Received Date: October 04, 2014; Accepted Date: November 10, 2014; Published Date: November 20, 2014
Citation: Gabbar HA, Honarmand N, Abdelsalam AA (2014) Transformational Leadership and its Impact on Governance and Development in African Nations:An Analytical Approach. J Entrepren Organiz Manag 3:121 doi: 10.4172/2169-026X.1000121
Copyright: © 2014 Gabbar HA, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Transactional leadership ensures an unhealthy/antagonistic leader-follower relationship. Most African governments are personal ruler ship, military dictatorship or fragile democracies. The ‘will’ of the people and ultimate sovereignty of the people have become a myth. The transactional leader turns his entire state into a machine for his own profit and that of a few friends, His thoughts lack objectivity and intellectual rig our at critical moments and incline his fledgling state to disorderly growth and mental deficiency. This sophistication of criminality and production of aggressive millineries is sustained because Africa has a very high rate of illiteracy of about 80%. They live in the rural areas, engage in subsistence farming, petty trading and local handcraft and picking of minerals on the ground. Its rudimentary background in science and technology produces an uneven process in its participation in Economic globalization. This fosters a structure of dependence of African nations on the industrial nations. This can only be overcome by a qualitative change in their internal structures and external relations, “like investing in a healthy well-fed literate population” and development of indigenous technology advancement. Unfortunately the people are considered as victims or even opponents of Government. The paper advocates for transformational leadership in all global states like Christ-Apostle transformational partnership uplifting “servants” to “Friends” of God the Father (John, 15:15). Common humanity will begin to enjoy a progressive partnership from leader-follower, follower-leader through feedback process to moral exemplar-upcoming leaders in designs environment that demands innovation and promotes entrepreneurial activity for the prosperity of all mankind.
Transactional; Illiterate; State; Machine profit; Transformational; Literate; Partnership; Prosperity; Common humanity
Africa was like a wild desert punctuated by pockets of people who were living or in reality having mere existence. Africa was part of the world by creation but much unknown to the world which comprised only core countries of Europe. Its large number of small tribal units existed in total isolation of one another. Each tribe was a close system that buried itself inside very thick and wide forest. Its actual neighbors were predators and monstrous beasts. The contact with those animalistic neighbors was more of man-animal warfare. These tribal natives were held within a tight vice of possibilities and they could never have mastered their primitive and rural environment . Also, their settlement was marginal and they existed on borrowed ‘time’. They had no idea of ‘time’ in the modern sense of the word. They relied on the rising and the setting of the sun to fix their rural activities or traditional ways of life. They particularly, existed on sufferance and through the inertia of others who equally were separated in their respective independent tribal isolation. Their marginal status would have been incapable of survival in the long-run . The possibility of extermination of these defenseless small tribes in the face of ever increasing predators and monsters was a likely or most probable outcome. This grave situation was aptly expressed by Wole Soyinka in clear terms: the blind and defenceless African natives were prisoners of their environment and were restlessly experiencing precarious existence in isolation . Their enclosed environment was inflicting atrocities on their vacant minds and subjected them to unnatural strain. They let their minds loose unsupported by the frame of written or enlightened thought, they went wild. They took strange sinister’ by-ways and ended up by begetting monsters.
The contact between them and the Europeans gave a rude shock to this intertie. Advances in production and incentives for long distance trade stimulated Europeans to reach other parts of the globe. Superior military strength and means of transportation as well as new religion and western education accompanied them to the then undefined territory of the world (Wallertein) they gave these isolated small tribal units long-run outcomes forming them into colonies and assigning them respectively to various European countries for governance and development . This arrangement was the partitioning of Africa as colonies of Britain, France Portugal and others. These colonies were given names like Nigeria and others. But they exploited all the human and material resources required for their industries and plantations. Even after granting them political independence they retained economic control in these independent Africa states on the basis of firstly, the policy of colonial inheritance and secondly, in the context of creation for profit entrepreneurs, Entrepreneur is often synonymous with founder (Wikipedia the free encyclopedia, jump to Navigation search) for example Nigeria is an enterprise founded and run by the British entrepreneurs . Consequently, Nigeria was welded together in the interest and for the benefit of an European power . The slaves and resources from Africa empowered the growth of the industrial revolution in Europe and Britain in particular.
Industrial revolution: A transformational leadership outcome
As the British Industrial Revolution developed its manufactured output surged ahead of other economies. This gave Great Britain a massive lead over other countries. The slave trade and the West Indian plantations provided only 5% of the British national income during the years of the Industrial Revolution. (Digital History: was Slavery the Engine of economic growth). Even though slavery accounted for minimal economic profits in Britain during the industrial revolution, the Caribbean-based demand accounted for 12% of England’s Industrial output . Alternatively, the greater liberalization of trade from a large merchant base may have allowed Britain to produce and use emerging scientific and technological development more effectively than countries with stronger monarchies particularly China and Russia.
Britain emerged from the Napoleonic Wars as the only European nation not ravaged by financial plunder and economic collapse. Also, the stable political situation in Britain from around 1688 and the British society’s greater receptiveness to change (compared with other European countries) can also be said to be factors favoring the Industrial Revolution.
Zero tolerance for resistance to industrial revolution
In large part due to Enclosure movement, the peasantry was destroyed as significant source of resistance to industrialization. The landed upper classes, thereafter, developed commercial interests that made them pioneers in removing obstacles to the growth of capitalism . (This point is also made in Halaire Bellor’s the Servile state).
Also, Dissenters found themselves barred or discouraged from almost all public offices, as well as education at England’s only two universities at the time (although dissenters were still free to study at Scotland’s four universities). When the restoration of the monarchy took place and membership in the official Anglican Church became mandatory due to the Test Act, they thereupon became active in banking, manufacturing and education.
The Unitarians, in particular were very involved in education, by running Dissenting Academies, where, in contrast to the universities of Oxford and Cambridge and Schools, such as Eton and Harrow, much attention was given to mathematics and the sciences-areas of scholarship vital to the development of manufacturing technologies.
Greatness of britain or great britain
Greatness, associated with Britain, is not a mere application or adjective but a realistic expression of its superiority over other countries of the world. How? Greatness is or must be earned by risktakers, the doers, the makers of things, who combine imagination to common purpose and necessity to courage . They also link thought with purpose to attain intelligent accomplishment . Britain is simply wonderful. Britain singularly championed the scientific and technological revolution of the globe  attests to this fact.
