alexa The Schizoid Register of Neuropsychic Disorders

ISSN: 2378-5756

Journal of Psychiatry

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The Schizoid Register of Neuropsychic Disorders

Sergey L. Leonchuk*
Department of Psychiatry, Kurgan Regional Neuro-Psychiatric Hospital, Russia
*Corresponding Author: Sergey L. Leonchuk, Department of Psychiatry, Kurgan Regional Neuro-Psychiatric Hospital, Russia, Tel: +79615718874, Email: [email protected]

Received Date: Sep 05, 2018 / Accepted Date: Oct 01, 2018 / Published Date: Oct 08, 2018

Abstract

In this paper the new author's formation conception of schizoid structure of psyche, new clinical scales of schizoidia and regression, types of neuro-psychic defect, which determines schizoid register of disorders, were described. Author suggests various energy regimes and levels of function of neuro-psyche. The new concept of schizotypic disorder was proposed in this article, which based on own experience of author.

Keywords: Energy regime; Schizoidia; Schizotypic disorder; Neuropsychic defect

Introduction

Progress in research of neuropsychic disorders of schizoid spectrum is associated with classical works of E. Kraepelin [1], E. Bleuler [2], E. Kretschmer [3], L. Kanner [4], K. Schneider [5], P. Meehl [6], A. Snezhnevsky [7], A. Tiganov [8], A. Smulevich [9] and other wellknown authors. However, further scientific study is necessary due to the complexity of resolving issues in this area.

Until now, the ratio of different clinical forms of the schizoid spectrum remains unclear. There is no internal connection between early childhood autism, congenital asthenic, dissocial, schizoid disorders of the psyche, schizotypic disorder and schizophrenia. The question of the nosological independence of individual clinical forms of the schizoid spectrum has not been resolved.

Two scales of neuropsychiatric disorders of the schizoid spectrum can be distinguished:

1. Schizoid scale: syndromes of early childhood autism, congenital asthenic, schizoid and dissocial disorders of the nervous psyche.

A congenital energy defect in the basal structures of the brain leads to the unevenness and asynchrony of development, the schizoid deficit structure of the nervous psyche with nuclear forms of its social underdevelopment [10,11], since the development of the social psyche requires a high energy potential. These are primary, non-procedural disorders of the psyche of the schizoid spectrum.

2. Regression scale: schizophrenia, schizotypic disorder, neuropsychiatric defect. Unlike the Schizoid scale you can observe syndromes of procedural regression, progression, neuropsychiatric defect there.

Schizophrenia is the process of forming a neuropsychiatric defect that reflects regression, transition of the nervous psyche to a lower energy level of functioning, and is a biological adaptation [12]. The defect of the nervous psyche is a combination of deficiency symptoms of disintegration, persistent loss or splitting of neuropsychic functions [13].

Procedural disorders can appear on the congenital schizoid scale, there is a polymorphic picture of underdevelopment and regression of mental function.

Discussion

In the nervous system there are various energy regimes and levels of work supported by energy homeostasis, which is necessary for its smooth operation. Energy regime is variable; its change is observed with a change in motivation, biorhythms, and fluctuations of affect. The energy level is a congenital characteristic of the system, a fixed amount of energy, the energy potential of the lower levels of the brain [14], which determines the reactivity of the nervous psyche, and the temperament. The change in the energy regime and the level of work of the nervous system is a biological adaptation, protecting from overstrain.

The structure of the psyche reflects the energy processes of the brain. Congenital energy failure of the lower levels of the brain leads to unevenness and asynchrony of the development of the nervous psyche, its schizoid structure. The schizoid structure of the psyche is deficient, compensatory, which leads to nuclear forms of underdevelopment of the social psyche, which requires a high energy potential.

The scale of schizoid, schizoid immaturity of the social psyche is great, which leads to clinical polymorphism.

At early childhood schizophrenia, Rett syndrome, Geller syndrome, the adaptive regression of the energy-strength level and structuralfunctional organization of the nervous psyche takes place with the formation of pathological homeostasis, an increase in the entropy of the organism in order to increase its level of stability in the ecosystem [15]. The neuropsychic defect associated with the regression, the processional transition of the nervous psyche to a lower energy level of functioning, is a biological adaptation and is aimed at preserving the structure. Clinical variants of the neuropsychic defect reflect the levels of energy regression [12]. In the unfavorable course of the disease, regression phenomena can deepen and lead to total disintegration and disintegration of the psyche.

The scale of schizoidia is energetically deficient. The reactivity of psyche in schizoidia is low and schizophrenia with schizoidia goes slowly, sometimes like schizotypic disorder. The schizotypic disorder is an areactive, latent form of schizophrenia. Acute unfolded attacks of schizophrenia arise with high reactivity of psyche. In the case of an unfavorable course of disease, phenomen of regression can be deeper and lead to total disintegration and disintegration of psyche [16].

Structural and functional layers of the nervous psyche in its phylogenetic development:

1. Biological psyche is the ability of the central nervous system, the brain to reflect the biological information of the ecosystem and use it to regulate the vital activity of the organism.

A. Neuro-vegetative and neuro-endocrine structures.

They participate in the regulation of homeostasis, the physiological adaptation of the organism in the ecosystem.

