alexa Transcatheter Repair in Secondary Mitral Regurgitation | OMICS International
ISSN: 2155-6148
Journal of Anesthesia & Clinical Research

Like us on:

Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on
Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

Transcatheter Repair in Secondary Mitral Regurgitation

Cristina Giannini*

Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana, PISA, Italy

*Corresponding Author:
Cristina Giannini
Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana
PISA, Italy
Tel: 00393495376899
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: May 07, 2016; Accepted date: May 27, 2016; Published date: June 03, 2016

Citation: Giannini C (2016) Transcatheter Mitral Valve Repair in Secondary Mitral Regurgitation. J Anesth Clin Res 7:629. doi: 10.4172/2155-6148.1000629

Copyright: © 2016 Giannini C. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Visit for more related articles at Journal of Anesthesia & Clinical Research




Secondary mitral regurgitation (MR) is common in patients with idiopathic or post-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy and is associated with a poor prognosis when treated conservatively [1,2]. Secondary MR is the result of left ventricular remodelling, and the presence and severity of secondary MR reflect the extent of underlying left ventricular dilation and dysfunction [3]. This might create a vicious cycle where secondary MR begets more secondary MR. Because of the complexity of the diseased left ventricle that caused secondary MR, it is not clear whether correction of the valve defect might significantly affect long-term survival and symptoms [4-6]. In particular, in symptomatic patients with severe secondary MR and severely depressed systolic left ventricular function, who cannot be revascularized or who present with cardiomyopathy, the decision to operate remains ambiguous.

So far, the role of surgery in secondary MR has not been well established because prospective randomized trials to compare survivals of patients treated with surgery or optimal medical therapy have never been conducted. Thus, the current guidelines recommend consideration for mitral valve surgery for secondary MR only in patients who remain symptomatic after implementation of guidelinesdirected medical therapy or those with severe MR undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery [4,5]. However, a large number of patients with symptomatic functional MR are not referred for surgery, and many other patients are rejected because of a high surgical risk due to the presence of several co-morbidities [7].

Over the last decade, the introduction of transcatether mitral valve repair with the MitraClip device offers new perspectives for the treatment of patients with severe MR at very high surgical risk. The efficacy and safety of endovascular repair with the MitraClip device have been evaluated in the EVEREST I trial and compared with surgery in the randomized trials EVEREST II [8,9]. Although patients treated with percutaneous repair more commonly required surgery for residual MR during the first year after treatment, the final 5-year results of the EVEREST II trial clearly supported the long-term safety of the MitraClip and the durability of MR reduction after percutaneous repair [10].

The MitraClip technique was originally designed for degenerative MR, however it has been recognised that in the real world practice patients treated with transcatheter valve repair are mainly affected by secondary MR [11]. Several studies suggest that even in patients with secondary MR and advanced heart failure this procedure is associated with high procedural success rate, low procedural mortality and significant early functional improvement [11-15]. What remains unknown is whether the MitraClip therapy improves survival in patients with secondary MR who are still symptomatic despite optimal medical therapy. Recently, Swaans, et al. evaluated outcomes among transcatheter valve repair, mitral valve surgery and conservative treatment in high surgical risk patients symptomatic with severe MR demonstrating better survival benefits of mitral valve intervention compared with medical therapy [16]. Despite these encouraging results, this study presents several limitations because it included a wide spectrum of high-risk patients with both functional and degenerative MR. Moreover, the conservatively treated group had important baseline demographic differences compared with the other groups as showed by a higher surgical risk score due to higher incidence of severe comorbidities.

Due to this paucity of data comparing outcomes of patients with secondary MR treated with mitral valve repair and those treated medically, decision making for transcatheter valve repair in patients with congestive heart failure and severely depressed left ventricular function remains complicated. Therefore, we recently compared outcomes of 60 patients with high surgical risk and symptomatic secondary MR treated conservatively to a propensity-matched cohort of 60 patients who underwent MitraClip therapy [17]. Our results demonstrated that transcatheter mitral valve repair offers a safe and less invasive option in patients with severe secondary MR and advanced heart failure demonstrating excellent procedural results and encouraging long-term clinical outcomes. Otherwise, patients who remained on conservative therapy showed a remarkable worse mortality and a higher incidence of rehospitalisation for heart failure. In particular, after propensity analysis, we proved that transcatheter mitral valve repair was superior to conservative treatment in terms of overall survival (p=0.007), cardiovascular survival (p=0.002) and cardiac rehospitalisation (p=0.04). Furthermore, baseline characteristics of our entire cohort, offer a precious picture of the current population of patients treated with MitraClip therapy in “real world”. The mean age of patients was 75 ± 8 years and median logistic EuroSCORE and EuroSCORE II were 17% (11 to 28) and 6% (4 to 12), respectively.

In line with our findings, Velazquez, et al. compared 30-day and 1- year survival among high-risk MR patients treated with the MitraClip with matched non-surgically treated patients from the Duke Echocardiography Laboratory Database [18]. This matched comparison of severe MR patients at high surgical risk supported the safety of the MitraClip relative to medical therapy at 30 days and a survival benefit at 1 year. However, our study further extends these results due to the longer follow-up period (up to 3 years) and because all patients included in our report were all affected by secondary MR.

In conclusion our data support the hypothesis that MitraClip therapy in patients with moderate or severe secondary MR who remain symptomatic despite optimal medical therapy would provide a numerically and statistically significant mortality benefit compared with medical therapy alone.

However, to confirm whether trancatheter valve repair has superior survival benefit over conservative therapy in patients with high surgical risk and secondary MR we need randomized clinical trials?