Britain was able to succeed in the Industrial Revolution due to the availability of key resources it possessed. It had a dense population for its small geographical size. Enclosure of common land and the related agricultural revolution made a supply of this labor readily available. There was also a local coincidence of natural resources in the North of England, the English Midlands, South Wales and the Scottish Lowlands. Local supplies of coal, iron, lead, copper, tin, limestone and water power, resulted in excellent conditions for the development and expansion of industry. Also, the damp, mild weather conditions of the North West of England provided ideal conditions for the spinning of cotton, providing a natural starting point for the birth of the textile industry.
Britain’s extensive exporting cottage industries also ensured the markets were already available for many early forms of manufactured goods . The conflict resulted in most British warfare being conducted overseas, reducing devastating effects of territorial conquest that affected much of Europe. This was further aided by Britain’s geographical position, an island separated from the rest of mainland Europe. Colonies of Britain include the United States of America, Africa, or third world countries, including Nigeria, China, Singapore Malaysia and others. Britain was the foundation of civilization in these countries. USA, China, Singapore and Malaysia continued to play substantive and active roles in global economic competition while Africa countries to complain against colonialism and to live in the past.
In a solemn vow made by Azikiwe in 1937 he pledged:
“That henceforth I shall utilize my earned income to secure my enjoyment of a high standard of living and also to give a helping hand to the needy”.
Obafemi Awolowo was even more forthright about his ambitions:
“I was going to make myself formidable intellectually, morally invulnerable, to make all the money that is possible for a man with my brains and brawn to make in Nigeria”.
Thoughts such as these are more likely to produce aggressive millionaires than selfless leaders of their people.
An absence of objectivity and intellectual rigour at the critical moment of a nation’s formation is more than an academic matter. It inclines the fledgling state to disorderly growth and mental deficiency . Unlike the transformational leader, Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew, the selfless leader of Singapore. Singapore like Nigeria was under British colonial rule. It had no resources, yet it is an active participant in global economy.
Singapore won its independence from Great Britain in 1959 it faced a serious challenge. To resolve this dilemma, a strong central government led by Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew moved early to create a business-government partnership aimed at developing and coordinating the nation’s most precious resources: its people. With an increasingly educated population, Singapore targeted industrial development focusing on emerging technologies. One example of Singapore’s recent success can be seen in its virtual monopoly over the hard disk drive (or HDD) industry.
Yet, Nigeria is a country endowed with abundant human and material resources. Its land area is 923.773km2 with varied vegetation and soil types that are suitable for a variety of agricultural purposes. It has large reserves of solid minerals including coal, columbite, lignite, tin, bitumen, topac, kaolinite, talc, marble, barite, gypsum and iron ore. Its proven reserves of crude petroleum and natural gas are well over 27billion barrels and 120 trillion standard cubic feet respectively .
Statement of problem
Africa provided low-skill lab our and raw materials for capitalintensive production by core European countries. Previous peer nations have left Africa behind at the lower rungs of the global economic rankings. Many African nations have very low speed accumulation of human capital and are completely way of the mark given their prodigious manifestation of natural wealth. The wide gap between these peer nations and Africa was not always the case by around 1983. But Africa has been left behind many times over by every one of these other nations. The larger population of African people has clustered within the poverty bracket. For example, Nigeria is a paradox of the kind of wealth that breeds penury because it is a poster nation for poor governance wealth from natural resources. The recklessness and impunity with which Nigeria’s public institutions and resources are being handled; the daily news of systematic and now democratized corruption by political office holders and their business elite collaborators has made personal enrichment the sole purpose of governance. Nigerian elites resist innovation because they have vested interest in resisting change for new technologies that create growth, can alter the balance of economic or political assets. The same technological innovation that makes human societies prosperous also involves and implies the replacement of the old with the new as well as the destruction of economic privileges and political power of established politicians. Most African leaders cannot afford any change that threatens their status quo and promises a realignment of power distribution. In African countries under the military rule, comprehensive strategy satisfies the impatience of the army. Whether it is in Tanzania, Zambia, the Ivory Coast, Senegal, Nigeria or Kenya, the people choose from the already chosen. In African countries private entrepreneurship is shy in undertaking the risks associated with new ventures. Entrepreneurship is inhibited by the social system which denies opportunities for creative facilities. Entrepreneurs develop personal and political contacts with the government official, start new industries and thus found individual business empires which inhibit the growth of fresh entrepreneurship.
Objectives of the study
The specific problems are as follows:
• To determine the character of the political history, structure and system as well as the cast of political leadership that give African nations faulty political foundation.
• To find out why peer nations have left African nations behind at the lower rungs of the global economic rankings.
• What character of the political history, structure and system and cast of political leadership give African nations faulty political foundation?
• Why have peer nations left Africa nations behind at the lower of rungs of the global economic rankings?
This paper traces the political history of Nigeria since Independence in 1960 as an example of developing state with a faulty political foundation. The first democratic government ushered in an independent Nigeria but was cut short by a coup in 1966, a counter coup in 1967, civil war from 1967 to 1970, military rule from 1970 at the end of the war until another coup in 1975, another unsuccessful coup in 1976 the then Head of State was murdered, continued rule of the military until 1979 when a successful political transition ushered in the second republic but it became a democratic process that was known more for its prodigality than for governance until it was cut short in 1983 by yet another military coup but this new junta was itself sent packing by a coup in 1985 with a new military junta ruling from 1985 until 1993 when it thwarted the political rights of citizens who had elected a democratic president by annulling the elections. It responded to the public disturbance and agitation that followed by installing an interim national government that lasted only three months following yet another military intervention that was more heinous than ever until 1998 when divine providence cut short that particular leadership ushering in yet another military ruler who committed to and successfully conducted a transition that ushered democratic governance in 1999. That it is now fourteen years of uninterrupted even if fledgling democratic governance since 1999 is perhaps the very tiny ray of light in what is otherwise a canvass of political tragedies .
While the nation continues to experience the paradox of plenty and citizens are once again provoked by this latest round of prodigality of our political elite. These casts of gladiators seem not to have learned anything from our inglorious political history. The recklessness and impunity with which public institutions and resources are being handled; the daily news of systemic and now democratized corruption by political office holders and their business elite collaborators has entrenched cynicism and pessimism in the land .
