational culture plays an important role in promoting organizational performance and sustaining a durable competitive advantage. But, when it comes to measuring excellence, other variables may intervene to affect it aside from organizational culture. Therefore, this study will try to find answers to the following questions:

1. What is the nature of Jadara University culture?
2. What type of university excellence is available in Jadara University?
3. Can a few years of operation manage to instill a sound culture in JU campus?
4. What role can culture play to achieve excellence in Jadara University?

1.2. Importance of Study

The importance of this case study stems from the following perceptions:

• Today's universities are increasingly becoming an important object of study, debate and reflection.
• The analysis of a university’s organizational culture is important because the university as an organization is interested in the adaptation of its culture to the values and the behaviors of its members, so as to maintain a healthy state of mind and foster permanent improvement.
• Corporate culture is an essential tool that makes sense of the working life of employees and directs organizational activities.
• Culture is perceived as the engine which powers the organization.
• The highly perceived role of organizational culture in achieving organizational excellence that can help organizations gain a huge competitive advantage.
• Culture, being a psychological construct, indicates what people feel, perceive, and assume.

1.3. Study Objectives

This study aims to determine the role of organizational culture in achieving organizational excellence. In this study, organizational excellence will be measured by four dimensions (Management Excellence, Employees Excellence, Structure Excellence, and strategy Excellence).

The study also aims to develop possible approaches through which a specific university culture may be established congruent with Jordan national culture. Our intent is to contribute a case study that reinforces this point and extends the empirical base for relating organizational culture and excellence.

1.4. Study Hypotheses

1st Hypothesis: There are no significant differences among the sample responses towards organizational culture attributed to job titles (Administrative, Academic).

2nd Hypothesis: There are no significant differences among the sample responses towards Organizational Excellence attributed to job titles (Administrative, Academic).

3rd Hypothesis: Organizational Culture and Organizational Excellence are not statistically correlated.

1.5. Methodology

1.5.1. Method

This study used a case study approach in which all Jadara University employees and academics were surveyed. According to Leithwood and Musella (1991), the best environment for knowing the culture of an organization is the case study. Thus, case studies represent the methodology, which is located in the analysis of the advantages of a cultural focus for the understanding of an institution.

The reliability of the measurements was evaluated by Cronbarch alpha coefficients. The scales of all measures appear to produce internally consistent results; thus these measures are deemed appropriate for further analysis because they express an accepted validity and reliability in this study. Table 1 shows the results for Cronbach alpha coefficients. As indicated in the table, the value ranged between (0.88-0.95) indicating more than acceptable measurement reliability.

Dimension Internal Consistency
Organization Culture 0.95
Management Excellence 0.89
Employees Excellence 0.88
Organizational Structure Excellence 0.91
Strategy Excellence 0.92
University Organizational Excellence 0.96

Table (1): Internal Consistency factors using Cronbach Alpha (N=158)

1.5.2. Sample and Population

In order to effectively examine the relationships between organizational culture and organizational excellence through its four dimensions (Management Excellence, Employees Excellence, Structure Excellence, and strategy Excellence), we chose Jadara University as a case study, in which a sample of (158) elements representing all administrative and academic positions totaling (450) employees was selected. The effective response rate was approximately 35%.

1.5.3. Variables

Organizational culture as an independent variable was measured by 25 items ranging from (1-25) as shown in the study tool in appendix (1). Organizational excellence as a dependent variable was measured by four dimensions: Management Excellence measured by (items 26-30), Employees Excellence (items 31-38), Structure Excellence (items 39-43), and Strategy Excellence (items 44-50). Five-point Likert scale ranging from definitively (score five) to absolutely not (score one) was used. Table (1) below shows the verbal interpretation of the mean interval values which will be used in this study.