  1. Grigioni F, Enriquez-Sarano M, Zehr KJ, Bailey KR, Tajik AJ (2001) Ischemic mitral regurgitation: long-term outcome and prognostic implications with quantitative Doppler assessment.Circulation 103: 1759-1764.
  2. Agricola E, Ielasi A, Oppizzi M, Faggiano P, Ferri L, et al. (2009) Long-term prognosis of medically treated patients with functional mitral regurgitation and left ventricular dysfunction.Eur J Heart Fail 11: 581-587.
  3. Levine RA, Schwammenthal E (2005) Ischemic mitral regurgitation on the threshold of a solution: from paradoxes to unifying concepts.Circulation 112: 745-758.
  4. Vahanian A, Alfieri O, Andreotti F, Antunes MJ, Barón-Esquivias G, et al. (2012) Guidelines on the management of valvular heart disease (version 2012): the Joint Task Force on the Management of Valvular Heart Disease of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS). Eur J CardiothoracSurg42:S1-44.
  5. Nishimura RA, Otto CM, Bonow RO et al (2014) 2014 AHA/ACC Guideline for the Management of Patients With Valvular Heart Disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation 129:e521-643.
  6. Bonow RO (2014) The saga continues: does mitral valve repair improve survival in secondary mitral regurgitation?JACC CardiovascInterv 7: 882-884.
  7. Mirabel M, Iung B, Baron G, Messika-Zeitoun D, Détaint D, et al. (2007) What are the characteristics of patients with severe, symptomatic, mitral regurgitation who are denied surgery?Eur Heart J 28: 1358-1365.
  8. Feldman T, Wasserman HS, Herrmann HC, Gray W, Block PC, et al. (2005) Percutaneous mitral valve repair using the edge-to-edge technique: six-month results of the EVEREST Phase I Clinical Trial.J Am CollCardiol 46: 2134-2140.
  9. Feldman T, Foster E, Glower DD, Kar S, Rinaldi MJ, et al. (2011) Percutaneous repair or surgery for mitral regurgitation. N Engl J Med364:1395-1406.
  10. Feldman T, KarS, Elmariah S, Smart SC, Trento A, et al. (2015) Randomized Comparison of Percutaneous Repair and Surgery for Mitral Regurgitation: 5-Year Results of EVEREST II.J Am CollCardiol 66: 2844-2854.
  11. Maisano F, Franzen O, Baldus S, Schäfer U, Hausleiter J, et al. (2013) Percutaneous mitral valve interventions in the real world: early and 1-year results from the ACCESS-EU, a prospective, multicenter, nonrandomized post-approval study of the MitraClip therapy in Europe. J Am CollCardiol62:1052-1061.
  12. De Bonis M, Lapenna E, Barili F, Nisi T, Calabrese M, et al. (2016) Long-term results of mitral repair in patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction and secondary mitral regurgitation: does the technique matter?Eur J Cardiothorac Surg.
  13. Nickenig G, Estevez-Loureiro R, Franzen O, Tamburino C, Vanderheyden M, et al. (2014) Percutaneous mitral valve edge-to-edge repair: in-hospital results and 1-year follow-up of 628 patients of the 2011-2012 Pilot European Sentinel Registry.J Am CollCardiol 64: 875-884.
  14. Glower DD, Kar S, Trento A, Lim DS, Bajwa T, et al. (2014) Percutaneous mitral valve repair for mitral regurgitation in high-risk patients: results of the EVEREST II study.J Am CollCardiol 64: 172-181.
  15. Franzen O, van der Heyden J, Baldus S, Schlüter M, Schillinger W, et al. (2011) MitraClip® therapy in patients with end-stage systolic heart failure.Eur J Heart Fail 13: 569-576.
  16. Swaans MJ, Bakker AL, Alipour A, Post MC, Kelder JC, et al. (2014) Survival of transcatheter mitral valve repair compared with surgical and conservative treatment in high-surgical-risk patients.JACC CardiovascInterv 7: 875-881.
  17. Giannini C, Fiorelli F, De Carlo M, Guarracino F3, Faggioni M, et al. (2016) Comparison of Percutaneous Mitral Valve Repair Versus Conservative Treatment in Severe Functional Mitral Regurgitation.Am J Cardiol 117: 271-277.
  18. Velazquez EJ, Samad Z, Al-Khalidi HR, Sangli C, Grayburn PA, et al. (2015) The MitraClip and survival in patients with mitral regurgitation at high risk for surgery: A propensity-matched comparison.Am Heart J 170: 1050-1059.


Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Post your comment

Share This Article

Recommended Conferences

Article Usage

  • Total views: 8265
  • [From(publication date):
    June-2016 - Jul 19, 2018]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views : 8185
  • PDF downloads : 80

Review summary

  1. Julio Contreras
    Posted on Aug 30 2016 at 5:23 pm
    Surgical invasion and medical therapy are the two optimal treatment methods for patients of secondary mitral regurgitation (MR). Due to high peri- and postoperative risk, many patients are not referred for surgery. New transcatheter techniques may introduce an alternative to surgery in those patients. This article describes the evaluation of the efficacy and safety of endovascular repair with the MitraClip device, which is of great clinical importance.

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh

Peer Reviewed Journals
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2018-19
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri & Aquaculture Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

+1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals


[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Clinical Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Food & Nutrition Journals

Katie Wilson

nutritionj[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics & Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Materials Science Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Nursing & Health Care Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

Ann Jose

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

© 2008- 2018 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
Leave Your Message 24x7