Corruption is equal to Monopoly and Discretion minus Accountability which means in mathematical formula: C = M + D – A where:
C is corruption,
M is monopoly,
D is discretion, and
A is accountability (Robert Klingaard) in Uche (2013).
But in Africa corruption is a function of transactional leadership which is equal to: political intervention, absolute discretion and callous indifference. Mathematically expressed as:
C = Pi + Ad + Ci where
Pi = Political Intervention
Ad = Absolute discretion
Ci = Calous indifference
The variant of political elite in Nigeria does not even understand the most basic necessity for change of the status quo methods that have failed to deliver benefits of governance to citizens “Elites resist innovation because they have a vested interest in resisting change – and new technologies that create growth can alter the balance of economic or political assets in a country. Technological innovation makes human societies prosperous, but also involves the replacement of the old with the new, and the destruction of the economic privileges and political power of certain people”, wrote Acemoglu and Robinson . Yet when elites temporarily preserve power by preventing innovation, they ultimately impoverish their own states. Sadly, they most often do not care what happens to the rest of the nation, and that arguably has been the lot of Nigeria, through the years .
Structure and system
Throughout economic history, the factors that determine which nations become rich with improved standard of living of their citizens are like a Dignity treatise in that they all revolve around the choices that ordinary citizens made in defining the value constructs of their nation. It takes a very strong interplay of political and economic dynamics for nations to climb out from the rung of poverty and raise the standard of living of citizens. The political foundation of nations emerges as the principal reason why some nations grow rich while others remain poor in the field of development economics. A ground breaking work by Daren Acemoglu, a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and James Robinson (ecomomist), a Harvard professor has brought politics to the center stage of economic development . Although sound policies and access to capital for investing in development priorities remain very important for economic success no country can however achieve development without having a strong political foundation made up of political players, system, processes and structures that are grounded in inclusivity and accountability. The active participation of the citizens who seek to restore their individual and collective dignity in the politics of their nation is what ensures that THE PEOPLE and not a bunch of power hungry and extractive elite will set the agenda and determine the quality and substance of governance .
The simple version of this thesis is “sort out a nation’s political mess and you improve the chances of getting a productive economy that grows and delivers the benefits of growth in the form of jobs and improved incomes to all citizens”. Although this advice is rooted in empirical evidence from economic research it does sound very basic. Yet if we are willing to confront our past and present reality with sincerity and ruminate on our political history, this thesis may actually be a Turning Point moment for us. The Turning Point is that moment when we all suddenly realized that Politics – a process that defines the How, Who, Which, Where, When and for what any individual or group of persons who seek to govern Nigeria – is indeed the root cause of our repeated failures. Neither our thirty four years of cumulative military governance nor the nineteen cumulative years thus far of our democratic governance provided us “inclusive and accountable governance.” Evidently, it is the undeveloped character of our political history, inchoate political structure and system and mostly uninspiring cast of political leadership that threw Nigeria into a hole from which it must climb out quickly to secure its continuing existence. Instructively, a person or as in our own case; a nation is counseled to “stop digging when in a hole”. Lamentably, in our case we Nigeria have consistently rebuffed the wisdom behind that counsel. It has instead dug deeper and the more it has dug, the deeper into the hole it has sunk and all because of political misadventures .
Cast of political leadership
African states have undergone drastic changes since independence. The most relevant change is the weakening of the political structures. Virtually all African states have had one form of military intervention or the other . Those that survived the intervention quickly moved to various forms of personal rulership, dictatorship or ritualistic democracy. Secondly, elections have been forgotten in the wake of military rule. The military bureaucracy has imposed itself on the people. The ‘will’ of the military leader has become the will of the people. Thirdly, in very few cases where occasional elections are still held the entire exercise is reduced to mere ritual. In some extreme cases, the people are told exactly whom to elect. Whether, it is in Tanzania, Zambia, the Ivory Coast, Senegal, Nigeria or Kenya, the people choose from the already chosen (Hyden and Leys (1974) (For Kenya and Tanzania) (Bienen 1994, for Kenya) Samoff (1974) for Zambia) Mulford (1967) for Zambia).
African political system
Enekwe (1989:6) states that African political system gives the people new type of leaders who regard their people or followers as victims, raw materials or manure . There is even a sense in which one can perceive the ruled/followers/people as opponents. For examples, the modern Nigerian (African) leader is sequestered from the people he rules, mostly for security reasons. Those who minister to him must ensure that the leader remains secluded and he is unaware of the true state of things in his territory.
The African or Nigerian leader is a stranger to his people. His laws are ruthless.
Every government is the exact symbol of his people, said the historian Thomas Carlyle. So it is with law. The laws and the legal system of a society reflect the values of its people. The fairness of a nation’s laws and the extent to which the legal system justly administers the laws is a measure of the enlightenment, humanity and degree of civilization of its people  for example in Nigeria:
The constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria (PROMULGATION) DECREE 1999 is Decree No 24 of 5th May 1999. This decree is imposed on the people as a Democratic constitution .
C-Qualification for membership of National Assembly…
(1) Government shall direct its policy towards ensuring that there are equal and adequate educational opportunities at all levels.
(2) Government shall promote science and technology.
(3) Government shall strive to eradicate illiteracy; and to this end Government shall “as and when practicable” provide
(a) free, compulsory and universal primary education;
(Omitted Free secondary education);
(b) Free university education; and
(c) free adult literacy programme
In this era of globalization what level of sophistication in terms of width and depth in education and experience can ‘school certificate’ impart on National Assembly members to enable them become global political players.
Section 65 (2): A person shall be qualified for election under subsection (1) of this section if-
(α) he has been educated ‘up to at least’ school certificate level or its equivalent; and
(β) he is a member of a political party and is sponsored by that party.
Section 308 (1): Notwithstanding anything to the contrary in this constitution, but subject to subsection (2) of this section
(α) no civil or criminal proceedings shall be instituted or continued against a person to whom this section applies during his period of office;
(β) a person to whom this section applies shall not be arrested or imprisoned during that period either on pursuance of the process of any court or otherwise; and
(c) no process of any court requiring or compelling the appearance of a person to whom this section applies, shall be applied for or issued;
(2)The provisions of subsection (1) of this section shall not apply to civil proceedings against a person to whom this section applies in his official capacity or to civil or criminal proceedings in which such a person is only a nominal party.
(3) This section applies to a person holding the office of President or Vice-President, Governor or Deputy Governor, and the reference in this section to “period of office” is a reference to the period during which the person holding such office is required to perform the functions of the office.