Mean Interval Verbal Interpretation
1- less than 1.5 Very low
1.5- less than 2.5 Low
2.5- less than 5.3 Moderate
3.5- less than 5.3 High
4.5-5.0 Very High

Table (1): Means and their respective verbal Interpretation on 5-point Likert Scale

2. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND

2.1. Organization Culture (OC)

Culture determines the way corporations and individual work. Corporate culture reflects the values and beliefs embedded in an organization, shapes people’s behavior, and, thus, affects performance. Corporate culture has been defined as the basic assumptions and values of business leaders (Denison, 1996). While others see that organizational cultures can be demonstrated through ceremonies, storytellers, heroes, rituals, and gatekeepers (Schein, 1992).

According to (Kalyani, 2011), the characteristics that capture the essence of innovative culture include: openness, collaboration, trust, authenticity, proactive, autonomy, confrontation, and experimentation. While Quinn and Spreitzer (2001) formerly identified four types of corporate culture: group, development, hierarchical, and rational culture.

OC is about the norms, values and beliefs that employees share in an organization. In cognitive terms, OC is often broadly defined as the shared values, beliefs, ideologies, and norms held by organizational members that influence their behavior (Schein, 1992).

This cultural analysis has generated various points of view. A number of different studies have looked into the characteristics related to or derived from organizational culture: motivation; socialization; quality and leadership; control; and collegiality (Hellawell and Hancock, 2001).

Daft (2001:589) claims that OC can perform dual functions. The first has to do with internal integration and consistency such as to agree on accepted and unaccepted behaviors. While the second function helps the organization adapt to the external environment.

The source of OC as seen by (Jones 2007:187-194) can be attributed to four sources: organizational structure, organizational ethics, ownership rights, and employees' characteristics.

Hofstede (1994; 2005) claims that OC can be studied and analyzed according to five dimensions: power distance, uncertainty avoidance, past versus future orientation, masculinity versus femininity, and individualism vs. collectivism.

In our study, we will use an overall multi-dimensional OC identifier that mainly reflects elements such as: achievement, change, involvement, reward, excellence and consistency. A 25 item – questionnaire is used to measure the above OC constructs

2.2. Organizational Excellence (OE)

Excellence is defined as the state, quality, or condition of excelling; superiority. (Arussy,2008:34) OE is an everyday event, and can be achieved when organizations are able to exceed expectations.

Business excellence is also defined and thus can be achieved through excellent people, excellent partnerships, excellent processes, and excellent products, or 4P's being put as an acronym. ( Dahlgaard, J. & Dahlgard, S. , 1999). Yet, commitment to organizational excellence has to be driven by top management. This is why excellence cannot be mandated from above; it rises from the bottom up. In other words, OE is not a domain of senior management alone; managers must enable employee excellence.

Critical aspects of OE as summarized and viewed by (Hui &Chuan, 2002) are as follows: Establishing a strong vision and mission, forming policies and strategies, commitment to excellence, management values and ethics, people development, empowerment and innovation, people well-being, use of new technologies, suppliers and business partnerships, providing customer care, service, and satisfaction, fostering good working relations, and finally responsibilities to the public.

McNamara (1997) argues that in order to achieve excellence, an organization should be aware of its market share, customer reputation, profitability, financial structure, technology position, and core competencies. Such awareness should act as a baseline to further achieve OE. While Foster (2002) concluded that management excellence could be achieved through OC.

According to (Sasmita & Nayantara, 2003), an organization seeking excellence should pass vision to employees, link excellence to activities and processes, evaluate excellence, empower employees, instill technology, and encourage learning.

While (McGregor, 1994) states that OE depends on organizational competitive strategy, technology, and relationship with clients. And further adds that employees involvement, empowerment, leadership, and commitment to quality act as critical success factors to the success of any organization total quality management program.

In our study, OE will be viewed, measured and based on management excellence, employees' excellence, organizational structure excellence, and strategy excellence as suggested by (Kandula, 2002).

