Received date: June 10, 2016; Accepted date: June 27, 2016; Published date: June 30, 2016
Citation: Leclerc M, Kresdorn N (2016) The TNFR In Asterias rubens Sea Star: Genomic Studies. J Stem Cell Res Ther 6:346. doi:10.4172/2157-7633.1000346
Copyright: © 2016 Leclerc M, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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The sea star Asterias rubens includes TNFR, in its genome, when compared to mouse one: mouse isoform 2 of TNF AIP3-interacting protein 1, mouse TNF receptor-associated factor 2, mouse TNF receptor-associated factor 3, mouse TNF receptor-associated factor 4, mouse TNF receptor-associated factor 6. Many of these factors are bound to NF Kappa -B genes which have recently been isolated in the Asterias rubens genome. They play a rôle in the regulation of the sea star immune system.
Asterias rubens; Genome; Sea stars
Tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)- associated factors belong to a family of intracellular adaptor proteins that mediate signaling downstream of various cell surface receptors, including members of the TNFR superfamily .
In the present paper, we research TNFR, in immunized and nonimmunized sea stars to HRP, in their genome, when compared to mouse genome.
b) After ligation of adapters for Illumina 's GSII sequencing system, the cDNA was sequenced on the Illumina GSII sequencing.
c) 100 bp from one side of the approximately 200 bp fragments sequences were assembled using Velvet .
First results concern non-immunized sea stars to HRP: (a) Evidence of isoform 2 of TNFAIP3-interacting protein 1 in sea star Asterias rubens:
One contig (Contig2216) could be annotated via BLASTX to Mus musculus "Isoform 2 of TNFAIP3-interacting protein 1" from the Swissprot database (TNIP1_MOUSE), with an e-value of 2.33e-17. On an aligned region of 406 amino acids, 193 positive and 101 identical amino acids were found.
b) Evidence of TNF receptor-associated factor 2 in sea star Asterias rubens:
One contig (Contig15544) could be annotated via BLASTX to Mus musculus "TNF receptor-associated factor 2" from the Swissprot database (TRAF2_MOUSE), with an e-value of 5.52e-49. On an aligned region of 137 amino acids, 112 positive and 86 identical amino acids were found.
c) Evidence of TNF receptor-associated factor 4 in immunized sea star Asterias rubens to HRP :
One contig (Contig12096|m.10269) could be annotated via BLASTX to Mus musculus "TNF receptor-associated factor 4" from the Swissprot database (TRAF4_MOUSE), with an e-value of 5.38e-14. On an aligned region of 132 amino acids, 67 positive and 41 identical amino acids were found.
It is apparent that, with the exception of Asterias rubens and, to a lesser degree, Drosophila, our understanding of invertebrate TNFR system, is still lacking in detail.
It is true that Liu  has identified a Drosophila TNF receptorassociated factor:DTRAF1, but not really the mouse TNF receptorassociated factor 2 which is found in Asterias rubens: we may speak of homologies between these factors.
In the same manner a homolog of mouse isoform 2 of TNFAIP3- interacting protein 1, discovered in A.rubens, exists in Drosophila. This factor inhibits NF Kappa-B activation and TNF-induced NF Kappa-B dependent gene in vertebrates. We recall that NF Kappa-B genes have been discovered recently in Asterias rubens .
At last, an enigmatic TNF receptor-associated factor 4 appears in immunized sea stars to HRP and not in non-immunized sea stars. We have already observed such phenomenon due to the immunization : it remains unanswered.
In conclusion, such a sophisticated defense system( Invertebrate primitive antibody, TNFR system) has all saved the sea star to survive for more than 200 million years on the earth.