They acquire Honorary Degrees through charity to universities. This does not actually improve them mentally because there was no learning.
In most African states, perhaps, consequent on the fragility of their political structures, there is hardly any consensus on practically anything. Their language is more of comprise, judgement or inspiration. This situation should not surprise any astute observer of the African political scene. In the absence of institutionalized political structures, a different form of administration which settles issues more on political rather than insulated technical criteria of necessity takes the place of bureaucracy. Most of the African Governments are in reality, personal ruler ship, military dictatorships, or fragile democracies .
The negation of the representative principles and the enthronement of personal ruler ship in the Ivory Coast are illustrated by A.R. Bolberg as follows: it is in … the pattern of decision-making that the P.D.C.I. in practice deviates most widely from the theoretical model of a party based on democratic centralism. Power resides almost exclusively in the hands of an individual… Felix Houphouet-Bioghy. Final decisions are … submitted to Houphouet-Boighy. During his many absences from the country, the work of government sometimes seems to come to a halt. Even routine decisions had to await his return. In Nigeria the same situation was replicated with President Umaru Yar’Adua’s hospitalization in Saudi hospital without any official notice, keeping Federal Government Administrative machinery at a stand-still.
Peer nations ahead of African Nations
African human development scores using Nigeria for example, have lagged. Nigeria continued with its binge on oil-revenue and became trapped in cyclical decline of national competitiveness. This explains why every other economic sector in Nigeria has suffered the effect of the oil enclave economy. Oil has unleashed shocks and volatility of revenues on our economy due to exposure to global commodity market swing, proliferated “weak, ineffectual, unstable and systemically corrupt institutions and bureaucracies” that have helped misappropriate or plunder public resources .
Most Africans however agree that poor governance and the more visible symptom of corruption have had virulent impact in arresting the development of African nations including Nigeria. The common wonderment of these poor citizens is “why would more than half the population of Africans particularly Nigerians that earned nearly one trillion dollars in oil revenue since the Oloibori discovery of crude oil; continue to wallow in poverty?” Economic evidence posits an answer that oil wealth entrenched corruption and mismanagement of resources in government and warped the incentive for value added work, creativity and innovation in public, private sectors and wider African societies. Consequently, the larger population of Africans is deprived of the opportunity to overcome poverty and this is what economists call the “resource curse”. Endowment of oil resulted in an indulgent elite class who has made disastrous choices that have trapped the destiny of Nigeria in particular in oil wells. This is the reason why Nigeria’s economic structure has remained unchanged for more than fifty years. The fact is that our political elite suffers from delusion of greatness simply because Nigeria sells barrels of crude oil to finance 80% of its national budget, cover 95% of its foreign exchange and petroleum sectors represent a larger portion of industry’s contribution to its GDP. The consequence is that its manufacturing contributes a mere 18% of its Gross Domestic Products compared to that of all those nations with which we set off on the development race. Manufacturing which has its major driver as education enabled those nations develop a huge base of human capital with skills and competencies to drive new ideas, creativity and innovation .
Empirical evidence on economic stagnation of African Nations
Nigeria’s paltry 4.3% does not compare favorably with the other then peer nations (Table 1).
|Country||Youthful percentage in University|
Source: Ezekwesili, (2013) 
Table 1: Nigerian Youthful population having University Education in 2013.
Most African nations including Nigeria were not on this list comprising only 50 countries of the world (Table 2).
|Countries||Population in million||GDP in trillion|
|1. United States||300||$10|
|2. China||1,285||$1 (over)|
Source: The Economic Pocket World in Figure/London Profile Book 2004
Table 2: Widening gap between developed and developing nations.
The World Largest Corporations and the Countries owning them as follows: Out of the forty-three (43) World Largest Corporations, United State of America owns 21; United Kingdom, 5; China, 5; Switzerland, 3; France, 2; Brazil, 1; Australia, 1; Japan, 1; Germany, 1; Spain, 1; and Italy, 1.
The United States of America has the highest number of World Largest Corporations with twenty-one (21) corporations, followed by United Kingdom and China with five (5) each (Source: The Global Grants Wall Street Journal: March (2009)). It is remarkable to note that there is no corporation owned by any African country (Table 3).
|Rank Mar 2009||Rank Dec. 2008||Company||Country||Sector Price||Market Value $m|
|1||1||Exxon Mobil||US Oil & gas producers||68.1||336,524.9|
|2||2||PetroChina||China Oil & gas producers||0.8||287,185.2|
|3||3||Wal-Mart Stores||US General retailers||52.1||187,885.4|
|5||4||China Mobile||Hong Kong Mobile Telecommunication||8.7||174,672.9|
|6||7||Microsoft||US Software & computer Services||18.4||163,319.5|
|7||8||AT&T||US Fixed line telecommunication||25.2||148,511.3|
|9||9||Johnson & Johnson||US Pharmaceuticals & Biotechnology||52.6||145,481.2|
|45||26||GDF Suez||France Gas, water &Multiutilities||34.3||75,288.8|
Table 3: The World Largest Corporations (2009).
The picture is worse because the developing countries still rely on a narrow range of primary commodity exports for their foreign exchange earnings. Secondly, the world prices of these commodities are often unstable and thirdly, they have very low production capacity and sale for profit, the driving force in economic globalization.
World proportion of internet users
The internet is a global information source. The ways to access information on the internet include among others; the World Wide Web (www), the Gopher, The File transfer Protocol (FTP), The Telnet; Browsers and Search Engines. Sub-Saharan Africans with a world population of 8.7% has only 0.1% using internet in the era of globalization. Revolution in communication impart slightly on Sub- Saharan African (Table 4).
|Countries||World Population Percentage||Internet User|
|South Asia||20||Less than 1|
Source: Ajayi (2003) 
Table 4: World Proportion of Internet Users.
Markets: Managers are under pressure to increase sales and profits of their firms. When they face a mature saturated market at home, they begin to search for new markets outside their home country. The means for entering or supplying foreign markets may be just two activities:
(i) by exporting to a foreign market and
(ii) by manufacturing in it. Most Africans pick minerals and hardly manufacture for export .