2.3. Jadara University Case

2.3.1. Vision Statement

To achieve distinctive position among National and Arab universities regarding knowledge creation, dissemination, and application so as to enrich individuals’ lives and contribute to achieve sustainable and comprehensive development for society, country, and nation.

2.3.2. Mission Statement

To provide distinctive education that meets the needs of national and Arab communities and contributes to achieve economic and societal development, and builds whole personality of students. And to found a motivating environment of research and intellectual innovation, integrate people and technology, enhance university human capital, and create open channels of communication with higher education institutions locally and abroad.

2.3.3. Values

Based on our Arab culture, great religion, and intensive scientific heritage, Jadara University believes to achieve the above mission and makes its vision true by following values: quality and excellence, academic freedom, integrity and justice, tolerance, accountability and transparency, teamwork spirit, dialogue, and continuous learning.

2.3.4. Background

Jadara University (JU) for graduate studies is a private Jordanian University founded in 2006. It now comprises six faculties (business, literature, law, engineering, education, and science and information technology) with more than 27 programs at both undergraduate and graduate levels. Jadara students (slightly above 4200) are mainly Jordanian youths with little percentage from neighboring Arab countries, but Jadara seeks to receive students from most Arab countries after being accepted as a member of the Arab Universities Association in 2009.

JU has been performing very well during the last four years. It has outperformed its competitors in the north region of the country. Commentators as well as researchers believe that some kind of a specific culture stands behind this success, though the university is still in the beginning of its growth stage.

The University initially set its 5-year corporate strategy in 2008, and believes that most strategic objectives have been met to date. Last year (2012) Jadara prepared a 3-year strategic plan (2012-2014) in which it hopes to expand and increase its total capacity to nearly (6000) students. The University president (Prof. Mohammad Ta'amneh) strives to achieve the university mission and to make Jadara a wonderful place to be in.

3. PREVIOUS STUDIES

The authors went through rigorous search for related studies and papers in several libraries in Jordanian universities and several international electronic databases, and managed to select few studies that are most relevant to the focus of this study: corporate culture and excellence. These studies are summarized below.

(Aftab, Rana & Sarwar, 2012) Study

This study aimed to study the impact of organizational culture on role based performance. Authors chose to apply the study on the banking sector in Pakistan. A sample size of (400) bank employees in middle management levels were selected to answer the questionnaire. Dimensions of organizational culture measured were: involvement, consistency, adaptability, and corporate mission. The study results confirmed that the impact of culture is positively related to work performance.

(Sinha & Arora, 2012) Study

The specific objectives of this exploratory case study were to identify a suitable culture for business excellence and to assess and measure this culture. A sample of 400 executives and 1900 non executives were surveyed in one electric plant in India. Authors used 15 dimensions to measure organizational culture.

Results showed that the mean (%) for seven dimensions (Innovation, Communication, Environment, Humanistic workplace, Commitment, Systems, and Result orientation) was strong (>75%), and the remaining eight dimensions (Leadership, Structure, Job performance, Planning, Development of individual, Socialization on entry, Conflict tolerance, and Inter-department cooperation) was moderate (50-75%).

(Al-Enezi, 2011) Study

This study aimed to measure perceptions of Kuwaiti government employees towards organizational culture and its impact on job performance. Six dimensions of organizational culture were studied: performance appraisal, conflict resolution, leadership & team-work, training, quality, and finally mission, vision and values. A sample of 253 non-managerial position employees were surveyed. Results indicated that Kuwaiti employees had low perceptions (2.78 out of 5) of the significance and nature of the dimensions of organizational culture. The study recommends that cultural change has to be gradual and constant in order to be effective.

(Ooncharoen & Ussahawanitchakit, 2008) Study

This field study examined and investigated the relationship between five dimensions of service culture (high-quality service, communicate openly and honestly, service responsiveness, service failure prevention, and service recovery) and organizational excellence. Authors selected the hotel business in Thailand. A total of 1000 mail surveys were sent to hotel managers, out of which 278 questionnaires returned and were valid for analysis. Results indicated that all service culture dimensions had a positive effect on organizational excellence.

