Received date: July 27, 2015; Accepted date: September 28, 2015; Published date: October 08, 2015
Citation: Chahal HS, Poonam (2015) Trust among Co-workers and its Impact on Hospitality Sector: An Empirical Study of Chandigarh Region. Arabian J Bus Manag Review 5:171.
Copyright: © 2015 Chahal HS, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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The purpose of this study is to find out the difference between male and female Co-Worker trust in hospitality sector. The Questionnaire method has been used to collect data from two different hotels in Chandigarh region. Total sample size was 50 but at the time of editing we have taken 30 size and we applied independent T-test before applying t-test normality of data has been check out by two methods and the result reveals that all the values of sig 2- tailed was found greater than 0.05 except the statement “I am confident that I could share my work difficulties with my co-workers”. The p- value of this statement was (0.007). Hence h0 has been rejected with regard to this statement. Rest, similar gender-wise perception has been found regarding organizational trust.
Trust; Co-worker; Communication; Hospitality sector
“Trust” is one of the vital variable or factor which should be there between two parties or persons or employees if they are working together to achieve a common goal or objective. During conducting this study I personality experienced that there should be proper communication between co-workers because communisation and relationship that they build working together is totally depend on Trust. Trust among co-worker become issue of concern as the author Dar  examine two topics to explore more in the studies on coworkers trustworthiness and their positive behaviour. The author also emphasizes that there is still need to do depth studies to know the negative and positive behaviour of the co-workers. Trust is one of the factors which reduce the complexity of any service industry. Zucker  in his study defined trust in three categories as process-based trust, institutional-based trust, and characteristic-based trust. As its very easy to find the trust and loyalty Employee-Employer but trust in Co- Worker which describes the horizontal relationship of service industry which have both positive and negative impact. If we look into deep, we found no vertical relationship so its horizontal relationship may get into personal trait. Which restrict the study to get accurate result as Dar  also claim in his study that Co-Worker trust can be find out by determined the job competence and the strong personal traits. Trust also depends on the structure of service industry. As McKnight  said in their study that trust is believed to be based on the individual’s expectation that others will act as expected, regardless of his/her ability to control the other. If we look at negative side, then it is assume that if there is distrust between Co-Worker that company would not survive longer in the market and turnover situation might happen at the initial point because it is a fact that if any now joining join the service industry he/she influence by his Co-Worker so we can say co-worker impact also ploy important role. Norris  studied that distrust may happen in all management levels when the lower level fails to meet individual or departmental goals and objectives. The situation becomes worse when the junior leaders, supervisors and managers experience a lack of trust from the senior upper-level leaders.
1) Mayer et al.  defined trust as ‘the willingness of a party to be vulnerable to the actions of another party based on the expectation that the other party will perform a particular action important to the trust or irrespective the ability to monitor or control that other party’.
2) Rousseau et al.  defined trust as “is a psychological state comprising the intention to accept vulnerability based upon positive expectations of the intentions or behavior of another”.
3) Lewicki et al. defined trust as confident, positive expectations regarding the action of the other party.
4) Ellis and Shockley-Zalabak  also regarded trust as a positive expectation based on the other party’s behaviour as to their roles, relationships experiences, and interdependence.
5) Shapiro et al. depicted trust from an interactional perspective, i.e. in terms of interdependence, risk and vulnerability. Figure 1 shows the flowchart of Types of Trust.
Dirks  conducted the study and explore two questions in his study to find the level of trust and their effect on group performance. And also found that how does the relationship operate. He used an experimental method to examine two roles through which interpersonal trust which affect the group performance on the basis of main effect and moderating effect. On the basis of these findings, he gave suggestion that trust can be understood by group performance by channelling group member’s energy toward reaching alternative goals. In this study, trust did influence group process and performance – but did so indirectly. Finding showed evidence that instead of perceiving trust as a variable that directly affect group performance, researchers should consider trust such that influences group performance indirectly along with moderating the relationship between term such as motivation, group process and performance.