B. Neuropsychiatric structures.

They organize the adaptive biological behavior of the individual in the ecosystem.

2. The social psyche is the highest form of development of the psyche, the reflection of social information and its use in practical activities. It is connected with the development of consciousness and intellect. The social psyche subordinates and appropriates the biological psyche to itself, organizes the adaptive behavior of the human in nature and society.

Maturation of the brain is a biosocial process. Biological maturation occurs simultaneously with the formation of its social functions through quantitative changes and qualitative leaps - metamorphoses, which reflect the stages of development. Biological and social - these are the two sides of the same development process [17]. Biological maturation of the brain is the growth, increase in the capacity of functional systems, differentiation and integration of nerve tissue. Social maturation of the brain is the development of his social functions - consciousness, speech, higher emotions, thinking, intellect, will. Biological maturation of the neocortex realizes its innate social potential.

The biological and social determinants of brain development are interrelated. The psychological determinant is more intense during biological crises; the social determinant is more intense in the sensitive periods of development of the social psyche. The processes of maturation of a person go from simple mental acts to higher social forms. Moral and aesthetic are the highest forms of social movement of matter and appear only at the end of the maturation of the neocortex. The volume of potential development of the nervous psyche is individual and limited by the congenital energy potential of the brain and the temperament. Congenital energy deficit of basal brain structures leads to unevenness and asynchrony of development, the schizoid deficit structure of the nervous psyche and the nuclear forms of its social underdevelopment.

Conditions for the development of a man as a socio - biological system:

1. The presence in the body of a socio-biological structure capable of reflecting social information. Such a structure in humans is the neocortex.

2. The existence of a social environment, a social signal which is a stimulus for realizing the social potential of a socio-biological structure.

3. The presence of a rich energy potential for the development of neocortex structures.

The most energy-consuming brain in the brain are the sociobiological structures of the neocortex, since the processing of a social signal requires a much more complex and differentiated work than processing a biological signal.

Comparison of the schizoidal scale and regression scale - types of nervous and mental defects you can see in Table 1.

The scale of schizoid, forms of underdevelopment of the nervous psyche The scale of regression, types of neuropsychiatric defect
Asthenic disorder Asthenic
Schizoid personality disorder Schizotypal
Dissocial disorder Dissocial
Asperger's Syndrome Autistic
Disintegrative disorder Dissociative
Syndrome Of Kanner Apathoabulic
Paraorganic Paraorganic
Nuclear energy failure Energy defect

Table 1: Comparison of the Schizoidal scale and regression scale - types of nervous and mental defects.

With congenital energy failure of the basal structures of the brain, schizoidia is formed, the schizoid deficit structure of the nervous psyche with nuclear forms of its social underdevelopment [18,19]. With procedural pathology, there is an adaptive regression, the transition of the nervous psyche to a lower energy level of functioning, comparable to the level of energy failure in schizoidia.

Each energy level of functioning of the nervous psyche corresponds to its clinical phenomenon. The clinical types of the procedural neuropsychiatric defect reflect the levels of energy regression [12]. Heavy forms of schizoidia are complicated by mental retardation. Severe forms of procedural regression lead to a pronounced neuropsychic defect, total disintegration and disintegration of neuropsychic activity [7,8,16].

Conclusion

The structure of psyche reflects the energy processes occurring in it. The schizoid structure is energetically deficient, compensatory.

The nervous system has different energy regimes and levels of functioning, the change of which is biological adaptation: a). change in energy regime of work of psyche is observed with changes in motivation, biorhythms, affective disorders; b). change in the energy level is regression, transition of nervous psyche to lower energy level of functioning (it is observed with procedural neuropsychiatric defect). In schizoaffective disorder, combination of mechanisms of biological adaptation is observed.

The schizoid register of the nervous psyche includes two clinical scales: a). schizoid scale (congenital energy failure of the basal parts of the brain leads to the schizoid structure and nuclear forms of underdevelopment of the social psyche; it includes early childhood autism, congenital asthenic, schizoid and dissocial disorders of the nervous psyche); b). Regression scale (it includes clinical types of procedural neuropsychiatric defect: asthenic, dissocial, schizotypic, autistic, dissociative, apatoabulic; reflects the levels of energy regression; in contrast to schizoidia, there are regression and progression syndromes, and a neuromuscular defect).

Shisophrenia is a process of transition, the regress of the nervous psyche to an energetically lower, more economical level of its functioning with the formation of a neuropsychiatric defect, which is a biological adaptation in pathological conditions.

Clinical forms of schizoidia and procedural defect of the nervous psyche are comparable in content. Each energy level of functioning of the nervous psyche corresponds to its own clinical form.

Schizophrenia on the background of schizoid disease flows sluggishly, ledges in the form of schizotypic disorder; schizotypic disorder is an areactive, latent form of schizophrenia. With pathology, the social psyche is the first that suffers, being the most energyconsuming and complex, the highest levels of which are morality and beauty.

Reference

Citation: Leonchuk SL (2018) The Schizoid Register of Neuropsychic Disorders. J Psychiatry 21: 457. DOI: 10.4172/2378-5756.1000457

Copyright: © 2018 Leonchuk SL. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited

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