(Al-Saudi, 2008) Study

This study aimed to investigate respondents' attitudes towards dimensions of organizational excellence in Jordan commercial banks, and to shed light on the role that total quality management (TQM) plays in this regard. A sample of 269 elements working in 13 commercial banks in Jordan was surveyed. The results indicated that the level of organizational excellence was moderate in these banks, and TQM had positive effect on organizational excellence.

(Atkinson & Clarke, 2006) Study

This article outlines core steps to be taken to ensure culture and systems are harmoniously brought together to create a new high performing business. A six stage model was suggested by the authors to help develop a corporate culture that leads to high performance. The model starts by:

Clarifying a shared vision.

• Ensuring that values and culture facilitate and make a vision certainty.
• Develop strategies and goals.
• Demonstrate business leaders' intentions by behaviors such as leading by example.
• Design structure and roles that fit with business strategy.
• Develop key performance indicators to ensure that strategies and behaviors are aligned.

(Al-Sokhni, 2005) Study

The objective of this study is to investigate the availability of organizational culture five core components (vision, beliefs, values, norms, and expectations) in Jordanian Universities. A questionnaire was designed to measure these components with 62 items. A sample of 149 department chairs and deans were surveyed in four universities. Results showed that organizational culture characteristics scored high (3.7 out of 5) in 29 items, and medium (2.7 to 3.7) in remaining 33 items. The study recommended participative decision making, and to encourage change and teamwork.

4. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

4.1. Participants

Questionnaires were distributed to 450 employees, 158 of whom returned them fully completed (response = 35%). Of these, 117 worked in the administrative departments of the university, while 41 represented the academic faculties (business, law and education). Seventy three percent of the respondents were men, of whom sixty nine percent are married. The overwhelming majority were aged 31-50 (n=99, 62.7%). Table (2) and (3) show the rest of the demographic data of participants.

Variable Category Total (%)
Job Type Administrative 117 74.1
Academic 41 25.9
Sum 158 100.0
Sex Male 115 72.8
Female 43 27.2
Sum 158 100.0
Marital Status Married 109 69.0
Single 49 31.0
Sum 158 100.0
Age 30 Yrs. & less 43 27.2
31 – less than 40 Yrs. 38 24.1
41 – less than 50 Yrs. 61 38.6
50 Yrs. & above 16 10.1
Sum 158 100.0

Table (2): Frequencies and percentages (N=158)

College Business 16 39.0
Education 6 14.6
Law 19 46.3
Literature 0 0.0
Engineering 0 0.0
Science 0 0.0
Sum 41 100.0
Academic Rank Prof. 4 9.8
Associate Prof. 10 24.4
Assistant Prof. 26 63.4
Instructor 1 2.4
Sum 41 100.0

Table (3): Frequencies and percentages of Academics (N=41)

4.2. Jadara University Organizational Culture

This section will clarify the nature (attributes and characteristics) of Jadara organizational culture by answering the first question of the study.

First Question: What is the nature of Jadara organizational culture?

To answer this question, we have computed the means, standard deviations, and the relative importance of each of the 25 paragraphs comprising the organizational culture. Table (3) shows the results. As indicated in the table, the item "Willingness to perform and innovate reflects my motives towards work" scored highest with (3.89) mean and (77.72) relative importance. The second rank came the item" Society Norms and values are highly respected" with (3.82) mean and (76.46) relative importance. While the item "University employees have equal advancement opportunities" came last (rank 25) with (2.98) mean and (59.62) relative importance. The overall mean of Jadara organizational culture was moderate (3.4).