Market Facilitators: This derives for more profit is facilitated by the multinational corporations. They produce at cheaper rate due to the sophistication of equipment and human resources, intensive capital and ready access to back-up fund from their headquarters in their respective home countries. They also enjoy the advantage of ‘foot-loosing’ that is, out-sourcing of materials from every part of the world and moving production sites to where labor is skilled, cheap and highly exploitative. Multinational corporations basically for competitive advantage, prefer to transmit abroad the knowledge of how to produce goods rather than the goods themselves by setting up their own production facilities rather than licensing foreign firms. Most experts (both advocate and opponent), agree that multinational corporations can be a most potent agent of innovation, a ruthless cutter of cost and a wily harnesser of resources.
Competition/Competitiveness: Competition continues to increase in intensity and complexity. In many industries today chief competitors come from around the developed nations and each competitor has its own unique competitive strengths. For example, the global automobile industry includes major competitors from Japan, Germany, South Korea, France, the United Kingdom, Sweden and the United States. Soon other major competitors such China and perhaps India, will enter this crowded global market .
The situation is the same or similar in other key industries including, among others, home electronics, information technology (IT) services, telecommunication, medical equipment, software development, pharmaceuticals, and defense technologies .
Developing countries and economic stagnation: Countries like Kenya which had a per capita income larger than South Korea when I was a boy have been outpaced . To underscore the misfortune of Nigeria is to compare Nigeria with Indonesia and even Malaysia. Nigeria and Indonesia had the first oil boom at the same time. Both countries were comparable in almost all counts. Both experienced oil boom in 1973 and thereafter both took different policy choices. The outcomes of the differences in policy regimes are such that today, while manufacture as a percentage of total exports is about 40 percent in Indonesia, it is less than one percent in Nigeria where Nigeria was in 1971.
Export: Export stimulates the economy of producer nations and supports their manufacturing and service base. At the same time failure to export to foreign countries can lead to closed factories, unemployment and economic stagnation. Organizations such as the World Trade Organization (WTO) were established to break down barriers and more open trade around the world . South Saharan African countries are still within an entrapment called a “growth tragedy syndrome. These entrapped economics are based on weak and fragile institutions including very low human capital. They depend on commodities or a single export, concentrated wealth in the hands of the few and leaves majority of the people too vulnerable to downturns .
Where is Africa going wrong by relying on her ability to pick minerals from the ground or seek debt relief and foreign assistance, by investing more on things than on information and by investing more on the military than on education . The findings of Nissanke and Thorbecke show that the downside of globalization is most vividly epitomized in developing nations in times of global financial economic crises. The costs of repeated crisis associated with economic and financial globalization appear to have been borne overwhelmingly by the developing world and often disproportionately by the poor who are most vulnerable. Neither is the benefit of globalization in boom times necessarily shared widely and equitably in the global community (Table 5).
|Country||Population in million||GDP in trillion/billion|
Source: Ezekwesili (2013) .
Table 5: Relative Gap in Accumulation of Human Capital.
In 1960 this wide gap between these nations and Nigeria was not always the case as some relevant data at the time of our independence reveal. In 1960 the GDP of all these countries were not starkly different from that of Nigeria. Two were below $200, two were a little above $300 and one was slightly above $500 while that of Nigeria was just about $100.
For citizens these differentials are not mere economic data. Meanwhile by 2011 the range for all five is between: (Table 6).
Source: Ezekwesili (2013) 
Table 6: Relative Per Capita Income.
Nigeria’s $1,500 per capita income helps to derive home the point that we have been left behind many times over by every one of these other countries. There is hardly a basis for comparing the large population of Nigerian citizens within the poverty bracket with the majority citizens of Singapore fortunate to have upper middle income standard of living. Nigeria is a paradox of the kind of wealth that breeds penury. The world therefore considers Nigeria as a poster nation for poor governance wealth from natural resources. The trend of Nigeria’s population in poverty since 1980 to 2010 for example suggests that the more we earned from oil, the larger the population of poor citizens Resource wealth has tragically reduced Nigeria to a mere parable of prodigality. Nothing undignified nations and their citizens like selfinflicted failure. Our abundance of oil, people and geography should have worked favorable and placed Nigeria on top echelons of the global economic ladder by now (Table 7).
|Year||Position of poor citizens|
Source: Ezekwesili (2013) 
Table 7: Nigerian Population in Poverty 1980 – 2010.
Life expectancy: Nigeria spends most of what it generates on mere consumption with no tangible productive asset to show for it. Due to profligacy, Nigeria has dismal human development indicators which are inconsistent with the scale of its earnings. For example using life expectancy as a proxy measuring how Nigeria scores on human development (Table 8).
|Singapore & South Korea||80 years|
|Chile citizens||78 years|
|Malaysia citizens||73 years|
Source: Ezekwesili (2013) 
Table 8: Life Expectancy and Human Development.
Transformational leadership is pragmatic as it is concerned with actual circumstances in developed countries. Transformational leadership is relatively recent. It was first coined by J.V. Dewnton in 1973 in his Book titled: REBEL LEADERSHIP COMMITMENT AND CHARISMA IN A REVOLUTIONARY PROCESS . The theorist James MacGregor Burns says that transformational leadership is a relationship of mutual stimulation and elevation that converts followers into leaders and may convert leaders into moral agents. Francis Yammarino (1994) describes the process of transformational leadership as one who arouses heightened awareness and interests in the group or organization, increases confidence and moves followers gradually from concerns for existence to concerns for achievement and growth … in short transformational leaders develop their followers to the point where followers are able to take on leadership roles and perform beyond established standards or goals sees transformational leader as people who attempt and succeed in raising colleagues subordinates, followers, clients or constituencies to a greater level of awareness .
Christ-disciple partnership model illustrates this transformational leadership construct: “My commandment is this: Love one another just as I love you …. And you are my friends if you do what I command you. I do not call you servants any longer, because servants do not know what their master is during. Instead, I call you friends because I have told you everything I have heard from my Father” .
Mark W. McCloskey defines transformational leadership as:
The process of creating, sustaining and enhancing leaderfollower, follower-leader and leader-leader partnerships in pursuit of a common vision in accordance with shared values and on behalf of the community in which leaders and followers jointly serve. In the context of this process of service and partnership both the leader and follower and eventually the entire community experience increasing levels of congruity into the ethos vision and values of the community .
