alexa Uropygialectomy Effects on Chicken Prostaglandin and Growth Hormone | Open Access Journals
Journal of Morphology and Anatomy
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on
Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

Uropygialectomy Effects on Chicken Prostaglandin and Growth Hormone

Hasan SA Jawad*

Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Baghdad University, Iraq

*Corresponding Author:
Hasan SA Jawad
Department of Animal Production
Faculty of Agriculture
Baghdad University, Iraq
Tel: 00964-7735210728
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: June 27, 2017; Accepted date: August 23, 2017; Published date: September 05, 2017

Citation: Jawad HSA (2017) Uropygialectomy Effects on Chicken Prostaglandin and Growth Hormone. J Morphol Anat 1: 108.

Copyright: © 2017 Jawad HSA. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Visit for more related articles at Journal of Morphology and Anatomy

Due to the nature of the oily secretions of the bird uropygial gland (UG), it is not surprising that the section of these exudates is essential fatty acids, and according to a study was conducted by AI-Mahdawy [1] on broiler chickens, more than 45% of the total fatty acids entering in the UG secretion component were essential fatty acids. It is well recognized that the only known functions of essential fatty acids are being an evolutionary predecessor of prostaglandins and the rest of the Eicosanoids group, which includes Prostaglandins, Thromboxanes and Leukotrienes.

Prostaglandins are classified among a group of fatty acids which derivative from Arachidonic acid. This group is called Eicosanoids. It took its name from the Greek word "Eikosi" which means twenty to be derived from Arachidonic fatty acid, which contains twenty carbon atom and four unsaturated bonds. Eicosanoids group includes as well as Prostaglandins, Thromboxanes, Leukotrienes and Lipoxins. Prostaglandins and the rest of Eicosanoids group have a wide range and variety of influence in all the organs of the body. The Prostaglandin considers as local hormones and conversely to the endocrine hormones. It is not excreted by glands or specialized tissue, and transmitted through blood vessels to the organs or tissues or target cells. Nevertheless, it results from plasma membrane of the many body's cells to secrete to the area outside the cells (extracellular space), and its impacts will move directly to the neighboring cells, so it considers as paracrine hormone. Sometimes, it is classified as non-real hormones, semi-hormones, fatty acids modified, chemical correspondence and finally expressed as hormone's mediators, because, Prostaglandins organize the work of many hormones more of his work as hormones itself and this is one of the most vital activities of the Prostaglandins. Prostaglandins are regulating the secondary reporter manufacturing which composite by cyclic adenosine monophosphate (camp). Because of this reporter is adapting or regulating or mediating the work of a lot of hormones, so the Prostaglandins will have a wide range of impact inside the body [2-4].

The hormones are divided by the chemotherapy origin to steroid hormones and peptide hormones. Steroid hormones such as sex hormones, adrenal cortex hormones and others are lipid hormones, which have an ability to enter the target cell by crossing its plasma membrane. Through the diffusion, it can reach to the nucleus cell and do its vital function. Regarding the non-steroidal hormones such as insulin, growth hormone, adrenaline, LH, FSH and other hormones that have protein origin, they cannot be entered into the target cell by crossing its plasma membrane because they are polar molecules. That mean, each of them has a positive end and a negative end as well as high molecular weight. So, these hormones have to send messages via the outside of the plasma membrane to the target cell. Usually, there are two correspondence systems existence to do that function. Peptide hormone will linked with a receptor on plasma membrane (the first reporter). Thus, it carries the message of endocrine gland or the secreting tissue of hormone to the surface of the target cell. First reporter will pass the message to another part within the cytoplasm (second reporter). In many cases, the complex of hormone-receptor will activate indirectly enzymatic system called acetylate cycles. This system converts the ATP molecule to camp inside the target cell. Camp works as a second correspondent by indirectly activating enzymes and other proteins in the target cell. So, camp will cause series of biochemical events, which will lead to many functional changes within the target cells. Because of the prostaglandins organize the manufacturing this reporter, they are controlling the effectiveness of a lot of hormones. For instance, the secondary reporter camp mediates the mechanism of action of the Parathyroid Hormone PTH, Adrenal Hormone ACTH, Luteal Hormone LH, Follicle Stimulating Hormone FSH, Thyrotropic Hormone TSH and Calcitonin Hormone CT [5]. Furthermore, Growth Hormone GH secretion affected the levels of secondary reporter camp as well as Prostaglandins [6].

Prostaglandins sometimes called as a defense hormone. It is classified as fatty acid's hormones and its mechanism of action is similar to the mechanism of peptide hormones. It is worthy to mention that the known functions of the prostaglandins and other Eicosanoids in general are regulating the body's response to infections, regulating the tissues' response to some hormones, playing a role in reproduction, contributing in produce fever and pain associated with injuries and illnesses, contributing in the blood clot process, regulating blood pressure, secreting gastric acids, contributing in the sleep-wake cycle, controlling the contraction of smooth muscle in the uterus and ureters [2].

The uropygial gland removal and destruction of its cells will retain the important enzymes in the metabolism of lipids and fatty acids important for making prostaglandins within the blood circulation as well as preventing their concentration and attracted inside the gland [7,8]. Based on Al-Hayani [9] and Al-Shamire [10], the subsequent of UP on the production, carcass characteristics, hormonal and general morphological changes in the body can be justified by the following points:

1. Losing essential enzymes for steroid hormones' synthesis and basic enzymes for lipid and carbohydrates' metabolism within uropygial gland secretion.

2. Losing precursor vitamin D3 (7-dehydrocholesterol) within uropygial gland secretion which leads to low vitamin D3 in the blood serum. That causes adversely affects the absorption of calcium, which affects the activity of reproductive hormones because calcium and estrogen are required for the synthesis and secretion of LH and progesterone. Calcium is important in biological and metabolic processes' activation in the body [11].

3. Losing essential fatty acids (EFA) with uropygial gland secretion causes adversely affects the biological Ecosanoid compounds [12]. Which include biological active substances (Thromboxanes, Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Lipoxins). Low synthesis of Leukotrienes and Lipoxins influences the work of many hormones, including luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), growth hormone (GH) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. Low synthesis of thromboxanes affects the blood coagulation function [13].

All these points cause adversely affects development of live body weight, vitality, ovary and oviduct, which led to delayed sexual maturity.

References

Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Post your comment

Share This Article

Recommended Journals

Article Usage

  • Total views: 63
  • [From(publication date):
    December-2017 - Nov 22, 2017]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views : 43
  • PDF downloads : 20
 

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri & Aquaculture Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Clinical Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Food & Nutrition Journals

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics & Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Materials Science Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Nursing & Health Care Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

Ann Jose

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

 
© 2008- 2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords