University Technology Malaysia (UTM), Jalan Semarak, 54100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Received date: June 06, 2017; Accepted date: July 21, 2017; Published date: July 28, 2017
Citation: Roudgar I (2017) The Strategic Competition in Southeast Asia. J Pol Sci Pub Aff 5: 277. doi:10.4172/2332-0761.1000277
Copyright: © 2017 Roudgar I. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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The escalating tensions between the United States and North Korea after carrying out the new missile test, hence US naval strike group deployed towards the western Pacific. In response to the United States’ navigation program in South China Sea, Chinese confronted provocative behavior and established military bases in artificial islands under a much more dominant state which also attempted to control over the region. The regional and global competitions between major political players have brought an uncertainty conditions and more risk-laden regions of the world.
Strategies, military expansion, maritime security, marine resources
Strategic competition between China and the United States as two major political and economic powers in Asia-Pacific, and alongside rapid military expansion in Southeast Asia indicates the` importance of the region in world politics. The conflicting security due to different kinds of national and economic interests of regional and global scale have brought a maritime disputes and resource conflicts in the crucial area that emerged tensions in the South and East China Sea. Americans’ Long-term monitor strategy for South China Sea and strategic patience for the East of the sea replied by cautious strategy that adopted by China and proliferation blackmail by North Korea in the said regions.
Chinese provocative behavior by cautious strategy drive by maritime capabilities which increasingly developed more dominate in the world’s maritime trade transits in South China Sea over the past two decades . It is a part of a grand strategy to expand territorial seas and strategy implementation that support greater access to marine resources. Modernizations armed forces and increasing military expenditure of China has resulted of naval expansionism and building artificial islands- not forbidden by international law-and military bases in the isles which developed tensions towards a regionally order in the region. The consequence of China’s military rise also has brought an acceleration of a regional arms race in Southeast Asia. Nevertheless, low economic growth, traditional sea-denial approach, size of armed forced, geopolitics and socio-political tensions in the most of countries resulted of China undisputed sovereignty over the region.
Japanese strategy towards proactive peace diplomacy in the South China Sea and it is a regional reaction to China strategy as a major regional competitor . But political difficulties in Japan such constitutional restraints in right of collective self-defense and budget constraints in military expansion as well as low profile in foreign policy, proved to be incapable of constructively influencing the reduction of tension in the region. In addition, Japan is surrounded by three longstanding nuclear powers such China, Russia and North Korea and it must continue to rely on the security umbrella of the United States. So, the multiple claimants seek to address and resolve their issues peacefully due to the facts. Thus, military expansion and geographical location allowed Chinese attempts to dominate the South China Sea and extend permanent military presence further in proximity to the Southeast Asian.
In the East China Sea, North Korea steady developed the nuclear forces raises and continuing missile testing, oblivious to international economic sanctions and warnings from United States and China. Pyongyang’s goals is to develop an intercontinental ballistic missile that can strike the US mainland thus will continue until achieves this military ambitions. It is an ultimate goal for the regime. Americans’ Long-term nuclear diplomacy and the international economic sanctions did not work and keeping of Pyongyang’s political behavior. In North Korea, propaganda and brainwash is a strategy in order to change public opinion also needed enemies that helped to justify the repression of mass of people. Thus, the proliferation blackmail strategy towards a crippling political crisis in East China Sea developed tensions on the Korean Peninsula and it is increasingly growing to date .
United States strategy in Asia-Pacific designed to achieve a longterm economic and maritime security interests in South and East China Sea as a part of their grand strategy. To achieve the goals of maritime security and freedom of commercial vessels to transit through the international waterways, US established monitor strategy that can be supported by navigation program and multilateral coalition under the uncertainty conditions in the region . The freedom of navigation program to preserve national interests by US navy near the artificial islands in South China Sea, warned by Chinese military flights to stay away from the zone. Although the U.S. Navy preference followed by international legal norms in the waterway. But the result of the program with collaborative efforts by territorial claimants as well as the encouraging military rebalance did not bring tangible outcomes to curb further Chinese expansion in the region.
In East China Sea, multilateral talks for a nuclear-free Korean Peninsula, the policy of strategic patience towards North Korea as well as international sanctions against the country did not conduct Pyongyang to stop nuclear program, and ballistic missile testing is continued, so far . In response to North Korea's missile tests, US military tested an anti-missile system to intercept an incoming intercontinental ballistic missile. As experts, it is capable, credible deterrent against a very real threat vitally important to the defense of homeland . It is reaction to ballistic missile testing by North Korea, possibly strike the US mainland. America also needs China to help control and pushing Pyongyang through to change nuclear policy that neutralized without a war, but it was impossible, yet. A preemptive strike on North Korea's nuclear facilities and missile sites brings radioactive places and uncontrollable situation; it is not a moral option to disable nuclear facilities. Technological neutralization could be a better choice of the problem solving, it is doubtful whether the United States will be able to deactivate .
Hence, maritime security in the South China Sea and obligation to defend Japan and South Korea in the East of the Sea are major political challenges for strategic planning in the United States. There is no way out of interventions. A comprehensive policy action is urgently needed for a permanent solution of the tension in the Korean Peninsula, otherwise a military conflict is inevitable. Any attempt to achieve peace and regional stability as well as the reduction of tensions in the South and East China Sea lies in collaboration between Washington and Beijing.