Transformation leadership demands and even compels the leader to practice self-renewal to attain greater self-determination guided by high moral and spiritual ideals as well as sincerity of purpose in utilizing the resources to achieve common prosperity for common humanity. This makes transformational leadership pragmatic with actual circumstances in developed countries. These circumstances include the fact that a small consortium of developed countries comes close to controlling the global economy. The countries with most highly educated citizens are also some of the wealthiest in the world . For example: the United States, Japan, Canada, South Korea, Finland, Norway, Israel, United Kingdom, New Zealand and Australia and also have among the largest GDPs. Norway and Australia also featured, have the second and sixth highest GDPs per capita, respectively. All these countries aggressively invest in Education . Economic growth rate and ultimate development of nations are determined by a number of factors that range from sound policies, effective and efficient public and private investments and strong institutions. Economic evidence throughout numerous researches proves that the key variable that determines how fast nations outgrew others is the speed of accumulation of human capital especially through science and technology education. The high level of human capital, humanity, enlightenment and civilization in developed nations make transformational leadership pragmatic.
Concept of transformational leadership
Burns (1978) states that Transformational leadership can be seen when “leaders and followers make each other to advance to a higher level of morality and motivation”. Through the strength of their vision and personality, transformational leaders are able to inspire followers to change expectations, perceptions and motivations to work towards common goals. This transformation of followers “is not based on a ‘give and take’ relationship but on the leader’s personality, traits and ability to make a change through example, articulation of an energizing vision and challenging goals. Transforming leaders are idealized in the sense that they are moral example of working towards the benefit of the team, organization and/or community. Bernard M. Bass (1985) extended the work of Burns (1978) by explaining the psychological mechanisms that underlie transforming and transactional leadership. Bass added to the initial concepts of Burns (1978) to help explain how transformational leadership could be measured, as well as how it impacts follower motivation and performance . The extent to which a leader is transformational is measured first, in terms of his influence on the followers. The followers of such leader feel trust, admiration, loyalty and respect for the leader and because of the qualities of the leader; the transformational leaders are willing to work harder than originally expected. These outcomes occur because the transformational leader offers followers something more than just working for self-gain, they provide followers with an inspiring mission and vision and give them an identity. The leader transforms and motivates followers through his or her idealized influence or charisma, intellectual stimulation and individual consideration. In addition, this leader encourages followers to come up with new and unique ways to challenge the status quo and to alter the environment to support being successful.
Transformational leadership enhances the motivation, moral and job performance of followers through a variety of mechanisms. These include connecting the follower’s sense of identity and self to the project and the collective identify of the organization, being a role model for followers that inspires them and makes them interested; challenging followers to take greater ownership for their work, and understanding the strengths and weaknesses of followers, so the leader can align followers with tasks that enhance their performance.
Transformational leadership theory
Different constructs: Transactional theory and transformational theory explain and describe significantly different constructs. Whereas transactional theories focus on the construct of a task oriented leaderfollower exchange, transformational theory focuses on a community oriented leader- follower engagement. Transformational theory defines leadership as broader than event-oriented exchanges between leaders and followers. Transformational theory views leadership more broadly as a process of the community or organization. This is no small difference of degree or semantics, but rather a profound conceptual distinction.
In comparison: Transformational theory seeks to describe and explain leader-follower engagement. This means that leaders and followers are bound together in a mutually uplifting partnership and thus focused on inspiring, motivating one another. And this mutual partnership is caught up in a broader process of community wide transformation. The process of mutual transformational engagement raises the level of aspiration and conduct of not only leaders and followers, but the entire community. As such, transformational leadership is ultimately and necessarily ethical in nature.
Transactional leadership is more a scripted event driven by concerns for the efficient and effective implementation of defined tasks. These tasks are typically embedded in prescribed community roles, which crisply distinguish between the function and behavior of leaders and followers. While transactional leadership is focused on accomplishing a goal or task, the leader follower engagement of transformational leadership transcends anyone specific task or goal. Transformational leadership, while concerned with matters of efficiency and effectiveness, is driven by broader and higher community concerns of ethics and ethos, which flow from the vision and values of the community and are focused on the long term welfare of the community.
Transactional theory calls for leaders and their followers to do what is good, right and required given the boundaries of the task requirements of the role. Transformational theory calls for its leaders and their followers to do what is good, right and necessary given the task and the values and vision of the community.
The transactional leader helps followers gain the skills and experience to efficiently and effectively do what is required of them in a particular task and in their defined follower role. Transactional leaders help followers accomplish tasks by modeling attitudes and behaviors appropriate to the efficient and effective implementation of the task at hand. In the transactional theory of exchange, at best, you get what you set out to do. Followers efficiently accomplish what the role demands and the task requires.
Transformational leaders do the same. In the transformational theory of leader-follower engagement, you indeed get what you set out to do, but much more. Leaders set the pace on the extra mile. And along the way they add the ethical dimension of helping followers become increasingly aware of the community’s values and the noble aspirations both leaders and followers pursue. Transformational leader’s help followers see the vision so clearly and embrace the values so passionately that they move themselves to sustained, even sacrificial extra mile effort as a way of life. Transformational followers go the proverbial extra mile. Why? Certainly not because a leader demands they do so. That kind of discretionary effort not something leaders can command. Rather, followers give an extra mile effort only because the mile is their mile. They are motivated to embark on the journey by a vision and sustained along the way of the extra mile by values, which they personally own. Extra mile followers go beyond what the task requires to do whatever the vision and values necessitate.
In the context of this extra mile partnership, many followers themselves become transformational leaders and many transformational leaders become catalysts for substantive and healthy change in the community and beyond.
The rules of engagement: How transformational leadership works
Transformational leadership theory makes the following assumptions about how the process of leader-follower engagement works. We might call these the rules of engagement.
The source and focus: First, at the headwaters of transformational leadership is a compelling vision and a configuration of core values, not tasks or goals. When transformational leaders engage potential followers with a credible and compelling vision, shared values, and the high performance expectations attached to these, the cumulative effect of this engagement results in substantive change, indeed a transformation of moral and ethical dimension in the lives of both followers and leaders. Leaders and followers not only engage each other. They also engage the vision and values that have brought them together in the first place. As a result, a powerful environment, an ethos is created not only for the mutual exchange of valued commodities, but beyond this for a process of mutual, transformational engagement.
The person: Second, the person doing the transformational leading must be in the process of transformation himself or herself. Of necessity, the transformational leader will increasingly manifest a critical mass or configuration of interdependent personal attributes what I call core essential capacities. Transformational theorists call these the 4-1’s; (1) idealized influence (charisma), (2) inspirational motivation, (3) intellectual stimulation, and (4) individualized concentration . The transformational leader must first and foremost be a transformational partner and this requires that the leader be caught up in a process of personal transformation in accordance with the vision and values he or she espouse.