Ferres et al.  conducted a study on interpersonal trust within organisational contexts of managers as a referent which largely ignored the potential social benefits of trust amongst co-workers. The aim of present study was to investigate the impact of co-worker’s trust on selected organisational perceptions and attitudes. It was found that co-worker’s trust was predictor of four terms perceived organisational support, lowered turnover intention, and greater affective commitment. Further study also suggested that there may be opportunities for improving individual and organisational effectiveness by building up the trust level between peers.
Kitapci et al.  examined this study to investigate relationship among trust in supervisor, organisational identification and intention to quit the organisation. Survey method were used for obtaining responses 133 middle level manager from 35 firm and used to examine the hypothesized relationships among variables. This research has been conducted on small and medium sized Turkish manufacturing organizations. After calculating the mean scale scores for all measures, regression models are developed by using the (composite) constructs of the study. This study provides empirical evidence that employees’ trust in supervisors help us understand variation in employee identification with the organization. The results of correlation analysis and simple regression models revealed that trust in authorities and identification are negatively and significantly related to employees’ intent to quit. This study also investigated the combined effects of trust in supervisor and organizational identification on intent to quit the organization by multiple regression analysis in 35 Turkish manufacturing organizations.
Vineburgh  conducted a study, and he focuses on organisational trust and their associated variables. By using various variables he tried to find out the trust factor of faculty members of HBCUs i.e. historically black Colleges and Universities. Survey method is used for collecting data during the research. Sample size was 3,070 faculty members and they were working in 73 HBCUs. This study also suggested that certain variables associated with views of the work environment may affect employee perceptions of organisational trust. This study is designed to examine organisational trust in terms of relationships with several of variable which has been used in the study to measure the trust factor.
Findikli et al.  examined the relationship between variables i.e. psychological empowerment, trust and supervisor. Research is conducted among the employees of three companies which operate in the field of infertility treatment in medicine industry and supplying hormones for follicular development. It was found that there was insignificant difference in terms of position, experience and age, whereas significant difference was found with trust in supervisor. Strong and positive relationship was also found between trust in supervisor and the subordinate perceptions of psychological empowerment.
Judeh  conducted study to examine the relationship between Trust and Employee Empowerment. Descriptive analysis t-test and linear regression performed in this study. Results showed that trust at a medium level employee empowerment at high level. Study was also found significant correlation between organizational trust and employee empowerment. Study also recommended to more empirical studies on the antecedents and outcomes of both organizational trust and employee empowerment for future research.
Erdem and Aytemur  conducted a study to investigate the level of trust in managers, subordinates and co-worker in the organisation. The purpose of this study was to examine the factors of trust among managers, subordinates and co-workers. With the help of survey method (questionnaire technique) they collected data from 550 middle-level managers from organisation operating in different regions of turkey. Open-ended questionnaires were communicated via mail and e-mail to middle management working in medium and large-scale companies registered to the Industrialists and Businessmen Associations in 6 provinces in different regions of Turkey, With the help of qualitative and quantitative research method, they concluded that trust vary among managers, subordinates and between co-workers, even this study revealed that culture influence the attributes which they have taken in the study.
Tett and Murphy  conducted a study to know with whom people or employee prefer to work and also discussed about their personality traits and how work conditions or situations varying with different traits. There were 185 participants in the study. And data has been collected by questionnaire method. The objective of this study was examining the role of personality in co-worker compatibility under selected different traits-relevant work conditions. Different traits that were used in the study were Autonomy, Defendence, dominance, Affiliation, Autonomy, Defendence, and Abasement. Measure of standard tendency used to analysed collected data (Means) and standard deviation and correlation. As the result evidenced by a law mean and also low in case of standard deviation but for descriptive results was satisfactory for all measures.
Hummels and Roosendaal  examined study to know the importance of trust and to reduce the organisation complexity and uncertainty with the help of trust factor. In this study they have discussed three types of trust given by Zucker and add the fourth type of trust for further investigation and later on they have done coanalysis by linked trust with scientific communication. Even they have done mapping with trust in their study.