Rank No Item Mean Standard
Deviation
Relative
Importance
1 11 Willingness to perform and innovate reflects
my motives towards work.
3.89 1.04 77.72
2 15 Society Norms and values are highly
respected.
3.82 1.01 76.46
5 8 University officials receive respect and
gratitude from university employees.
3.77 1.02 75.44
5 5 University Expenses mainly target
obligatory affairs.
3.64 1.04 72.78
3 23 Management and employee commitment to
all university regulations is prevailing.
3.59 1.07 71.90
6 15 Good relations exist among university
employees.
3.56 1.10 71.27
7 25 Employees clearly realize the university
vision, mission, and objectives.
3.51 1.11 70.25
8 17 University rules and regulations frequently
change to assimilate societal and environmental changes.
3.48 1.04 69.62
9 6 University officials respect employees who
demonstrate excellent performance.
3.44 1.13 68.73
11 9 Teamwork is widespread among university
employees.
3.43 1.02 68.61
11 19 Management takes necessary measures to
empower employees so as to develop work.
3.40 1.10 67.97
12 1 Mutual Understanding is prevailing among
university Employees.
3.36 1.11 67.22
12 7 Mutual trust exists among various
organizational levels.
3.36 1.02 67.22
12 12 Management realizes the difference between
work and personal relations.
3.36 1.18 67.22
13 3 Recruitments adhere to job description and
true university needs
3.35 1.23 66.96
16 16 Management applies both positive and
negative incentives to run university
3.31 1.17 66.20
16 18 Performance appraisal reflects true
employees work.
3.30 1.16 66.08
16 25 Employees exchange university success
stories and innovations.
3.30 1.15 66.08
19 22 Managers' authorities relate well to the size
of their responsibilities.
3.28 1.17 65.57
21 13 University rules and instructions are fair and
equal.
3.25 1.16 64.94
21 21 University decisions are taken collectively
through participation.
3.23 1.24 64.68
22 11 University officials motivate high
performers.
3.17 1.24 63.42
25 5 University officials encourage employees to be innovative and creative. 3.08 1.20 61.65
25 2 Excellent University Performance is highly
valued.
3.02 1.20 60.38
23 21 University employees have equal
advancement opportunities.
2.98 1.24 59.62
Organizational Culture 3.40 .76 67.92

Table (3): Means and Standard Deviations of Organizational culture perceptions at Jadara University (N=158)

4.3. Jadara University Organizational Excellence

This section will discuss Jadara University excellence results according to the four excellence dimensions suggested by the study by answering the second question of the study.

Second Question: what is the level of organizational excellence at Jadara University?

To answer this question, means and standards deviations were calculated for all four excellence dimensions as shown in table (4).

Table (4) shows that mean values were all high and ranged from (3.56-3.71), where organizational structure excellence scored first (3.71), while strategy excellence came last (3.56). The overall mean of organizational excellence was also high (3.6).

Means and standard deviations were calculated for each excellence dimension accordingly as shown in the following five tables.

Rank No. Dimension Mean Standard
Deviation
Relative
Importance
1 5 Organizational Structure Excellence 3.71 .88 74.10
2 2 Employees Excellence 3.59 .74 71.71
5 1 Management Excellence 3.58 .91 71.62
5 5 Strategy Excellence 3.56 .93 71.16
Overall Organizational Excellence 3.60 .79 72.02

Table (4): Means and standard Deviations of Organizational Excellence Dimensions at Jadara University (N=158)

4.3.1. Management Excellence

Table (5) shows paragraph means, standard deviations, and relative importance of management excellence dimension. Means ranged from (3.48-3.69). The 26th paragraph "University management is excellently capable of achieving organizational effectiveness" scored first (3.69), while paragraph 29th " Management is excellent at facing crisis effectively" scored least (3.48).