Qualitative and Quantitative Outcomes: Third, as a result of the mutual, substantive and ongoing transformation of leaders and followers, agenda are indeed accomplished (e.g., important tasks and goals are achieved), but beyond these a series of transformational outcomes is secured on behalf of the community. By definition, vision and value driven results flowing from a transformational engagement are inherently unpredictable and thus uncontrollable. But, nonetheless, a pattern of “beyond expectation” outcomes is set in motion. Congruent with and reflective of the vision and values of the community, this pattern of results is imbued with an ethical quality which transcends the limitations of a task oriented, leader-follower transaction .
Community impact: Fourth, this chain reaction of “beyond expectation” results is a catalyst for the transformation not only of individual followers and leaders, but also the broader community. Both followers and leaders covenant together not only to get important things done, but also to transcend the limitations of self-interest and task- oriented exchanges for the higher and more meaningful outcomes mandated by the community’s vision and values. Leaders and followers in transformational partnership engage one another and the community in a change process that addresses “higher-order outcomes” in the arena of community culture, values and ethics. The focus is not only what we want to accomplish today, but who do we want to become tomorrow.
An ongoing community process: Fifth, transformational leaders and followers serve not only as catalysts for a chain reaction of “beyond expectation” performance. They also serve as social architects, creating and sustaining the transformational community and embodying and shaping the emerging community ethos. The ultimate aim of the transformational leader, his or her highest leadership act, is to create and sustain a community culture, which embodies the ethos, values and vision of the community, and fosters high performance expectations (an extra mile mind set) in service of the vision and values. In short, transformational leaders create, sustain and enlarge healthy transformational communities.
As more and more followers become transformational leaders and more and more transformational leaders become catalysts for vision and value-driven transformation in the community, substantial and ongoing change is initiated and sustained on the level of community ethos and culture. A trajectory of community transformation, substantive change according to the ethical and spiritual imperatives of the community, is now deeply embedded in the daily life of the community, defining its unique ethos and flavor, and shaping the hearts and habits of each person in the community. The end result is a substantively healthy (certainly not perfect) transformational community with the capacity to enlarge its reach and serve those beyond its borders as its vision and values dictate.
Summary: At the end of the partnership
Connected not separate: In a transactional leadership exchange, the leader and follower are essentially short-term bargainers and consequently have no enduring purpose beyond the transaction itself. When the exchange is completed they go their separate ways. James MacGregor Bums writes, “The object in these cases is not a joint effort for persons with common aims acting for the collective interests of followers but a bargain to aid the individual interests of persons or groups going their separate ways” . While an important and successful leadership event may indeed have taken place, it did not require or produce the kind of partnership that binds leader and follower together in pursuit of a higher purpose that transcends the task itself. In transactional leadership, at the end of the partnership leaders and followers go home. In transformational leadership at the end of the partnership the leader and follower may indeed technically go home, but they stay engaged in enduring partnership nourished by the community ethos. Leaders and followers .are conscious that they are part of a larger community born of a common vision, connected by shared values and united in a common commitment to live out the vision and values in ever increasing circles of transformational influence.
A Legacy of transformation: Transformational leaders build communities that lean toward the future. Such communities look beyond the tasks of partnership to the opportunities of future. Ultimately, this means that transformational leaders focus considerable attention on issues of legacy, which is always about the work of intentionally raising up future community leaders.
For, the vision demands that the community not only endure but flourish in years, decades, and centuries to come. It is incumbent on each generation of transformational servants to identify and develop the next generation of transformational servants. Enduring partnerships must be initiated and sustained because the vision, by definition is never completed and leaders and followers are not yet the whole people their values ask them to be and that they themselves aspire to be.
In transactional theory, at the end of the partnership, the follower is still a follower and the leader remains only a transactional leader, a leader of followers in pursuit of a mutually beneficial exchange of valued commodities. The follower may indeed be a better trained, more efficient, experienced and effective follower, but by definition, the follower will not operate beyond the role of follower or beyond the range of the prescribed tasks associated with the follower role.
In transformational theory, at the end of the partnership tasks are indeed achieved and followers indeed become more experienced and effective followers. But at the end of the day in transformational theory, something of greater consequence has occurred. In the process of transformational engagement, leaders and followers inspire and elevate one another to deeper levels of motivation and higher levels of aspiration. In deeper pursuit of higher aspirations, both leaders and followers are lifted out of their prescribed roles as “leader” and “follower.” At the end of the partnership no scripted task or specific role can contain the contribution of leader or follower to the community.
New concerns are identified, new capacities are developed and new competencies are released in the community and beyond its borders in ever widening circles of partnership and service. Emerging from this transformational process are the next-generation of transformational leaders, owners of the vision, purveyors of the values and passionately determined to sustain and enlarge the chain reaction of transformation in their generation and ready to similarly engage the next.
Seven principles of transformational leadership
Leaders of a movement are required also to depend on the seven principles of transformational leadership to create a synergy of energy with their congregation.
1) Principle of simplification
Successful leadership begins with a vision which reflects the direction of the common course. This means the ability to articulate a clear practical transformational vision which answers the question “where are we headed?” specifically, the plan for each project should include more than what needs to be done at the moment. He provides a clear answer when someone asks what the organization’s goals are.
2) Principle of motivation
The transformational leader possesses the ability to gain the agreement and commitment of their people to the realization of his vision. By understanding your employees’ likes and dislikes, you know what motivates and what does not. Show how what you ask of them meets their values and goals and that what they do makes a real difference to whether he succeeds or not.
3) Principle of Facilitation
The transformational leader has the ability to effectively facilitate the learning of individuals, teams, and other reliable and reputable resources so that they do not resist his effort. Specifically, workers need stimulating work that challenges and expands their minds and facilitates the desire to keep learning. He needs to make it as easy as possible for them to accomplish their mission, having been a sacred trust of being steward of his followers’ intellectual capital.
4) Principle of Innovation
The transformational leader should have the ability to boldly initiate prayerful change when needed. He must initiate and respond quickly to change, which is inevitable in a business environment. The better they can cope with change, the more effective they will be at accomplishing the goals of the company.