Crick  conducted a study to examine the relationship of employee- guest in the modern hotel industry. Questionnaire method has been used to collect date from 17 different hotels, in which 56 participant were entertainment coordinators and entertainment managers and supervisors from each hotel. Guest responded were randomly selected most of them were departing visitor. At the last study concluded that the relationship based on the mutual trust and benefits which made with the period of time.
Evaluate the perception of organizational trust among male and female co-workers of hospitality sector.
Null Hypothesis (H0)
There is no significant difference in the perception of male and female co-workers regarding organization trust.
Alternative Hypothesis (H1)
There is significant difference in the perception of male and female coworkers regarding organization trust.
Questionnaire has been distributed to 30 co-workers (Male- 16 and Female-14) in different departments of hospitality sector in Chandigarh.
T-test has been applied to test the significant differences genderwise with regard to items related to Organizational Trust among coworkers.
Before applying t-test, normality of data has been checked out by using Kolmogorov- Smirnov test. Test distribution has been found normal. All the values found greater than 0.05. Therefore, we can further apply t-test now (Table 1).
|Statements||i can depend upon my co-workers to meet their responsibilities||i can rely on my co workers to do what is best at work||given my co worker's track records, i see no reason to doubt their competence||my co workers follow through with commitments they make||i could be able feel safe about my co workers because of their consistency||i am confident in my co workers because they approach work with professionalism||I am confident that my co workers will always care about my personal needs||I have faith in my co workers because i feel they would make sacrifices for me if i were in need||if i shared my problems with my co workers, i know they would respond with care||i am confident that i could share my work difficulties with my co-workers||i am sure i could openly communicate my feelings to my co workers||i feel secure with my co-workers because of their sincerity|
|Most Extreme Differences||Absolute||0.162||0.299||0.267||0.235||0.177||0.301||0.218||0.18||0.254||0.233||0.329||0.191|
|Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed)||0.413||0.009||0.028||0.073||0.306||0.009||0.116||0.283||0.042||0.078||0.003||0.223|
a. Test distribution is Normal.
Table 1: Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test
After applying t-test results revealed that all the values of sig 2- tailed was found greater than 0.05 except the statement “I am confident that I could share my work difficulties with my co-workers”. The pvalue of this statement was (0.007). Therefore it has been concluded that with regard to this statement significant difference has been found in the perception among male and female employees. Hence h0 has been rejected with regard to this statement. Rest, similar gender-wise perception has been found regarding organizational trust. Hence, with regard to all other statements except 10th statement null hypothesis (H0) has been accepted (Tables 2 and 3).
|gender of employees||N||Mean||Std. Deviation||Std. Error Mean|
|i can depend upon my co-workers to meet their responsibilities||Male||16||3.8125||1.16726||0.29182|
|i can rely on my co workers to do what is best at work||Male||16||1.8125||0.98107||0.24527|
|given my co worker's track records, i see no reason to doubt their competence||Male||16||2.0625||0.85391||0.21348|
|my co workers follow through with commitments they make||Male||16||2.4375||1.31498||0.32874|
|i could be able feel safe about my co workers because of their consistency||Male||16||3.125||1.31022||0.32755|
|i am confident in my co workers because they approach work with professionalism||Male||16||3.375||0.88506||0.22127|
|I am confident that my co workers will always care about my personal needs||Male||16||2.6875||1.19548||0.29887|
|I have faith in my co workers because i feel they would make sacrifices for me if i were in need||Male||16||3.75||1.29099||0.32275|
|if i shared my problems with my co workers, i know they would respond with care||Male||16||2.6875||0.70415||0.17604|
|i am confident that i could share my work difficulties with my co-workers||Male||16||2.8125||0.98107||0.24527|
|i am sure i could openly communicate my feelings to my co workers||Male||16||1.6875||0.70415||0.17604|
|i feel secure with my co-workers because of their sincerity||Male||16||2.25||1.29099||0.32275|
Table 2: Group Statistics.