Rank No. Dimension Mean Standard
Deviation
Relative
Importance
1 26 University management is excellently capable of achieving organizational
effectiveness
3.69 1.05 73.80
2 28 Management highly values openness and
accepts change.
3.65 1.08 73.04
5 51 Management carries out work through
participation and employees interaction.
3.59 1.03 71.90
5 27 Management is excellently capable of
providing development opportunities
3.49 1.15 69.75
3 29 Management is excellent at facing crisis
effectively.
3.48 1.08 69.62

Table (5): Means and standard Deviations of Management Excellence at Jadara University (N=158)

4.3.2. Employees Excellence

Table (6) shows paragraph means, standard deviations, and relative importance of employees' excellence dimension. Means ranged from (3.43-3.78). The 32nd paragraph "University employees own excellent mental capabilities." scored first (3.78), while paragraph no. 34 " University employees acceptably face obstacles without complaints" and paragraph no. 35 " University employees achieve their goals through participation" equally scored least (3.43).

Rank No. Dimension Mean Standard
Deviation
Relative
Importance
1 52 University employees own excellent mental
capabilities.
3.78 .91 75.70
2 56 Selection of new university hires is subject to experience, competence, and qualification
standards.
3.68 1.03 73.67
5 57 University continuously develops measures to
appraise employee performance.
3.68 1.02 73.67
5 55 University employees have enough noticeable
innovative potential.
3.65 .96 72.91
3 58 University pays great attention to human resource
development.
3.58 1.01 71.52
6 51 University employees carry out their duties with
high morale and enthusiasm.
3.45 1.05 68.99
7 55 University employees acceptably face obstacles
without complaints.
3.43 .98 68.61
7 53 University employees achieve their goals through
participation.
3.43 .97 68.61

Table (6): Means and standard Deviations of Employees Excellence at Jadara University (N=158)

4.3.3. Organizational Structure Excellence

Table (7) shows paragraph means, standard deviations, and relative importance of organizational structure excellence dimension. Means ranged from (3.60-3.78). The 39th paragraph "University structure clearly defines lines of authority and responsibility" scored first (3.78), while paragraph no. 40 "University structure is clear and simple" scored least (3.60).

Rank No. Dimension Mean Standard
Deviation
Relative
Importance
1 59 University structure clearly defines lines of
authority and responsibility.
3.78 1.01 75.70
2 55 University structure is highly flexible, scalable
and adaptive.
3.77 .98 75.44
5 52 University structure facilitates dual communications among academic departments
and administrative units.
3.75 .99 75.06
5 51 University structure clearly sets relationships
among various levels of organization, as well as colleges and administrative units.
3.61 1.02 72.28
3 51 University structure is clear and simple. 3.60 1.11 72.03

Table (7): Means and standard Deviations of Organizational Structure Excellence at Jadara University (N=158)

4.3.4. Strategy Excellence

Table (8) shows paragraph means, standard deviations, and relative importance of organizational structure excellence dimension. Means ranged from (3.34-3.70). The 49th paragraph "Efforts are always dedicated to achieve university strategic objectives" scored first (3.70), while paragraph no. 47 " University officials adopt and exercise strategic thinking with the help of effective strategic leadership" scored least (3.34).

Rank No. Dimension Mean Standard Deviation Relative Importance
1 59 Efforts are always dedicated to achieve
university strategic objectives
3.70 1.13 74.05
2 55 University goals and strategic objectives are
comprehensive and integral.
3.66 1.08 73.16
2 53 University develops mission and goals
according to environmental changes.
3.66 1.00 73.16
5 56 University is aware of achieving a strong linkage among its vision, mission, and
objectives.
3.65 1.07 73.04
3 31 University works hard to maintain competitive advantage. 3.51 1.17 70.25
6 58 In my university, a comprehensive corporate
strategy is in place.
3.38 1.12 67.59
7 57 University officials adopt and exercise
strategic thinking with the help of effective strategic leadership.
3.34 1.24 66.84

Table (8): Means and standard Deviations of Strategy Excellence at Jadara University (N=158)

4.4. Hypothesis Testing and Discussion

1st Hypothesis: There are no significant differences among the sample responses towards organizational culture attributed to job titles (Administrative, Academic).