5) Principle of Mobilization
Mobilization is the ability to enlist, equip and empower others to fulfill their vision. Transformational leaders look for willing participants who have already been given formal leadership responsibilities and also among others who have not. They desire leadership at all levels, so they find ways to invite and ignite leadership at all levels. They need the right people to elevate their vision because they understand the importance of assigning tasks based on participants’ characteristics and abilities or deploying them with the confidence that they can get the job done.
6) Principle of preparation
This is continual learning for self-renewal and greater selfdetermination. This implies ability to never stop learning about themselves with and without the help of others. Rick Warren says “Leaders are learners”. Transformational leaders realize that the transformation they pursue in is a reflection of their own spiritual questthat they must serve the world through their giftedness because that is the only way they truly fulfill their life mission. With this mindset, moments of being stuck become moments of total dependence on God. This is such a rigorous path of learning that transformational leaders must be in thriving relationship with others pursuing transformation. It is within this vital relationships life opportunity and obstacles get saturated in love and support.
7) Principle of Determination
This determination is the ability of finish the race. A leaders’ mission is sometime difficult and their journey often lonely. Leaders depend on their Stamina, endurance, courage and strength to finish each day. Because their focus is not only on raising their own leadership but the development of others, the most rigorous and humbling of all human endeavours, transformational leaders experience times of self doubt, grief and fatigue. They have to develop spiritual, emotional and physical disciplines to sustain their high level of commitment to their cause .
Impact on followers
Transformational leaders are awareness-raisers who see strategic initiatives to be fulfilled (in solving) problems that align with their own spiritual life mission. As they make leadership commitments to those strategic initiatives, they make commitments to their own emergence. The global example of this emergence is President Barrack Obama of the United States of America. As the leaders transform, the world is transformed. For example: The Famous/Exemplary Entrepreneurs who have contributed in globalization which turns the world into a global village are: (Table 9). African is yet to produce global Entrepreneurs.
|Michael Dell||Computer retail||USA|
|Andrew Koski||Computer support||USA|
|Sergey Brin||Search engines||USA|
|Tom Carvel||Carvel Brand Ice Cream Franchising as a business model||USA|
|Larry Ellison||Database systems||USA|
|Sylvan Goldman||Shopping carts||USA|
|Milton S Hershey||Confections||USA|
|Ray Kroc||Fast food restaurant||USA|
|Steve Jobs||Computer hardware, software||USA|
|J. Piepont Morgan||Banking||USA|
|Larry Page||Search Engines||USA|
|John D. Rockefeller||Oil||USA|
|Sam Walton||Department stores||USA|
|Richard Devos and Jay Van Andel||Marketing||USA|
|Richard Branson||Travel and media||British|
|James Dyson||Home appliances||British|
|Francis Bouygues||Industrial Company Bouygues||France|
|Werner Von Siemens||Germany|
|Ferdinand Von Zeppelin||Germany|
|Rajat Gupta||Silico Valley’s revolution||Indian|
|Vinod Khosla||Silico Valley’s revolution||Indian|
|KanwaiRekhi||Silico Valley’s revolution||Indian|
Source: Wikipedia the free encyclopedia jump to navigation search .
Table 9: Famous/Exemplary Global Entrepreneurs.
Objective of transformational leadership
As these transformational leaders, men and women, succeed in their transformation concerns over the next decade, millions of people, mostly willing participants/followers- who were learning and achieving with them, will rise to a new level of leadership characterized by an unshakeable faith to transform the lives of other-willing participants/ followers by creating a synergy of energy within their circle of influence.
Successful transformational leaders must now invite their high potential players to come forward to bead (in) areas within their organization. As potential transformational leaders come forward they need to be challenged. Beyond the challenge they need to control to figure it out and be given the needed credit when the challenge is met. In addition, these potential leaders need a learning environment that offers a network with other transformational leaders. Mcbeth and Rimac affirm that future professional (or potential leader) will have to balance the tension (or challenge) between subject mastery and innovation and creativity, demonstrated through integrative thinking and the creation of self-enabling and self-correcting models .
The transaction leaders thrive on bargaining, accommodating and manipulating tactics (not principles and strategies) of leadership, short change the system, enthrone suspicion and mistrust between them and the powerless masses and finally fail to carry their people along. This forecloses the opportunity of training leaders or developing new leaders through this kind of leader-followers relationship.
The hostile partnership is clearly described by Machiavelli (1999) “The tyrant (or leader) terrifies his subjects . Spying balefully on the world (or his people) from his strongly fortified palace… he dominates the life of all around him… he makes decision that affect the well-being of all his subjects without consulting anyone excerpt his political party favorites. He turns his entire state into a machine for his own profit and that of a few friends”. ..All threats to his sole authority he resists with absolute ferocity”. This subjugation works in Africa because the people are powerless and their institutions are weak:
Africa is characterized by very high rates of illiteracy. Some estimates put the figure at 80% of the population. Almost the same percentage lives in the rural areas and engages in subsistence farming, petty trading and local handcrafts. The level of technological development is low and data are not available on most issues. One fifth of the entire continent is occupied by deserts and a greater part is riddled with various hazards to both humans and animals. The average per capita income comparatively is low. The overall standard of living is pathetic in most countries .
(I) African nations plan for transformational leadership but because of obvious limitations arising from illiteracy, lack of the elements and principles of transformational leadership, they practice transactional leadership.
(II) African governments are inherently week and lack educational ability to reform uplift themselves or their followers.
(III) Transactional leadership entrenches democratized corruption by weakening and democratizing bureaucratic institutions.
(Iv) Corruption is a function of transactional leadership which is equal to: political intervention, absolute discretion and callous indifference. Mathematically expressed as:
C = Pi + Ad + Ci where
Pi = Political Intervention
Ad = Absolute discretion
Ci = Calous indifference
There is an urgent need to have a Sovereign Global authority that will champion the development of transformational leaders in all countries particularly in Africa. Globalization is a transform process. The transformational leadership has a progressive partnership of leaderfollower, follower-leader and leader-leader. The leader-leader stage is achieved when the leader uplifts him to a moral exemplar and followers become actual leaders. The transformational leader’s responsibility to determine the appropriate degree of entrepreneurship for individual followers and for the community as a whole as well as design the environment that demands innovation and promotes entrepreneurial activity . The aggressive investment in education and speedy accumulation of human capital in Africa and other developing countries will undoubtedly saturate the developing countries with transformational moral exemplar leaders and actual leaders. The transactional leader who turns his entire state into a machine for his own profit and that of a few friends would have no opportunity in such an enlightened environment.
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