|Levene's Test for Equality of Variances||t-test for Equality of Means|
|F||Sig.||T||df||Sig. (2-tailed)||Mean Difference||Std. Error Difference||95% Confidence Interval of the Difference|
|i can depend upon my co-workers to meet their responsibilities||Equal variances assumed||0.017||0.897||1.627||28||0.115||0.74107||0.45544||-0.19186||1.674|
|Equal variances not assumed||1.613||26.157||0.119||0.74107||0.4595||-0.20316||1.68531|
|i can rely on my co workers to do what is best at work||Equal variances assumed||2.568||0.12||0.782||28||0.441||0.24107||0.30826||-0.39037||0.87251|
|Equal variances not assumed||0.804||26.146||0.429||0.24107||0.29997||-0.37536||0.85751|
|given my co worker's track records, i see no reason to doubt their competence||Equal variances assumed||0.043||0.838||-1.631||28||0.114||-0.50893||0.31211||-1.14826||0.13041|
|Equal variances not assumed||-1.631||27.493||0.114||-0.50893||0.31205||-1.14868||0.13082|
|my co workers follow through with commitments they make||Equal variances assumed||12.356||0.002||0.022||28||0.982||0.00893||0.39949||-0.8094||0.82725|
|Equal variances not assumed||0.023||24.446||0.982||0.00893||0.38586||-0.78668||0.80454|
|i could be able feel safe about my co workers because of their consistency||Equal variances assumed||1.545||0.224||0.294||28||0.771||0.125||0.42493||-0.74543||0.99543|
|Equal variances not assumed||0.3||27.234||0.766||0.125||0.4162||-0.72864||0.97864|
|i am confident in my co workers because they approach work with professionalism||Equal variances assumed||1.812||0.189||-0.435||28||0.667||-0.125||0.28724||-0.71339||0.46339|
|Equal variances not assumed||-0.444||27.252||0.66||-0.125||0.28139||-0.70211||0.45211|
|I am confident that my co workers will always care about my personal needs||Equal variances assumed||2.437||0.13||1.773||28||0.087||0.6875||0.38778||-0.10682||1.48182|
|Equal variances not assumed||1.81||27.238||0.081||0.6875||0.37983||-0.09152||1.46652|
|I have faith in my co workers because i feel they would make sacrifices for me if i were in need||Equal variances assumed||0.645||0.429||1.417||28||0.167||0.67857||0.4788||-0.30221||1.65935|
|Equal variances not assumed||1.414||27.243||0.169||0.67857||0.47974||-0.30536||1.6625|
|if i shared my problems with my co workers, i know they would respond with care||Equal variances assumed||0.006||0.94||-0.63||28||0.534||-0.16964||0.26921||-0.72109||0.38181|
|Equal variances not assumed||-0.626||26.624||0.536||-0.16964||0.27088||-0.72581||0.38652|
|i am confident that i could share my work difficulties with my co-workers||Equal variances assumed||3.401||0.076||2.904||28||0.007||0.88393||0.30435||0.26049||1.50737|
|Equal variances not assumed||2.993||25.567||0.006||0.88393||0.29536||0.27631||1.49155|
|i am sure i could openly communicate my feelings to my co workers||Equal variances assumed||1.053||0.314||0.409||28||0.686||0.11607||0.28403||-0.46574||0.69788|
|Equal variances not assumed||0.403||25.345||0.69||0.11607||0.28774||-0.47613||0.70828|
|i feel secure with my co-workers because of their sincerity||Equal variances assumed||11.856||0.002||-0.091||28||0.928||-0.03571||0.39036||-0.83532||0.76389|
|Equal variances not assumed||-0.095||24.165||0.925||-0.03571||0.37662||-0.81274||0.74131|
Table 3: Independent Samples Test.
Results concluded that there is similar trust perception among male and female co-workers in hospitality sector except the statement “I am confident that I could share my work difficulties with my coworkers”. The p-value of this statement was found (0.007). Therefore, with regard to this statement significant difference has been found in the perception among male and female co-workers. Hence h0 has been rejected in the case of this statement. Rest, similar gender-wise perception has been found regarding organizational trust.