In order to examine differences between the two job types (administrative and academic), t-tests for independent samples were conducted. As shown in table (9), no differences were found between the two job types regarding the organizational culture, thus hypothesis 1 is accepted

Job Type No. Mean Standard
Dev.
T
Value
Degrees of
Freedom
Sig.
Organization Culture Administrative 117 3.42 .80 .627 156 .532
Academic 41 3.33 .63

Table (9): Means and Standard Deviations of T Test of Job Type on Organizational Culture (N=158).

2nd Hypothesis: There are no significant differences among the sample responses towards Organizational Excellence attributed to job titles (Administrative, Academic).

In order to examine differences between the two job types (administrative and academic), t-tests for independent samples were conducted. As shown in table (10), no differences were found between the two job types for all four organizational excellence dimensions, thus hypothesis 2 is accepted.

Job Type No. Mean Standard
Dev.
T
Value
Degrees of
Freedom
Sig.
Management Excellence Administrative 117 3.66 .91 1.810 156 .072
Academic 41 3.36 .89
Employees Excellence Administrative 117 3.60 .77 .367 156 .714
Academic 41 3.55 .65
Organizational Structure Excellence Administrative 117 3.75 .91 1.093 156 .276
Academic 41 3.58 .79
Strategy Excellence Administrative 117 3.63 .93 1.551 156 .123
Academic 41 3.37 .89
Overall University
Excellence
Administrative 117 3.65 .81 1.273 156 .205
Academic 41 3.47 .73

Table (10): Means and Standard Deviations of T Test of Job Type on Organizational Excellence (N=158).

3rd Hypothesis: Organizational Culture and Organizational Excellence are not statistically correlated.

Table (11) presents the correlations among all the variables analyzed.

University Excellence Organizational Culture
Management Excellence .846**
Employees Excellence .795**
Structure Excellence .813**
Strategy Excellence .846**
Overall University Excellence .889**

Table (11): Pearson Correlation Matrix between Organizational Culture and Organizational Excellence (N=158)

Table 11 provides these correlation coefficients together with respective significance indicators. Our initial results confirm strong positive correlations between overall university excellence and organizational culture. Organizational Culture is positively correlated with all four dimensions of organizational excellence (management excellence, r =0.846, p < .01; employees excellence, r =0.795, p < .01; structure excellence, r =0.813, p < .01; Strategy excellence, r =0.846, p < .01). The hypothesis is therefore rejected, and thus, Organizational Culture and Organizational Excellence are statistically correlated.

5. RESULTS

The findings indicate that culture plays a very important role in enhancing organizational excellence. More specifically, the results are as follows:

1. The overall mean of Jadara organizational culture was moderate (3.4 out of 5).
2. The overall mean of Jadara organizational excellence was high (3.6 out of 5).
3. The mean results of organizational excellence four dimensions were as follows: Organizational Structure Excellence scored (3.71), Employees Excellence (3.59), Management Excellence (3.58), and Strategy Excellence (3.56)
4. No significant differences among sample responses towards organizational culture/organizational excellence attributed to job titles (Administrative, Academic) were found.
5. No significant differences among sample responses towards Organizational Excellence attributed to job titles (Administrative, Academic) existed.
6. A strong positive correlation between overall university excellence and organizational culture was noticed.

6. RECOMMENDATIONS

Based on the study results, the following recommendations are proposed:

1. Cultural change in organizations should be made gradual and constant in order to be effective.
2. Special attention should be paid by top management to university employees in terms of having equal advancement opportunities.
3. University officials should motivate high performers both academic and administrative.
4. For strategy to achieve excellence, Jadara University must develop mission and goals according to environmental changes and a comprehensive corporate university strategy must be in place.
5. University management should clarify the university mission, values, and strategic objectives by conducting relevant seminars and workshops.
6. Provide training and development opportunities for all university staff.
7. Carry out future studies to further diagnose future changes in corporate culture so as to help top management trace their impact on organizational excellence.
8. Include university students' views of culture and excellence in future studies because they represent the most important member of the university stakeholders family.

REFERENCES

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Appendix (1)

Questionnaire

Part 1: (General Information)

Sex Male Female
Job Type Academic Administrative
Marital Status Married Single
Age 30 Yrs & less 31 – less than 40 Yrs 41 – less than 50 Yrs 50 Yrs & above
Faculty Business Education Law Literature Engineering Science
Academic Rank Professor Associate Professor Assistant Professor Instructor

Part 2 : University Culture Indicators

No. Item Ddefinitively (5) Possibly (4) Neutral (3) Preferably Not (2) Absolutely Not (1)
1 Mutual Understanding is prevailing among
university Employees.
2 Excellent University Performance is highly
valued.
5 University Expenses mainly target
obligatory affairs.
5 University officials encourage employees to
be innovative and creative.
3 Recruitments adhere to job description and
true university needs
6 University officials respect employees who
demonstrate excellent performance.
7 Mutual trust exists among various
organizational levels.
8 University officials receive respect and
gratitude from university employees.
9 Teamwork is widespread among university
employees.
11 University officials motivate high
performers.
11 Willingness to perform and innovate reflects
my motives towards work.
12 Management realizes the difference between
work and personal relations.
15 Society Norms and values are highly
respected.
15 Good relations exist among university
employees.
13 University rules and instructions are fair and
equal.
16 Management applies both positive and negative incentives to run university
operations.
17 University rules and regulations frequently change to assimilate societal and
environmental changes.
18 Performance appraisal reflects true
employees work.
19 Management takes necessary measures to
empower employees so as to develop work.
21 University decisions are taken collectively
through participation.
21 University employees have equal
advancement opportunities.
22 Managers' authorities relate well to the size
of their responsibilities.
25 Employees clearly realize the university
vision, mission, and objectives.
25 Employees exchange university success
stories and innovations.
23 Management and employee commitment to
all university regulations is prevailing.

Part 3 : University Excellence Dimensions

No. Item Ddefinitively (5) Possibly (4) Neutral (3) Preferably Not (2) Absolutely Not (1)
First Management Excellence
26 University management is excellently capable of achieving organizational
effectiveness.
27 Management is excellently capable of
providing development opportunities
28 Management highly values openness
and accepts change.
29 Management is excellent at facing crisis
effectively.
30 Management carries out work through participation and employees interaction.
Second Employees Excellence
31 University employees carry out their duties with high morale and enthusiasm
32 University employees own excellent
mental capabilities.
33 University employees have enough
noticeable innovative potential.
34 University employees acceptably face
obstacles without complaints.
35 University employees achieve their
goals through participation.
36 Selection of new university hires is
subject to experience, competence, and qualification standards.
37 University continuously develops
measures to appraise employee

performance.
38 University pays great attention to human
resource development.
Third Organizational Structure Excellence
59 University structure clearly defines lines
of authority and responsibility.
40 University structure is clear and simple.
41 University structure clearly sets relationships among various levels of organization, as well as colleges and
administrative units.
42 University structure facilitates dual communications among academic
departments and administrative units.
43 University structure is highly flexible,
scalable and adaptive.
Fourth Strategy Excellence
44 University goals and strategic objectives
are comprehensive and integral.
45 University develops mission and goals
according to environmental changes.
46 University is aware of achieving a strong linkage among its vision,
mission, and objectives.
47 University officials adopt and exercise strategic thinking with the help of
effective strategic leadership.
48 In my university, a comprehensive
corporate strategy is in place.
49 Efforts are always dedicated to achieve
university strategic objectives
50 University works hard to maintain
competitive advantage.

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